Sometimes it seems that only the U.S. can stop the punishment of the Lord. Those who believe in the doom hanging over America, there is a very serious argument. At the heart of this country, a fertile corner of her ripe natural disaster. Yellowstone National Park, famous for its forests, grizzly bears and hot springs, is actually a bomb that will explode in the coming years. If this happens, it may perish all the North American continent. And the rest of the world will not find it. But the end of the world will not, do not worry.
All Power to the Board
It began, verily all with joy. In 2002, the Yellowstone both scored some new geysers with healing hot water. Local travel company immediately hyped advertising of this phenomenon, the number of visitors to the park, which is usually about three million people per year, increased even more.
However, it soon became strange things happen. In 2004 the U.S. government to tighten visit the reserve. Its territory dramatically increased the number of guards, and some areas were declared closed to the public. But they often scientists, seismologists and volcanologists.
They used to work in Ielloustoune because the whole nature reserve with its unique nature — nothing like a huge patch on the crater of extinct supervolcano. And thus how hot geysers. On the way to the surface and their heats shkvorchaschaya bubbling magma under the Earth's crust. All local sources were known in those days, when white colonists pushed forward the Yellowstone from the Indians, and then on to you — three new ones! Why is that?
Scientists are worried. One after another, the park began to go and see the commission to study volcanic activity. What are they dug, the general public is not informed, but it is known that in 2007, in the Office of the President of the United States was created by the Scientific Council, endowed with extraordinary powers. It includes several leading geophysicists and seismologists country, and members of the National Security Council, including the minister of defense and intelligence officials.
Monthly meetings of this body headed personally by George Bush.
In the same year the National Yellowstone Park moved from departmental subordination of the Ministry of Interior under the direct control of the Scientific Council. Why would such attention of the American authorities to simply resort?
End crept quietly
And the thing is, that the ancient and thought to secure supervolcano, which is Xanadu, suddenly showed signs of activity. Zabivshie miraculously springs and became its first manifestation.
More — more. Seismologists have found a sharp rise in the reserve of the soil. Over the last four years of its vspuchilo by 178 centimeters. Despite the fact that over the last twenty years, the rise of ground was not more than 10 centimeters.
To seismologists joined mathematics. Based on information about previous eruptions of Yellowstone volcano, they have developed an algorithm of its life. The result was shocking. The fact that the intervals between eruptions are decreased, it was known to scientists before.
However, given the astronomical duration of such intervals, this information is of no practical value to humanity had. Well, in fact, the volcano erupted 2 million years ago, then 1.3 million years ago and was last 630,000 years ago.
Geological Society of America was waiting for him to wake no earlier than 20,000 years. But based on the new data, the computer gave an unexpected result. Following the disaster should be expected in 2075. But after a while it became clear that things are moving much faster. The result had to be adjusted again.
Terrible date approached. Now she looms between 2012 and 2016, the first digit appears more likely.
One would think — think, eruption, the more that is known about it in advance. Well, Americans evacuate people from dangerous areas, well, then will spend the restoration of damaged infrastructure …
Alas, can reason, only those who are not familiar with supervolcanoes.
Worse than nuclear war
A typical volcano, as we currently imagine it — is a cone-shaped hill with a crater from which spewed lava, ash and gases. Way he is.
Deep in the bowels of the planet constantly seething magma, from time to time breaks up through the cracks, fractures, and other "defects" of the Earth's crust. As magma lifting off gas, turning in volcanic lava flows and through the upper part of the fault is usually called a muzzle. Congealing around the vents of the eruption products and build up a cone volcano.
Supervolcanoes also have a feature for which, until recently, no one even suspected their existence. They are not like the usual for us cone "cap" with a muzzle inside. This vast territory thinned crust under which pulsates glowing magma. Simple volcano is similar to a pimple, supervolcano — the huge inflammation. On the territory of supervolcano may contain several conventional volcanoes. They may from time to time to erupt, but these emissions can be compared with the release of superheated steam boiler. But imagine that the boiler will blow itself! After all, no supervolcanoes erupt and explode it.
