Linguistics. Deep roots


From the XVIII century, linguists have been paying great attention to the search for the most ancient, primordial proto-language, which was the germ, and then root that nourishes all developed and developing world languages.

In the XIX century, a heated, never stopped to this day debate on the question of the very possibility of such a language. The main argument of the opponents of this hypothesis is that the ancestors of human remains have been found (and perhaps still to be found) in areas so remote from one another, that about any language community or further close at that time to say impossible. This means that each of the nascent human collective put their variety of speech, forms of which were multiplied and evolved during the quantitative expansion and settlement of each of the group of ancient people, the commonality or similarity of individual words could appear only in the period beginning on the mutual contacts of these groups.

The dating of these contacts is inaccessible to science, as it does not yet determined the time of appearance of the individual — some believe that he lived on the earth for 2 — 3 million years ago, and others — that only 100,000 years old. In this interval being sought that paleoanthropologists are busy exploring the skeletal remains, and archaeologists.

Still, many researchers agree that there were probably a few major centers of origin of man, and hence the number of source language, which can be traced all the many forms of speech prevailing in the further evolution.

The search for the ancestral home of mankind, as the search for the proto-language, or proto-languages, conducted by scientists for more than two centuries, and is constantly expanding its contingent by professionals who devote themselves to a variety of science, seemingly far from linguistics: geophysics, climatology, astronomy, palaeogeology, paleobotany, medicine, etc.

Attempts to find an ancestral led researchers in different areas of the globe. The idea that the ancestral home of mankind could be, for example, and the Arctic, also originated in the minds of scientists and is reflected in many of the works in the XIX century. Noticeable impact on the approach to this problem has a book by American historian W. Warren, "Paradise Found, or the Cradle of Humankind in the North Pole", endured ten editions (the last — in Boston in 1893). In the future, the balance is tipped in the predominance of the hypothesis of a southern zone of the addition of humanity — namely, in the northern parts of Germany or Scandinavia.

All this quest attracts the fact that the narrower goal of researchers in the West has been reduced largely to attempts to identify the ancestral home is not so much of humanity in general, as the Indo-Europeans, that is, peoples, languages which science brings together a vast Indo-European family (we'll refer to them briefly as Indo-European).

Gradually confirmed the view, widely adopted in our country, adding that the place PIE community was South-Eastern Europe north of the Black Sea, the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea, that is, the southern regions of the country.

The word "Indo-Europeans" came from the identification of whole layers of similar elements of languages and world views, typical of Europeans and Indo-Iranians (ie ancestors of the Indians and Iranians), which are known to science as the Aryans, or aria, but in the vast literature often called Aryans (their languages also belong to the Indo-European family).

Linguists have found the proximity of the grammatical structure of Indo-European language similarity, and sometimes direct match of a number of words and common ways of word formation from similar roots. A comparison of the beliefs, customs and folklore — especially in their most ancient layers — forcing researchers to devote more attention to the mutual proximity of the Indo-European cultures people and look for ways to unite all of these facts. In the XIX-XX centuries, many European scientists have steadfastly pursue the question of origin of the so-called Aryan race, which, according to one version, the recognized collective ancestor of all Indo-European people, and on the other — only Celts and Germans.

Looking for their first home in Central Asia, and even in the Himalayas, which is an absurdity from the point of view of any branch of science. However, some supporters of the assumption of the nearest relation of the "Aryan race" (wherever it may occur) with the Germans came in his quest far beyond the research that resulted in the XX century to the approval of the "Aryan" Germans and "neariystve" of other nations .

We will not dwell here on the well-known tragic results of the "fit" of science by political ambition and the speculative use of the German fascists pseudoscientific claims. Let's go back to overview search ancestral Indo-European and Proto- people.

Britain colonization of India has opened European scientists in the late XVIII and XIX century, access to familiarization with the language and culture of this country. This led to the study of ancient texts and an intensive search for growth in comparison broad scale of values of spiritual and material culture of all Indo-European people.

Throughout the period of Indo in general and Indian Studies, as part of the science researchers attracted to study ancient Indian literature, is the true treasures of knowledge. In their series rank first Veda — four collections of hymns and ritual rules and regulations. Vedas and heterogeneous nature of the text and on their content and relevance. Rigveda is the main — a collection of hymns, which glorify the gods, praised the process of sacrifice and its results, and praised the role of the priests — Brahmins.

