The fate of the world in 1941-1945. was decided on the Eastern Front: facts and figures
In March of this year, Russian President Vladimir Putin, speaking to delegates of the founding congress of the Russian military-historical society, said that "the main resource of the power of Russia and its future — in the historical memory." It is. Russians can and should be proud of their history. On this and would like to talk on the eve of the 68th anniversary of the Great Victory.
June 22, 1941 under the banner of the Third Reich collapsed in the Soviet military and economic power virtually all of continental Europe. By the time Germany controlled or patronize the area of 3 million square meters. km, with a population of about 290 million people. Even the so-called "neutral" Switzerland and Sweden have made a great contribution to the growth of the military might of Nazi Germany.
By 1941, Hitler was able to put himself at the service of the military industry, armament and mobilization reserves of most countries of Europe. This allowed him to create the most powerful in the history of mankind war machine. It fiery roller swept across the expanses of our country …
The first took a hit Brest Fortress. Its defenders defense held more than a month. For them there was no detachments, which are so like to refer to some of the modern "truth seekers". Defenders fought to the last breath.
I remember for a lifetime words scratched on the plaster of one of the cellars of the fortress. "We were three. We found it hard. We die, but do not give up. 22. 07. 1941. "
No less worthy of reverence participants defense of Smolensk, Sevastopol, Odessa, Voronezh, Leningrad and Moscow. They were detained, then stopped, and then drove back the Nazi evil.
And chased so that the former press secretary Nazi Foreign Minister Ribbentrop Obersturmbahnfuehrer SS (Lieutenant Colonel) Karl Schmidt (who wrote under the pseudonym Paul Carell) after the war, was forced to admit that in 1944 "the pace of the Soviet forces exceeded the rate of advancement of Guderian and Gotha on the Smolensk-Brest-Elnya during a "blitzkrieg" in the summer of 1941. "
I recall this fact for those Russian historians who relish the German "blitzkrieg", presenting it as something unparalleled in the art of war.
Speaking about the victories of Soviet weapons, can not be silent about its creators, the heroes of the home front, work for which it was created. After the outbreak of the war in a matter of months of autumn and winter of 1941, the Soviet people were transferred to the eastern regions of the country in 2593 industrial enterprises! In addition to the East was moved 2.4 million head of cattle, 200 million pigs, 5.1 million sheep and goats, 800 thousand horses. In the rear areas were exported 10 million.
This required an incredible exertion, consistency and accuracy in the organization of rail transport. The volume of traffic staggering. Only one plant to evacuate "Zaporizhstal" It took 8,000 cars. A business of this magnitude was not one hundred. And all of them, almost from the wheels began to give much-needed edge products.
Aircraft designer Alexander Yakovlev recalled that"evacuated from Moscow to Siberia plant, which produced Yak, three months surpassed Moscow output, and after eleven months did airplanes eleven times more than before the evacuation. "
As a result, by the end of 1942, the Soviet Union was ahead of Germany for the production of tanks in 3.9 times, combat aircraft — by 1.9 times, guns of all kinds — in 3,9 times. If anyone is capable of contemporary Russian "effective" managers to repeat something like that?
Of course, it is impossible not to note the value and Lend Lease (U.S. military aid). Paying tribute to this support, it should not be idealized as a moral, selfless act of administration and industrial capital of the United States.
At the heart of the Lend-Lease lay purely pragmatic calculation, the essence of which U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt described so. He said that "if there is a neighbor's house, and you have a garden hose, lend his neighbor, until caught fire and your house."
More specifically about the Lend-Lease spoke senator Harry Truman (later U.S. President). June 24, 1941, he said that if Germany would win, help Russia, and if Russia — that of Germany. But the important thing is that they are as much killing each other.
The value of Lend-Lease for the victory over Nazism is estimated differently. In the West, states, and even some Russian historians believe that without lend-lease the Soviet Union would not hold. In the Soviet Union, on the contrary, the importance of the U.S. supplies weapons, vehicles, materials and foodstuffs has been underestimated.
