Vaccination should be effective and safe. To ensure that these conditions have been met, you need to adhere strictly to the list of contraindications to vaccination.
The massive use of vaccines allowed in practice only under the condition that for them there is a small number of contraindications, ie states dramatically increase the risk of reactions and complications.
Contraindications are absolute (permanent) and relative (temporary).
Absolute contraindications to vaccination are established in the case of high risk for life-threatening conditions. By absolute contraindications to the administration of the vaccine include:
- severe reaction previously arisen in the child with the introduction of the same vaccine.Severe reaction to the vaccine is increased body temperature above 40 ° C, swelling, or redness over eight inches in diameter at the injection site.
- complications of previous administration of the same dose of vaccine. Complications in theintroduction vaccines include: the reaction of anaphylactic shock, collapse (sudden pressure drop), encephalitis, seizures, with normal body temperature.
- immunodeficiency. Immunodeficient state may be primary (hereditary) and the secondary (arising due to diseases such as AIDS, ingestion of certain drugs, radiation exposure, etc.). These children are contraindicated live vaccines: BCG, OPV, DPT, measles, rubella, mumps (mumps). Introduction inactivated (killed) vaccine is not contraindicated, but may not produce the desired effect (the formation of immunity).
Relative contraindications to vaccination is considered temporary state in which an inoculation may not provide adequate immune response or be unsafe.
- Most often a relative contraindication to vaccination is an acute respiratory viral disease (ARI), occurring with a high fever. In such cases, vaccinations are plotted on
1-4week to recover.
- That a child has lung disease (such as a runny nose without fever) is not a contraindication to conduct routine vaccinations, especially if baby often suffer from colds or allergic rhinitis.
- In the presence of the child's chronic illness (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, etc.) vaccination is carried out only after consultation with a specialist.
- If your child received a blood transfusion or immunoglobulins, the planned vaccination delayed for 3 months.
- Premature baby begin to vaccinate all vaccines, if he is gaining weight well.
In all cases, the question of contraindications to vaccination should be decided by your doctor.
False contraindications — conditions that are unduly and unnecessarily included in the category of contraindications to vaccination. They are:
- thymomegaly (increase thymus)
- perinatal encephalopathy,
- atopic dermatitis and diathesis
- some congenital diseases (Down syndrome, etc.).