The look of these explosions?
Reduce the pressure of the magma into a thin surface of the earth is gradually increasing. Forms a hump height of several hundred meters and a diameter of 15-20 kilometers. On the perimeter of the hump there are numerous vents and fissures, and then the entire central portion of falls down into the fiery abyss.
Rock collapsed dramatically as the piston being pushed out of the depths giant fountains of lava and ash.
The strength of the explosion exceeds the charge of the most powerful nuclear bomb. According to the calculations of geophysicists, when Yellowstone blows mine, the effect will exceed one hundred Hiroshimas. Calculations, of course, purely theoretical. During the existence of Homo sapiens never with such a phenomenon not experienced. Last babahnulo during the time of dinosaurs. Perhaps because of this, they became extinct.
How will it be
A few days before the explosion, the crust of supervolcanoes rise by several meters. In this case, the soil is heated to 60-70 degrees. In the atmosphere, would dramatically increase the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and helium.
The first thing that we see, the cloud of volcanic ash, which rises into the atmosphere to an altitude of 40-50 kilometers.
toss the pieces to great heights. Falling, they will lay a huge territory. In the first hours of a new eruption in the Yellowstone area will be subject to destruction in a radius of 1000 kilometers around the epicenter. Here in immediate danger residents are almost all American northwest (Seattle) and parts of Canada (Calgary, Vancouver).
In an area of 10,000 square kilometers will rage hot mud flows, called pyroclastic surges — the most deadly eruption products. They arise when the pressure spurting lava high into the atmosphere will weaken and fall of the column of the area a huge avalanche, burning everything in its path. In the pyroclastic flows of this magnitude would be impossible to survive. At temperatures greater than 400 degrees human body simply cooked, the flesh separates from the bone.
Hot manure will kill about 200,000 people, in the first minutes after the start of the eruption.
But it is — very little loss compared with those that America will suffer from a series of earthquakes and tsunamis that provoke an explosion. They will kill tens of millions of lives. This is assuming that the North American continent does not go under the water, as Atlantis.
Then a cloud of ash from the volcano will spread outwards. B. during the day in the disaster area will be the whole territory of the United States to the Mississippi. Volcanic ash — only sounds innocuous, but in fact it is the most dangerous phenomenon in the eruption. Ash particles are so small that they do not protect against any surgical masks or respirators. Once in the lungs, the ash is mixed with mucus, hardens and turns into cement ….
The greatest danger could be at the territories thousands of miles away from the volcano. When a layer of volcanic ash reaches a thickness of 15 centimeters, the load on the roof is too big and the buildings begin to crumble. It is estimated that between one and fifty people in each house will die or be seriously injured. This will be the main cause of death in the bypassed pyroclastic surges areas around Yellowstone, where the layer of ash will be no less than 60 centimeters.
Other deaths followed by poisoning. After precipitation are extremely poisonous. In fact, to cross the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, clouds of ash and ash would need two or three weeks, and a month later they will close the Sun on Earth.
Soviet scientists once predicted that the worst effect of global nuclear conflict would be the so-called "nuclear winter." The same thing happens in the explosion supervolcano.
Two weeks after the sun had hidden in clouds of dust, the air temperature at the earth's surface will fall in different parts of the world from -15 degrees to -50 degrees or more. The average temperature at the Earth's surface is about 25 degrees.
Winter will continue for at least a half. This is enough to forever change the balance of nature on the planet. Because of the long cold and lack of light, the vegetation dies. Since plants are involved in the development of oxygen, very soon, all the inhabitants of the planet breathing becomes difficult. Fauna of the earth will be painfully die from cold, hunger and disease. The human race will have to move from the ground to the underground, at least three, and then who knows …
But, in general, this sad prediction is mainly concerned residents of the Western Hemisphere. The inhabitants of other parts of the world, including the Russians, the chances of survival are much higher. And the consequences are likely to be less catastrophic. But for people in North America the chances of survival are minimal.
Every man for himself!
But if the U.S. government aware of the problem, why they do not do anything to prevent it? Why has information on upcoming disaster did not reach the general public?