Scholars date the finalization of the Rig Veda the third quarter of the II millennium BC. e. and sees the place of its registration in the north-west of the South Asian sub-continent, that is in the northern part of present-day Pakistan and north-western parts of India today.

So here Rigveda shape and finally formed. And where is it developed? That's still a mystery to all. In the Rig Veda itself, as in the comments to it, and in other ancient texts, there are mentions of the many countries that have gone through the ancient Aryans, the authors of her hymns, but to tell the country and where lands were mentioned — is unknown. And the duration of the period of addition of hymns also has no specified. How it lasted — three hundred, five hundred or a thousand years? Or five thousand years? The exact answer does not exist.

Scientists have identified only the language of the monument, calling it Vedic or Vedic, the language or the Vedic Sanskrit. He was a professional language of the priests, the language of their prayers and incantations, and is a kind of complex fixed metric and word forms, not subject to change. (By the way, the language of the Vedas and today in India is preserved in its ancient forms — in this sense it is similar to, for example, Church, which is also not subject to change during the church services.)

And there stands before us a new question: when is was so firmly fixed in the development language of the Vedas? After all, the language of the people in his everyday life changes from age to age, and in some of its parts, even from year to year. Again, why different types of heterogeneous Rig? Probably, because they are based were once spoken form of the language — or dialects? — Several tribes.

One thing is clear — based on the ancient dialects brought to the subcontinent Aryans, was formed after a number of languages, formed according to the laws of historical development, which are common to all languages of the world. And in the future, this process led to the addition of Middle Indian languages, or Prakriti, known for the monuments of literature I millennium BC. e., and behind them (I millennium BC. e.) — and Indian languages, which, in their current form, they say in India, many millions of people.

The language of the Vedas, we repeat, is stored in the absolute immunity for almost four thousand years in India. And what had happened to him before?

Discussed above the growth of interest in Indology in Europe. Western scientists after extensive work started and Russian Orientalists, though, unfortunately, the study of many aspects of India began in the Soviet Union until the middle of XX century. Powerful stimulus to intensify this process was the release of India in 1947 from colonial bondage. In India itself there is a highly developed science since ancient times. Or rather — a lot of science. Mathematics, astronomy, poetics, medicine, the science of theater, dance, architecture, and so on and so forth, including and the science of words, the structure of words and their combinations, their explicit and implicit values, morphological structure, that is wide and perfect the science of language. In particular, the Sanskrit (the word means "finished, polished, refined") in all its forms — Vedic (or Vedic) epic and classic. These three forms of Sanskrit devoted a great many studies, written and European and Indian scientists.

Most researchers believe that these three forms of Sanskrit should be considered as a historical sequence, as well as reflected in the ancient monuments of the stages of development of the society. But there are those who doubt this, because it is the product of the Indian epic, such as the world-famous poem "Mahabharata", keeps a number of references to the old days, more profound than that which is reflected in the Rigveda. This, too, appears to the experts as the question that is still no definite answer. Everyone agrees with that statement only that the classical Sanskrit language — the language of science and literature of ancient and medieval India — formed as a result of intensive development in the urban culture in its early state formations, that is, within the first two forms. The answer to the question of the origins of these two forms, again, looking for all the specialists in Indo-European.

To the earliest period of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) community and the proximity of the Rigveda dates and Iranian ancient Avesta. Moreover, a number of similarities between them is observed as mentioned in many gods, and they veropredstavleniyah and in geographical, astronomical and climatic realities. All this suggests that the ancient Aryans lived for a long time on the same or a similar one-lands, from which came a long ways in the area of migration of its historically defined settlement, that is, Iran and the South Asian subcontinent.

But again, where are the earliest of their land settlement?

A long series of striking similarities of Indo-Aryan languages and European forces scientists to prefer one or the other group of the latter, bringing them closer to Sanskrit. At one time it was considered the mother of all Indo-European languages, but eventually almost all abandoned the idea of an ancestral language. But counting the similarities found in many unexpected scene: it turned out that most of them have the Slavic languages, and mostly on the East Slavic, that is, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and then — to Lithuanian.