Usually said that the proportion of these supplies in relation to domestic production during the war economy was only about 4%, and therefore could have a decisive impact on the course of the war. Meanwhile, in monetary terms, the American Lend-Lease was approximately U.S. $ 11 billion.
Also this should be considered at a particular time. For a man dying of thirst in the desert, even a jar of water is life and the ability to get to the oasis. At the same time, we note that prior to October 1941 for this "jar" the Soviet Union paid in gold. Let us remember sunk in April 1942, the Germans British cruiser "Edinburgh", who drove to England Soviet gold for military supplies. Yes, and "jar" in 1941 was a minor …
Americans their supplies to the USSR were carried out only after Roosevelt in October 1941 approved the connection of the USSR to the Lend-Lease Act. However, the full American Lend-Lease Act were implemented only after Stalingrad and the Battle of Kursk, ie in the second half of 1943.
However, the role of the Lend-Lease highly of the former People's Commissar for Foreign Trade of the USSR, Anastas Mikoyan, in 1942 led the reception of allied supplies.
The People's Commissar recalled that "in 1941 we all lost, and if it were not for the Lend-Lease, no weapons, food and warm clothing for the army — still the question of how to deal turned out … Without Lend-Lease, we'd probably still a year and a half extra provoevali ".
Total Lend-Lease USSR was 409.5 thousand cars (427 thousand with the help of other allies), 32 thousand army motorcycle and 13.3 thousand trucks and tractors, about 18 thousand different types of aircraft, more than 7 thousand . tanks (including supplies from England 12500), 90 cargo ships and 105 anti-submarine ships, 2 million 317 thousand tons of steel, 1,900 locomotives and 11 thousand cars, 295 tons of gunpowder and explosives, 387 thousand tons of copper, 328 tons of aluminum, 38.1 million of machine tools, 610 thousand tons of sugar, 665 tons of canned meat, etc.
In "A Brief History" of the Great Patriotic War, noted that in relation to the production of the Soviet Lend-Lease Act were as follows: for artillery guns of all systems — 1.9% on the tanks — 7%, combat aircraft — up to 13%. The car park of the Red Army in 1943, imported cars was 5.4% and in 1944 — already 19%.
However, the calculation of "general" is not always correct. Take, for example, the American aircraft P-39 "Cobra» («Airacobra»). They were delivered to the USSR only about 5000 pieces. From 120 thousand aircraft issued Soviet industry, it is only 4.2%. But the 15 Soviet pilots led by three times Hero of the Soviet Union
Alexander Pokryshkin, flying to the "Cobra" from 1943 until the end of the war, was shot down over five hundred German planes.
Americans also put into the Union 20 thousand cars "Studebaker." It would seem a little bit. But "Studebakers" have become the main chassis of the legendary rocket launcher "Katyusha", which each volley nearer a victory.
The same situation occurred with the supply U.S. 8 thousand pieces of artillery. If we compare them with the total production of tools in the USSR (482.2 million), it is only 1.6%. However, it should be borne in mind that it was anti-aircraft guns, which, in the words of Stalin, were so necessary.
However, I want to repeat, exaggerate the value of military-technical assistance to the West should not be. As already mentioned, the bulk of the Lend-Lease was in the period after the German defeat at Stalingrad and Kursk, when the military power of Germany had been coerced. Without a doubt, these supplies have helped to withstand the Soviet Union and hastened his victory. However, a major role in achieving this victory, played the Soviet military skill and heroism of the Soviet soldiers. This confirms the example, the following fact.
June 6, 1944 10 thousand aircraft, 1,200 warships, 804 transport ships and landing craft 4126 transferred across the English Channel 156 thousand allied troops (83 thousand Britons and Canadians, 73 thousand — Americans). It was the long-awaited opening of the Second Front.