The first question is easy to answer: avert the impending explosion neither the States nor the humanity as a whole can not. Therefore, in the White House prepare for the worst scenario. According to analysts at the CIA, "the disaster would die two-thirds of the population, the economy will be destroyed, disrupted transportation and communication. In the almost complete cessation of supplies remaining at our disposal the military potential will decrease to a level sufficient only to maintain order in the country. "
As for public notification, the authorities acknowledged these actions inappropriate. Well, in fact, it is a sinking ship can be saved, and then not always. But where to go with the broken and burning of the continent?
The U.S. population is now approached trehsotmillionnoy mark. To put this biomass, in principle, there is no place, especially since the disaster prosperous places in the world will not. Each state will have big problems, and aggravate their reception million refugees will not want nobody.
In any case, the conclusion reached by the Scientific Council at the President of the United States. Output, according to the figures contained in it, one — stop most of the population to its fate, and to attend to the conservation of capital, the military potential and the elite of American society. So a few months before the explosion will take out of the country's top scientists and the military, experts in high technology, and, of course, rich. There is no doubt that each billionaire reserved a place in the future ark. But the fate of ordinary millionaires guarantee anymore. They will save themselves.
God Bless Liberia
Actually, the above information has become known thanks to the efforts of the American scholar and journalist Howard Huxley, which handles the Yellowstone volcano from the 80s, has established contacts in circles geophysicists, as many well-known journalists have been linked to the CIA and is a recognized authority in the scientific community.
To understand what the country is heading, Howard and his colleagues established the Fund save civilization. Their purpose — to warn mankind of the impending disaster and to give everyone a chance to survive, not just the elite.
For several years, members of the Foundation dug up a lot of information. In particular, they figured out where to go exactly the cream of American society after the disaster.
Island to rescue them will be in Liberia, a small country in West Africa, following in the footsteps of traditional American policy. For several years in this country are massive cash infusion. It built a network of fine roads, airports, and is said to have an extensive system of deep, very comfortable bunkers. In this hole the American elite will be able to sit out a few years, and then, when the situation is stabilized, begin to rebuild the destroyed state and its influence in the world.
And while there is still left a few years, the White House Science Council and try to solve urgent military tasks. There is no doubt that the coming disaster will be accepted by most religious people as God's punishment for America. I'm sure many Islamic countries want to finish, "Satan", while it will be licking their wounds. Jihad for the best reason you can imagine.
Therefore, in 2003 and applied to pre-emptive strikes on a number of Muslim countries to destroy their military capabilities. A time to the American military machine to neutralize these threats before 2012, God knows.
Formed a circle. Due to the aggressive policy, detractors have States are increasing, and the time to neutralize them, there are fewer
Yellowstone supervolcano, the explosion which destroyed the whole of North America, and half of the world would condemn to a slow death, waking up.
Risk of death of our civilization still exists, is recognized by many scientists. The fact that the inevitable processes within our planet, occurring before our eyes, are recognized by experts as a global threat that can wipe out entire continents. Seismologists say that the Yellowstone caldera is the most destructive force on the planet.
One of the recent eruption of this magnitude occurred in Sumatra, 73 thousand years ago, when the Toba supervolcano explosion reduced the population of the Earth is about 15 times. Then survived only 5-10 thousand. At the same time reduced the number of animals killed three quarters of vegetation in the Northern Hemisphere. At the site of the explosion a pit area of 1775 square meters. km, which could fit two of New York or London.
Against this background, it is difficult to imagine what could happen if an eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano, which by its dimensions twice Toba! "With all the other supervolcano eruptions seem dwarfs, and its power — a real threat to all living things on this planet," — said Bill McGuire, professor of geophysics, an expert on climate change at the London University College.
STATES LIVE on a powder keg
What is this time bomb in the north-west of the USA? Supervolcano — this is not a cone-shaped formation with a muzzle as ordinary volcanoes. By the form of nisin is called volcanologists caldera, which resembles a huge depression. This unremarkable hollow and has a giant volcano eruption area of several thousand square kilometers. By the way, due to giant size, scientists initially did not even recognized in Yellowstone Park USA caldera. Satellite photos show that the entire park of 3825 square kilometers and is a caldera measuring about 55 km by 72 km.
