Wood is the main natural materials that help a person to survive from time immemorial. Of wood could build a house, make tools, and a host of other items necessary for life. Since the tree is difficult to keep a thousand years, the items made from it, have disappeared, leaving us with evidence on which to judge the history of human use of this material.
During some of the archaeological excavations in the territory of South-Eastern Europe were found imprints of wood products, created 7000 years ago. Were also found remains of wooden houses, beds, tables, two-wheelers, boats, hollowed out tree trunk, tools for woodworking. For information about the times you can read the ancient authors — Xenophon, Ovid, and others who have left mention of the various wooden objects used by the Geto-Dacians.
Treatment of wood has remained one of the main male occupations throughout the history of our nation. Terminology wooden products strongly suggests that the processing of the tree is a very old craft. Iron tools for wood confirm the fact that in the early feudal period of social development among the masters of carpentry had a narrow specialization. So, there were the following specialties: turners, carpenters, coopers, Wainwright, carpenters, master in creating troughs, Byrd, spinning wheels, spindles, utensils, etc.
The fact that our ancestors undoubtedly used wood for their needs and engaged in his artistic treatment, confirmed by the high level of development of traditional ornaments, applied to the wood products, the continued use of geometric motifs (diamond, circle, wavy / rounded and broken lines, teeth, snake-like motifs rosettes, stars, and so on).
Types of wood and their properties
The most commonly used wood of the following breeds: acacia, ash, oak, walnut, walnut, beech, hornbeam, sessile oak, cherry, fir, pine, etc. Knowledge of the properties of wood, methods of preparation and training passed down from father to son, each man from childhood was to understand the type of wood. It was known that the sessile oak — plants with a dense, water-resistant, strong, elastic wood — made staves for barrels. In beech hardwood, it was used as a building material, it made of tools, furniture, etc., Hornbeam, though hard, but quickly rots and hard to process — of which made tools. Ash good master hub for the wheels, axles for carts, riveting. Hardwood dogwood made teeth for Byrd, nails, etc. The most beautiful furniture is obtained from the walnut and cherry — spoons, jars for wine, which used to be invited to the wedding. Of sycamore make small items, musical instruments, etc.
Trees cut down in the fall or winter, after the leaves fall, then they removed the bark, leaving the top, to the juice flowed. Harvesting of trees included a number of operations: cutting, removing branches, bark removal, drying, processing.
Once the tree is cut down, the carpenter had to take care to protect it from the leaf-borers. There were a number of methods to achieve this goal: the bark of a tree shot and fired it over the fire and brought it up to the attic and envelop with smoke from the chimney smoke from six months to a year, or dried in the open air, hiding from the sun, up to three years. Wood for the manufacture of vehicle parts — wheels, hubs — aged for several months in pits filled with manure. This method, according to Pliny the Elder, was used, as in ancient Egypt. Based on the needs of the population in various products for the home and farm, the large number of forests in our territory and knowledge necessary for wood to build its products, have formed different groups of artisans.
The term "carpenter" is a general, these masters were engaged directly in the construction of houses, if used for that wooden details. Over time, a wizard who specialized in making various products for home decorating, Rustic Furniture, tools, kitchen items, dishes, ground and water vehicles, etc.
Depending on the stage of processing and the type of products produced since the beginning of time, a number of tools, some of which facilitate the woodwork and used depending on the processing techniques.
Before the advent of the XIX century mills and steam engines — Sawmills — tools for sawing and wood processing were made by hand and were the axes of different sizes, for cutting and splitting, cleavers different widths, two-handled saw with a long blade, stands for wood (goats) , saws, calipers, drills, punches, adzes, drawing knife, planes, jointer, chisels, hammers, sledge hammers, wood, etc.
Depending on the purpose of each tool had varieties, such as an adze for shingles, adze blade with a long, wide adze, finishing, large and small adze, an ax with a long ax for cutting obtesyvaniya ax, the ax for splitting packs — splitter, etc . on
In terms of the masters of wood processing, interesting fact of the use of measuring tools for the job: pitches with a lead weight, control the vertical and horizontal direction is carried out by means of an air bubble level (spirit level), angles measured with the help of "corner", a circle — compass (in the case of his absence — thread with nail). Carpenters measure distances with your fingers, palm width, pitch, elbow, threads.
Wood products, to create a master woodworkers
Since this issue will be highlighted in special sections, but here we simply list the activities and types of wood products. The main areas in which the artist works on a tree, the following:
- Wooden houses and construction of houses (attics, rafters, cross beams, porch, terrace, porch, balconies, gables, openwork carving and decorative pillars, decorative doors and windows, roof shingles, columns, etc.).
- Wooden fences and gates (of rods, poles, planks, stakes), large and small gates, covered, carved doors, etc.
- Wooden items for the wells and for other purposes: door well, buckets, fence well, and its roof, gutters, benches, religious items, etc.
- Rustic Furniture:
a) Cache for storing clothes, boxes of tissues, for the dowry chest, which kept the best girls clothes and woven products that are part of the dowry. Dowry chests for more carefully decorated — carving, painting, etc., with the performance of ornaments with symbolic significance;
b) beds and chests for rest and sleep;
c) low round tables, high tables (with a rectangular and round table), tables and cabinets;
d) chairs, benches with backs, stools, clothes hangers, shelves, corners, cupboards, etc.;
d) children's cradle — hung and floor, carved from a tree trunk, a cradle for carrying children behind;
e) various items needed in the home. Products for storage of food, utensils (plates, spoons, forks, etc.), food preparation (trays, mortars, spoons, pestles, rolling pins, ax handles, cups, buckets, etc.) spinning (waist, with the pedal, with bench etc.), Berdy for textile, weaving warp beam rods, spoons, dishes, troughs, spindles, bowls, sieves, quadrangular;
g) wood musical instruments: flutes, pipes, Kavala, clarinets, most, buchumy (Trembita), pipes and so on;
h) farm tools — forks, rakes, flails, etc.;
and) articles coopers (Dogariu, vesar, chuberar), which the artist himself working for the manufacture of barrels, tubs, drinking vessels, buckets, tubs, buckets, pails, tubs, salt shakers;
a) vehicles and their parts: loaders, wheel, rim, hub, spokes, body boards, etc.
Based on historical records and ethnographic data collected in the field, as well as the terminology associated with wood products, it can be concluded that the old man's craft wood processing and creating objects out of it was and is the main occupation of Moldovan men preserved in our country thanks use of natural materials, the beauty of the structure and warm palette of wood, healthy and pleasant odors emanating from it. No wonder today, wooden items and furniture made folk artists are in great demand and highly sought after.