Umbilical hernia

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Umbilical hernia — a condition in which the internal organs (intestines, caul) beyond the abdominal wall through a hole localized in the navel (umbilical ring).
 
An umbilical hernia is the protrusion appears in the navel, which disappears or is reduced in size in the horizontal position.

Treatment of umbilical hernia surgeon involved. Advisable to consult a doctor at the first sign of discomfort.

Symptoms of an umbilical hernia:

  • bulging in the umbilicus, which is reduced in size or eliminated in a supine position;
  • abdominal pain that occurs when physical ¬ cal load and coughing;
  • expansion of umbilical ring;
  • nausea.

Methods of diagnosis of an umbilical hernia:

  • examination by a surgeon;
  • X-rays of the stomach and duodenum;
  • gastroscopy (endoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy);
  • herniography — rentenologichesky method comprising administering to the abdominal cavity of a special contrast material to study hernia
  • U.S. herniation.

Diseases with similar symptoms:

  • metastasis of gastric cancer in the stomach.

The disease

Umbilical hernias can be congenital or acquired. Congenital hernia is detected immediately after birth: the navel is spherical protrusion with a broad base, passing intoumbilical cord. At the cry of a child hernial protrusion increases.

Manifestations of umbilical hernia depends on its size, the size of hernial, severity of adhesions and associated obesity. And reduce a hernia are nevpravlyaemymi, when the hernial sac merges with the surrounding tissues by adhesions. Often, small umbilical hernia patients do not deliver concern if hernial wide enough andhernia reduce a freely. Large and irreducible hernia impede progress contents of the intestines, so patients suffer from constipation, periodically appearing pain, they often nausea and even vomiting.

Complications:

  1. impairment of umbilical hernia — a sudden compression of the hernia contents into hernial ring;
  2. inflammation hernia — caused by inflammation in the body, which is located in the hernial sac;
  3. coprostasia — stagnation of feces in the colon.

Emergency required when the infringement umbilical hernia and the following symptoms:

  • nausea, vomiting;
  • blood in the stool, lack of bowel movements and flatus;
  • rapidly increasing pain in the groin or scrotum;
  • not reduce a hernia when lightly pressed in the supine position.

Forecast

A hernia is well treated by surgery. Without treatment, prognosis is poor — the formation of irreducible hernia.

Causes of umbilical hernia

In newborns cause of hernia is slow accretion of the umbilical ring. Over time, under the umbilical buttons the baby is formed cavity. At the cry of a child is the pressure of the abdominal muscles in the abdominal cavity, resulting in a loop of the intestine goes into the cavity and belly button sticks out. Also, umbilical hernias in children can occur with frequent and severe constipation.

In adults, umbilical hernia occurs more frequently in women over 40 years, due to the stretching of the umbilical ring during pregnancy. Under adverse conditions, the umbilical ring strength to strength and the tissue surrounding it, atrophy; stability of the ring to the intra-abdominal pressure is reduced.

Predisposing factor weakening the umbilical ring, include:

  • hereditary weakness of the connective tissue of umbilical ring;
  • Slow healing of the umbilical ring in children under 5 years of age;
  • obesity;
  • post-operative scarring.

Risk factors associated with increased intra-abdominal pressure:

  • frequent crying and screaming in infancy;
  • physical exertion;
  • constipation;
  • pregnancy;
  • ascites;
  • prolonged cough.

Prevention of umbilical hernia:

  • wearing a brace during pregnancy;
  • proper nutrition;
  • training of the abdominal muscles;
  • normalization of weight.

Treatment of umbilical hernia

Up to 5 years old umbilical hernia does not operate, due to the possibility of self-defect closure. In order to cure umbilical hernia in children is recommended restorative therapy, massage hernia ring, physiotherapy.

In adults, umbilical hernia treatment is carried out only by surgery in a hospital.

Types of operations (hernia repair)

1. The traditional local fabrics made of plastic on the methods Sapezhko and mayo. Technique of: the edges of the aponeurosis umbilical ring sutured in two layers, in either a vertical or transverse direction. In most cases, in the course of these operations have to remove the belly button, and in patients with obesity may remove excess fat apron.

The main disadvantages of the operation:

  • long period of rehabilitation (limitation of physical activity up to 1 year);
  • high risk of recurrence of hernia (hernia recurrence at the same site).

2. Plastic using mesh implants. There are two methods of setting screens.

a) The grid is placed over the aponeurosis (above umbilical ring) directly under the skin. This operation is performed in cases where it is impossible hernial take in their large size.

b) The grid is placed under the fascia (under the umbilical ring). This is the best way to treat an umbilical hernia. Deficiencies in the method of surgical treatment there.

Advantages:

  • short recovery period (no more than 1 month, even for athletes);
  • low rate of recurrence (less than 1%);
  • operation is executed under any kind of anesthesia.

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