Interested in this problem anthropologists have compared measurements of fossil skulls of the earliest burials of the Scythians (direct descendants of the Indo-Iranians in the southern regions of the country) and the Slavs and found that podneprovskie Slavs show significant similarity with the Scythians forest-steppe zone. Scythian language as the number of similarities with Slavic far surpass their connection to any other European language, as deduced by one of our leading linguists, VI Abaev and cited evidence of this idea in his book "Scythian-European isoglosses" (Wiley, 1965).

It is recognized that there was a basis Slavic, on one alleged in the II millennium BC. e., and on the other — much earlier (for example, the Hungarian scientist Har-Matti assigns it to the V millennium BC. Oe.). This happened in the gradual disintegration of PIE community, formed in the VI-IV millennium BC. e. in South-Eastern Europe. The tribes of the ancient Slavs long lived in close unity with the Baltic nations, and then defined as a separate cultural and linguistic group.

In the process of Indo-European division people began to leave and eastern branches — the Aryan tribes. Probable time of their separation is recognized II millennium BC. e., that is their close proximity (if not the relationship) with the Slavs lasted much more than a cult contacts and proximity to other tribes vast Indo-European generality, leaves it to the west is in the V-IV millennium BC. e., and in part before. Direct relations with the Slavs Aryans during the withdrawal to the east and southeast of the Aryan tribes were disturbed but not destroyed. And it is not destroyed because they stayed on the former lands Scythians — direct descendants of the Aryans. Scythians were I millennium BC. e. Slavs are so close that the ancient Greek historians and geographers did not distinguish between them. (And remember Blok: "Yes, we are Scythians …") I must say that the thought of Herodotus about the arrival of the Scythians from Central Asia have long dismissed as science has not found any confirmation in the sequence of archaeological cultures. Found that even the so-called in the writings of Greek historians Scythian ploughmen were not in fact Scythians, and close them "skifoobraznymi" Slavs living in the I millennium BC. e. on the Dnieper River (one of the first published evidence of the Soviet archaeologist AN Terenozhkin in his book "Predskifsky period on the right bank of the Dnipro", Kiev, 1961).

An array of Aryan or Indo-Iranians, divided as we move away to the south and east into two main groups: isolated themselves Iranian languages, and others formed the basis of the Indo-Aryan. Do one or the other group of people — speakers of these languages — have their links with other linguistic groups, but it is only part of the problem. Each year a growing interest to a much earlier era, and to the question: where is all the earth came to the Eastern European ancestors of Indo-European people?

The researchers identified and territory formation and continued existence of a fact (it is assumed that at least four thousand years) on it PIE generality. In 1970-1980's of many scientists are beginning to confidently come to the idea of a larger than previously thought, the field of settlement of the eastern branch of this community. Ancient Indo-Iranians credited with creating the archaeological culture, which became a science called Andron. A number of monuments of this culture is found on both sides of the Ural mountain range, and a great interest is the fact that they are discovered in Eastern Europe the far west of the Urals.

All the tribes of the Great Indo-European community, quite clearly, had to support and work for mutual cultural relations. This is indicated in the first place a lot of similarities detected in archaeological finds.

Goes to India and Iran, the Aryans took with him a large supply of this general fund of cultural values, including a lot of myths, customs, regulations, etc., are stored in the collective memory of the people. And of course — the language. Component parts of the general fund have taken with them (in a given volume), and the ancestors of modern Western nations. That is why traces of the similarities in the myths of such relatively distant peoples, the Greeks and Indians.

To repeat, that is especially close contact tribes settling in for the longest time on nearby or, apparently, even intermingled lands — namely, the Aryans and the ancestors of the Slavs.

But the question of where they all came here, can not be wished away already, and the last time he stood in front of the scientists, they say, at full length.

Whether mentioned that the original land of Aryans in the Rigveda, in other Vedic literature and in the Avesta? After all, the memory of it was reflected in the Vedas, in the great books of knowledge, and in the epic. (Here, by the way, I want to remind the reader that in the Slavic languages the root "of the Vedas" also generated a lot of words associated with the meaning of "be in charge (know)." For example, we think, as they say, for the interest that Belarus society "Knowledge "and called today" Veda ", not to mention the proximity to the Sanskrit" species — Lead "our words" see — says, "going back to the time when the knowledge of the world was determined in the first vision of it," Sage " "Witchcraft", "note", and others.)