By the end of 1944, the grouping of the Allied forces in Europe, consisted of nearly a million people who had more than 10 thousand planes, 6.5 thousand tanks. America gave the European theater of war, the most advanced military equipment. Anglo-American air forces undivided sway in the air.
Allies easily broke through, only in words and menacing impregnable "Atlantic Wall." They had only to overcome the borders of Germany dismantled "Siegfried Line." It would seem that the Nazis came to an end.
But December 16, 1944, Army Group "B" under the command of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, numbering more than 200,000 officers and men, 900 tanks, 800 aircraft and 2,600 artillery pieces and mortars, as well as selected panzer divisions attacked in the Ardennes on 12 — the first group of U.S. Army General Omar Bradley, numbering 1.3 million soldiers.
Germans in a matter of hours Americans overran defenses and develop the offensive.
In January 1945, they increased the pressure. The situation for the Americans Catastrophic. In this regard, the Supreme Commander Expeditionary Forces, General Dwight D. Eisenhower invited the heads of the U.S. and the UK to seek help from the Soviet Union.
January 6, 1945, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill wrote to Stalin that in the West there was "alarming" situation "is very heavy fighting," and in this regard, he asked to be informed whether the Anglo-Americans count on the Soviet offensive in the January. The next day, the Soviet government responded that the terms of our offensive across the Central Front, originally scheduled for January 20, 1945, moved to January 12.
In the period from 12 to 14 January 1945 the Soviet front for 1200 km (from East Prussia, but the Western Carpathians) was moved. At the same time carried out a number of offensive operations of the Vistula-Oder, Sandomir-Silesia, Western Carpathians, East Prussia, the Warsaw-Poznan. Each of these, the significantly superior to the Ardennes operation.
According to the rules of military art is considered that a successful attack on a fortified enemy to material advantage 4-1. But there are cases where a particularly powerful at the forts and the advantage did not guarantee success. But January 12, 1945 the Red Army broke through the German concentrated blows all over the front.
To participate in the East Prussian operation Soviet military leadership focused 1.7 million., 25.4 thousand guns and mortars, about 4 thousand tanks and self-propelled guns, more than three thousand combat aircraft. This group was advancing on Konigsberg, military fortifications which were created over several hundred years. Protected the city of 780 thousand soldiers of the Wehrmacht, 8.2 thousand guns and mortars, 700 tanks and assault guns, and 775 aircraft.
However, Konigsberg was taken for three days. For comparison, recall that Stalingrad survived more than four-month siege, and its main consolidation became a regular apartment building, known as the home of Sergeant Pavlov.
The successes of the Red Army were obvious, but the loss of Soviet fronts during the period from 13 January to 25 April 1945 were also heavy. 126.5 thousand soldiers and officers were killed or missing, more than 458 thousand soldiers were injured or out of action due to illness. The troops lost 3.5 thousand tanks and self-propelled artillery, 1.6 thousand guns and mortars, and nearly 1.5 million aircraft.
However, the German losses were much greater. Only in East Prussia was destroyed 25 German divisions, 12 divisions lost 50 to 70% of its composition. Soviet troops captured more than 220 thousand soldiers and officers. Trophies were about 15 thousand guns and mortars, and 1.4 thousand tanks and assault guns, 363 combat aircraft, and many other military equipment.
In general, the loss of the Wehrmacht in the band of the Soviet offensive in January amounted to 500 thousand people. In the Ardennes German casualties totaled 81 thousand people.
After the start of the Soviet offensive, the Germans actually ceased active operations in the West, leaving only military barriers. Already 18 January 1945 President Roosevelt wrote to Stalin: "feat accomplished by your heroic warriors before, and the efficiency they have demonstrated in this occurrence, give us every reason to hope for early success of our troops on both fronts."
The Allies were able to recover from the shock of the Bulge until the last week of March 1945. At this time, despite the fact that the Nazis threw all the reserves in the East, the Red Army successfully advanced into Germany. January's grand offensive led by Soviet soldiers near approaches to the capital of Germany. To Berlin in early February 1945 was only 60 km away.