Outside Yellowstone covered a beautiful landscape, and within this vast valley filled with hot magma. Millennia magma fills huge underground tanks, melting rock, becoming so dense that the volcanic gases that cause an eruption in normal volcanoes, can not pass through it. Therefore, a huge amount of molten magma pushes from below the earth's surface. This goes on for hundreds of thousands of years until the abscess will not break and will not happen terrible explosion.
Having a backyard at a juggernaut, the U.S. government scientists have set the task to calculate when the next supervolcano eruption. According to scientists, the period between the explosions supervolcano is about 600 thousand years. Given this frequency, it is at this age falls another cataclysm. First, the researchers talked about the year 2075, but in the summer of 2003 in Yellowstone Park started to happen strange things. Soil temperature rose to the boiling point, opened crevices through which began to trickle hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide — volcanic gases contained in the magma. These signs are given scientists reason to believe that the magma escaped from the chamber and to increase several times the speed of approach to the surface. In this regard, the term alleged breakthrough volcano has been moved up to 50 years. "Over the past two million years there have been three in Yellowstone super-eruption, and each of them turns polkontinenta the desert — Professor of geology and geophysics at the University of Utah's Robert Smith.— While magma supervolcano (although it rises to 8 cm per year from 2004) is located at a depth of 10 kilometers from its crater, early to worry, but if it rises to the level of 2-3 km, we will have a serious cause for concern. "
A cause for concern. Back in 2002, near the old caldera in Yellowstone occurred three new geyser, which is one of the manifestations of late-stage volcanism. Over the last four years, the soil has risen by almost 180 cm, which is 45 times higher than in the previous four years.
If an explosion occurs, then, in the vision of the scientists, the picture will pohlesche description of the Apocalypse. They start with a sharp rise and heat the earth in Yellowstone Park. And when a lot of pressure will burst the caldera, formed from the vents will pour thousands of cubic kilometers of lava, which will resemble a huge pillar of fire. The explosion will be accompanied by a massive earthquake and lava flows, developing speed of several hundred kilometers per hour.
Eruption will continue for several days, but the people and animals will die mostly not from ash or lava, but because of suffocation and poisoning by hydrogen sulfide. During this time, the air throughout the western United States will be poisoned so that a person can hold no more than 5-7 minutes. Thick layer of ash will be covered almost the entire territory of the U.S. — from Montana, Idaho and Wyoming, which will wipe from the face of the earth, to Iowa and Gulf of Mexico. The ozone hole over the continent to grow to such a size that radiation levels close to Chernobyl. All of North America has become a scorched earth. Seriously hurt and the southern part of Canada. Scientists do not deny that the giant Yellowstone trigger an eruption of several hundred ordinary volcanoes around the world. In this ocean volcanic eruption spawned many tsunami that flooded the coast and all the island states. Remote consequences are no less terrible than the actual eruption. And if the brunt will assume the U.S., then the effect will be felt by the whole world.
Thousands of cubic kilometers of ash ejected into the atmosphere, will close the sunlight — the world plunged into darkness. This will cause a sharp drop in temperature, such as Canada and Norway for a couple of days the temperature drops to 20 ° C. 15. If the temperature drops to 21 degrees, both during the last eruption of the Toba supervolcano, to Antarctica will become all the territory up to the 50th parallel — Finland, Norway or Sweden. There will come a "nuclear winter" that will last for about four years. Ongoing acid rain destroyed all the crops and crops, kill livestock, dooming the survivors to starvation. Hardest hit by famine country "Billionaire" — India and China. Here of hunger in the coming months after the explosion die to 1.5 billion people. In total, during the first months of cataclysmic die every third inhabitant. The only region that can survive — is a central part of Eurasia. Most people, according to scientists, will survive in Siberia and eastern European part of Russia, located on the earthquake-resistant platforms far from the explosion site and protected by the tsunami.