What is reflected in the Rigveda? What realities ancestral Indo-Europeans, including the Aryans? And whether they are reflected in there? Is it possible to identify precisely the memories of that faraway homeland in a series of vague descriptions of the countries through which the road lay the Aryans to India? And they stayed there in these countries at least some traces of the Aryans?

Yes, to a certain extent you can. And not only in the ancient Indian literature, but also in the collective memory of other Indo-European people and above all the Slavs. For example, we know thanks to the efforts of our linguists, many rivers and areas of the country remain Aryan names that lived on the Taman peninsula once the people, who bore the name of "Cindy" ("Cindy — Indus — Hind — Hindustan — India" — is a single lexical range ). And there, in the Crimea, and Ukraine, and throughout Russia, including the polar regions, there are still many place names associated with the Aryan-Slavic antiquity: a set of data that include, for example, the study's lead Soviet linguist ON Trubacheva (and, in particular, his book, "The names of the rivers right bank of Ukraine." Moscow, 1968).

But all that is said here, is associated with the presence of the Aryans in South-Eastern Europe and the beginning of their way past the North Caucasus and South Urals, that is, with a long, but relatively late in the period ended for the vast majority of them in the II millennium BC. e.

And before that, then where were they?

Now researchers have taken another step into the depths of centuries. This step is to determine the boundary between the fundamental views of two groups of scientists.

In addition to the polar theory, which has already been mentioned here, and more will be discussed below, there was a so-called Nostratic theory, the creators and supporters that turned again to look for a single source of all language families of the world. They claim that the family has already decided about XV-X millennia BC. e. their common parent language, the original language of mankind, dated XXX millennium BC. e., while adding the same Indo-European — V-IV millennium BC. e. This theory was named from the Latin word "Noster" — "our", and its adherents see the ancestral home of the Indo-European peoples of the lands of Asia Minor, where they were in the books of the leading carriers in Africa the most ancient forms of proto-language.

Soviet scientists who formulated this theory in the early 1960s, there were VM Illich-Svitych and A. Dolgopolsky. They have a relatively short time to develop it here — this process was suspended death in 1966, Illich-Svitych and departure to Israel Dolgopolsky. Their closest follower B. Shevoroshkin emigrated to the U.S., where the enthusiasm of the artificial, with the support of the American proto-Africanist linguist J. Greenberg. In our country, a number of supporters continues Nostratic theory, led by renowned scientists Vyacheslav. Sun Ivanov and T. Gamkrelidze, who published in 1984 in Tbilisi, two-volume work, "The Indo-European language and the Indo-Europeans", which sets out the results of attempts to reconstruct the existing, according to the proponents of the theory, a single parent language of all peoples.

In this brief review, we can not go into this in more detail. We need to highlight here the question about the reflection in the Rig Veda and other ancient Indian literature of those natural phenomena that are associated with the polar regions, because the realities typical of Asia Minor, in the literature were found. Besides, it must be said that in this two-volume work is the most remote from us border Proto Indo-European peoples dates back to the IV century and. e., that is, these researchers are housed ancestral Indo-European in the Near East at the very time when the South-East Europe, there are well traceable in their borders and studied by archaeologists Tripoli culture, created a large array of Indo-European people. It is a strange discrepancy in time and space is not yet possible to agree. Also among the Indo-European Peoples is not detected according to anthropology media features Semitic race, except for the Jewish and Armenian diasporas in the same Southwest Asia, up to the borders of Iran and Afghanistan, the main carriers of these array features are the Jews and the Arabs. Given in two volumes are very interesting examples of similarities Semitic languages, such as ancient Greek, it may be appropriate to explain the mutual contact of Near Eastern population is separated from the great Indo-European community and care in the south-west the ancestors of several European nations.

Returning to the polar hypothesis, say, that in the XIX century, it gained a lot of supporters. Without going in the course of scientific debate in which participated with many experts from different countries, hold our attention on one of the works that immediately after publication attracted the interest of experts around the world.

This book is well-known Indian scientist, scholar of Sanskrit in all its forms, BG Tilak (1856 — 1920). He was not only a historian but a revolutionary democrat, well-known public figure, uncompromising fighter for the independence of India. He was persecuted colonial power, but also in prison, like Jawaharlal Nehru, he was engaged in the ancient history of the native people and the study of texts of the Vedas. Lenin Tilak deeply appreciated and condemned the British administration for the persecution of the "revolutionary democracy" (Collected Works, Vol 15, p. 161).