As you can see, the decisive role in the success of military operations in the final stages of World War II played a motorized connection U.S., Soviet military leaders and soldiers. In the hands of their military equipment to perform a miracle and provided not only the salvation of American and British troops in the Ardennes, but the final victory over Nazi Germany.
It would seem that the heroism of Soviet soldiers and the blood is sufficient payment for the military and material assistance, which the Allies had the Soviet Union in the fight against the common enemy. But the Americans regarded it a little differently.
After the defeat of Japan, the Soviet government sent a U.S. proposal to return the surviving military equipment as of September 2, 1945 and to repay debt. Well, at least for the destroyed during the fighting military equipment to the U.S. recovery is not required.
Interesting was the process of putting Americans to military equipment, including vehicles. According to eyewitnesses, in the 1946-1947 year, this was the case. Americans gather in port the ship with the press and scissors. A special commission has taken meticulously machine and check compliance of original equipment, after which it was immediately sent … under the press and in the form of "cubes" were loaded on a ship.
The Soviet-American negotiations on payments for delivery of Lend-Lease began in 1948 and continued intermittently until June 1990. Then Gorbachev and Bush set a new calculation of the final debt-20
30, and the sum of $ 674 million
I wonder if the U.S. had endured during the Second World War the brunt of the fighting against Germany and the victim would suffer commensurate with the Soviets, then they would be willing to pay the price with their lender on the same terms as the USSR?
Especially it is necessary to speak about the human cost of howling sides. First of all, the Soviet losses. Today, they have been the subject of speculation sophisticated, the essence of which is as follows. The Soviet Union blocked the Wehrmacht corpses, so that won the war. Meanwhile, according to a group of military historian Colonel-General GF Krivosheeva in hostilities were killed 8.7 million Soviet soldiers, including a German prisoner of war for more than 3 million total during the war killed 26.6 million Soviet people. Recall that the population of the USSR in 1940 was 194 million.
However, a Russian historian and journalist Boris Sokolov argues that the Soviet armed forces during the war, allegedly lost 26.4 million, and the total casualties of the USSR amounted to 43.4 million. Note that the Falcons in the Soviet losses included demographic losses (ie, those who would be born, but not born), and for Germany did not.
Thus Sokolov increased population of the USSR in 1941 to 209 million, respectively, in his calculations automatically increased the number of Soviet casualties. Such conscious "blunders" Sokolov in his calculations made quite a lot. More details about them can be found in the article by Vladimir Timakov "Demography victory", published 09.05.2012 in the newspaper "Tomorrow."
Falcons deliberately did not take into account that by the autumn of 1942 the Soviet Union lost the territory in which there were more than 80 million people.
As a result, the Soviet conscript resources almost equal to the resources of Nazi Germany. Therefore, a real opportunity to "fill up the corpses of the Nazis," the Soviet Union was small.
General German casualties in the war Sokolov estimated total of 5.95 million people. However, he argues that the Wehrmacht and the SS allegedly lost a total of 3.95 million people, of them on the Eastern Front — 2.6 million. The ratio of military losses of the USSR and Germany Sokolov praised as 10.3:1. (Sokolov. Price war: the loss of the USSR and Germany, 1939-1945).
The impression is that the Falcons seek to adjust the number of German losses under the digit voiced by Hitler. The one in February 1945, said that Germany had lost in killed 6 million people. Perhaps, therefore, rejected the findings of the West Falcons military historian R. Overmansa. He estimated the loss of the German armed forces during World War II in the 5.3 million victims, including those who died in captivity.
However Overmans, analyzing reports of casualties Wehrmacht, found that in some cases they used the reduction factor "2". Simply put, the Germans reduced their losses in half. So much for the vaunted German statistics.