According to the British Broadcasting Corporation BVS, while ordinary volcanoes kill thousands of people and destroyed entire cities, supervolcanoes claim billions of lives and the devastation of the world.
2500 times more powerful than the power of the last eruption of Mount Etna, is expected explosion of Yellowstone.
15 times more ash throw the Yellowstone caldera, the volcano Krakatoa you throw that destroyed 36 thousand people.
20-30 cm reduced visibility due to the resulting ash veil.
Tokyo — the largest city in the world — the estate left by the explosion in the Yellowstone volcano caldera.
1200 km — the radius of total destruction of all life in the first minutes after the start of the eruption.
1000 atomic bombs exploding at the same time — such is the power of the eruption of the Yellowstone volcano.
1 of 1000 humans left alive after Yellowstone disaster.
Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Senior IGEM RAS Anatoly crap:
— Any volcano is unpredictable, and when the wait for the eruption and what force would not be able to accurately predict no scientist and no seismograph. So that the effects of the explosion can be many more than expected effect. Yellowstone giant ponadelal troubles. The first will cover the eruption States on whose territory the Yellowstone Park — Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. May go down power plants and other life-support systems — Northwest U.S. will be isolated because of a failure in the transport message. And it is in the best case. In the worst scale of the disaster is even hard to imagine … Superizverzhenie Yellowstone affect almost the entire territory of the United States. The first zone is adjacent to the volcano hit by pyroclastic flows. This avalanche consisting of hot gas and ash, spread with the speed of sound, will destroy everything in a radius of 100 km. 10 thousand square meters. km turn into scorched earth. In pyroclastic zone would not survive one. The next zone — it's the U.S., which will cover the area with ash. People can not breathe. When a layer of ash in the 15 cm roof load is so great that the building will begin to take shape as a house of cards. Hundreds of thousands of people will die either from suffocation or a collapsing building. A few days ashes spread across the United States and even Europe will capture.
American supervolcano could destroy half the world
On Earth, increasing seismic activity, even in a stable tectonic perspective areas. And the main danger, according to scientists, so-called supervolcanoes. Such volcanoes erupt they are few and rare. One of them is in the U.S. Yellowstone. If he comes to life, it will destroy not only America, but still half the world. More about supervolcanoes leading "Morning of Russia" had a talk with Professor of Petrology geofaka MSU Paul Plechova.
He told me that supervolcanoes different from normal volume primarily eruption. "It is believed that a supervolcano eruption force 8. This means that the volume is more than 1,000 cubic kilometers, "- said the scientist. Typically, this is not the mountains and valley. Even if a supervolcano and once was a mountain, after the great eruption and removal of material for hundreds of miles around, the site formed a hollow mountain. Today in the world known supervolcanoes 20-30.
Threatens a volcanic eruption such destruction of all life on Earth? "All life on our planet millions of years. We see that, indeed, with major eruptions associated life changes, extinction of some species, the appearance of others, but not the destruction of all ", — said the professor.
As for Yellowstone, the scientists say, we know three very large eruption of this volcano. "Early it was 2.1 million years ago, the following was the order of 1.2 million years ago, the last very large was 640,000 years ago. We can define the periodicity — 600,000 years. And the time may now be preparing another eruption "- said Paul shoulders. Meanwhile, he said, we do not in danger. "At the very least, it will not explode tomorrow", — assured the professor.
Speaking of our country, the scientist said that in 2007, revealed a large cavity near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. It is slightly smaller than Yellowstone and while data on it a little. Paul Plechov also confirmed that supervolcano is on the bottom of Lake Baikal. "Baikal — is a tectonic crack it to supervolcanoes irrelevant. Perhaps in the future, when the lake will continue to grow at its bottom can form volcanoes. While all manifestations of volcanism in the lake is minimal, "- he concluded.
Experts report that in some places, significantly raising the soil to 10 inches.
Steam rises from Castle Geyser in Yellowstone National Park.
Photo: Mark Thiessen, National Geographic