In this regard, we list some of the options of German combat losses, which are now sold in Germany. According to official data, the government of Germany, irretrievable loss of life of the armed forces of Germany in the war determined to 4,192 thousand. Former Major General Wehrmacht B. Müller-Gillebrand determined the amount of German combat deaths of 4.0 million people. Professor Helmut Arntts finds that the losses (only German) German armed forces during World War II amounted to only 3.250 million people.
One would not believe it if it were not for the obvious facts. Princess Vasilchikova in his "Berlin Diary" in 1943, wrote that the army mobilized as many as they can. Then in Germany was declared a "total" mobilization. Newsreel of the end of April 1945 shows how Hitler goes down the line of mobilized young people and the elderly.
All in all the years of the war, Germany mobilized on different data from 17.8 to 19.0 million people. Where have gone those millions? Some work in this direction did the Russian historian and economist A. Kozinski. He was able to convincingly prove that all estimates of German losses were killed or died strangely disappears around 5.0 million Wehrmacht troops. (A. Kozinski. "History of casualties in World War II: how much is lost in killed Hitler's armed forces?").
Major-General Vladimir Gurkin, a member of the Defense Committee of the USSR on losses in World War II in "On the casualties on the Soviet-German front in 1941-1945." Believes that the deadweight loss of life of Nazi Germany on the Soviet-German front, including Austrian, Luxembourg, Alsace, Lorraine, the Sudeten Germans and the voluntary formation of other states amounted to 6,923,700 persons. ("New Age», № 3, 1992).
Consequently, the ratio of casualties on the Soviet-German front is no more than 1:1.3 in favor of Germany. This confirms the loss ratio and the analysis of human balance sheets of the Wehrmacht and the Red Army at the end of the war.
Then in the Wehrmacht under the gun had about 7.0 million military personnel (33% intended), and the Red Army — 12.8 million (37% intended).
General casualties of the armed forces of Germany in World War II is estimated Gurkin were 13,448,000 people, or 75.1% of the number of mobilized and 46% of the total male population of Germany by 1939, including Austria.
Most of these losses, the Germans suffered on the Eastern Front. Recall that only three weeks of fighting in June and July 1941, the Wehrmacht lost 100 thousand people. Such losses Germans did not carry even in battles with the strongest army in Europe, the French. And the Nazis in the Soviet Union went through the battle of Moscow, Rzhev, Leningrad, Voronezh, Stalingrad, Kursk, Kiev, etc. These battles are for real Nazis "meat grinder."
But, according to Sokolov, emphasizing the strategic talent Nazi generals, it turns out that the Germans in those battles just tired of shooting at Russian. They allegedly withdrew almost without loss, straightening, as claimed by Goebbels, the front line. That's the way, "saving" cartridges, shells, people, the Nazis and retreated to Berlin? And finished the whole saga of his surrender? Can you believe it?
It remains to remind Mr. Sokolov that for every soldier and officer of the Wehrmacht on the Eastern front line was the most terrible punishment. On this front, Germany has lost 72% of military personnel, 75% of tanks, 78% of the aircraft.
And what was the loss of civilian German population? The previously mentioned prof. G. Arntts defined these losses is about 3-3.5 million. This figure seems low for the following reasons. Arntts believes that the bombing in Germany killed 500,000 people. At the same time he provides information that only in Dresden from Allied bombs killed 250 thousand people. (G. Arntts. Casualties in World War II).
Similarly, were destroyed (by 90%, as Dresden) has five major cities in Germany, including Hamburg, Cologne, Jülich. 56 German cities were destroyed by bombing more than 50%. It is estimated that the Allies dropped on Germany number of bombs equal to 75 Hiroshima.
According to the handbook Japan-Hanbuch, hrsg. Von H / Hammitzsch in Zusammenarbeit mit L. Brull / 2 / Aufl. Stuttgart, 1984 (p. 155, 195) in Hiroshima, killing more than 260 thousand people and more than 100 thousand were injured. To draw an analogy with Hiroshima, it turns out that the losses among the civilian population of Germany by Allied bombing had not counted one million victims.
Recall the casualties of our former allies the United States and the United Kingdom. Today, they have positioned themselves as a nation, who made a decisive contribution to the defeat of Nazi Ge
It is well known that the United States has lost the war 418,000 people. But for this they have a very solid financial compensation.
The United States was the only country in the world at war, which during the war created a powerful military-industrial complex and concentrated at 73% of the world's gold reserves.
Recall that after the First World War, the United States also increased its gold reserves from $ 1.9 billion to $ 4.0 billion Based on the price of gold, then a billion dollars in 1920 is a high of $ 55 billion. Who war, and who the mother is native!
Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939. In 1940 she directed 300000th expeditionary force to the aid of France. But he, like the five millionth French army in a matter of weeks was destroyed by the Germans. After that Britain is focusing on the reflection of German bombers raid, samoletosnaryadov "V-1" and the rockets' V-2 "in London.
Major military operations Britain was on the North African theater of war, and in 1944 in Europe.
Today, the British and Western historians stubbornly impose the view that the battle of El Alamein (October-November 1942, Egypt, 106 km from Alexandria) was the decisive battle of World War II, has determined its outcome.
Recall that in this battle, the British 8th Army under General Bernard Montgomery numbering 220 thousand people at 1,100 tanks, 750 aircraft and 908 guns defeated the German-Italian group under the command of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel numbering 115 thousand people at 600 tanks, 900 aircraft and 552 guns.
The British in the battle of El Alamein lost 13,560 killed and wounded, 332 tanks, the Germans and the Italians — 30,542 killed and wounded and 232 tanks. The general loss of Great Britain in the war amounted to 450 thousand people.
Speaking of the Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942 — February 1943), we note that it total and irrecoverable loss of health warring sides (the Red Army and the Wehrmacht) amounted to almost two million people (1.12 million and 840 thousand Soviet German). It is known that the overall deadweight loss of the Germans on the Western Front were 340 thousand people killed.
In the battle of Kursk (July 5 — August 23, 1943) grouping of Soviet troops, numbering 1.3 million., 3.4 thousand tanks, 19.1 thousand guns and mortars, and 2.2 thousand aircraft (without excluding reserves) resisted German group, numbering 0.9 million., 2.7 thousand tanks, about 10.0 thousand guns and mortars, and 2.0 thousand aircraft. Total losses of armored vehicles at Kursk were over 7, 5 thousand tanks (6.0 million and 1.5 million Soviet German).
Note that the modern German historians claim that the tank battles at Kursk won the Wehrmacht. Yes, the loss of Soviet armored vehicles were much higher than the German. But they were not fatal to the Soviet Union. Industry quickly made up for them. And for the German tankers star victory at Kursk finally waned.
Not by chance the German "tank genius" Colonel-General Heinz Guderian recognized that at Kursk German armored forces were "a decisive defeat." As a result, the Germans subsequently failed to carry out on the Eastern front any large-scale attack using large groups of armored vehicles, as was the case in 1941 and 1942.
Finally, we recall that in April and May 1945 in an operation to block and capture of Berlin by the Soviet side was attended 1.9 million, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, with the German — 1.0 million men, 1,500 tanks and more than 3,300 aircraft.
All in all, the fighting the Red Army defeated the 640 divisions of Germany and its satellites, at a time when U.S. troops, Britain and France — 180.
The above gives the right to say that the fate of the world in 1941-1945 is not solved at El Alamein, or in the Ardennes, and in the battles of Moscow, Stalingrad, Kursk and Berlin.
There is no doubt that neither the U.S. nor the UK can not claim a decisive role in the defeat of Nazi Germany. Perhaps, on the eve of the Victory this could not speak. Today, however, concern is the policy of our former allies, who survived without any problems the Second World War, these days inspire regional conflicts that can escalate into World War III.