Tilak's book, which was first published in 1903, and then reprinted several times, called "Arctic home in the Vedas." With this work the sign every serious and dedicated true science researcher.

It is possible that the impetus for his writing served as the above-mentioned work of American scientist W. Warren (Tilak completed his work in 1898, five years after the tenth reprint Warren), and possibly a number of attempts to trace the other professionals in the Vedas and the Avesta hints or direct evidence of ancient familiarity with nature Arctic, and most importantly, with the movements of celestial bodies in the extreme northern regions of the earth.

But here I must say that none of the Western researchers have not mastered to the extent of ancient literature of India as its Indian experts, each of whom, in addition to a deep knowledge of Sanskrit, was the earliest years of their lives are not familiar with the texts, but also with the ways interpretation and interpretation of Vedic and epic monuments and astrology to music. And in astrological science of this country preserved ancient astronomical observations, reflected in many of the old treatises (but, unfortunately, not yet studied in the West). These treatises are largely based on astronomical data, included in the Vedic literature. Or, rather, not so much included as preserved it as "ancient legends." Far its past Indians must the high level of development of astronomy, which is reflected in the monuments of their science, created in the I millennium BC. e. Drawing on a wide range of data of ancient Indian literature, Tilak highlighted in the book series of the descriptions contained in the Vedas and the epics and for a long time not to succumb to the historically grounded explanation.

Let's leave aside here, for lack of space, the possibility of a detailed comparison of the data in the literature about the countries doindiyskih Aryan nomads with the discoveries of Soviet archaeologists have traced the historical sequence of these nomadic way of the Dnieper and the Volga to the north-western border of the South Asian subcontinent and Iran. We would like to mention at least 100 names of scientists and a lot of names of their works. Such comparison — is something for the future (and, apparently, the closest) of our science, it is already on its doorstep. Discussion, for example, is the issue of the appearance of the Aryans in the areas of Asia Minor and the origins of the two Indo-Iranian languages (Hittite and Luwian), which were already known in the middle of the II millennium BC. e. in ancient Anatolia. Supporters of the Nostratic hypothesis associated with their roots IV millennium BC. e. and with the local Indo-European protolanguage, others researchers believe that they should join with the appearance here of the earliest waves of Aryans, advancing to the south-east of the Black Sea and through Central Asia, and in the Caucasus, and debates on this topic continues. We also important to note here only that, firstly, the two languages have been recorded in cuneiform, which did not use the Aryans anywhere along the way or in India or in Iran, and therefore pre-Aryan population of Anatolia mastered apparently brought them speech, remembering her usual methods of the letter, and, secondly, the fine techniques of the ancient Indo-Aryan art and folk ornament so dramatically different from the countries of Asia Minor, this fact can not be ignored scientists.

Now accumulated a huge collection, enabling comprehensive study of the problem of ancient Indo-European peoples contacts generality. Involved not only data of archeology and linguistics, ethnography, anthropology, paleozoology, paleobotany, etc. Let us briefly only required for this quick overview of the descent, for example, folk ornaments.
A well-studied culture Tripoli residents, who were farmers and herders, widely reflected in it. Thus, the observed striking, sometimes accurate to the smallest detail, the similarities decorated household items and services of the Slavic peoples and Aryan (whose art to this day remains largely unchanged in India). A short digression, we can only say that we can not ignore the coincidence of motives, such as northern Russian and Indian ornaments. They found the most ancient code points, traceable and culture Tripoli and the Andronovo culture, such, for example, as the swastika (to this day preserved in the Vologda and Arkhangelsk regions swastika in old embroideries on different ritual items for the court gate, and etc.), diamonds and squares with dots inside — indications planted fields, figures of women in wide skirts with their hands up, bent at the elbows, and more, for the first time comprehensively published in 1984 by S. Zharnnkovoy pages, published in Moscow "Newsletter of the International Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia" (in number 6).

So, the North Circumpolar North. It is associated with the opening and Tilak. When he was settled by people? People in general, and, according to the Vedas and the epics of India, the ancestors of the Aryans in particular — when?

When there that the ancient view of the world, the cosmos, and how these views are reflected in the words? Ivan Bunin's poem "The word" said "silent tombs, mummies and bones — just the way life is." Yes, in the absence of writing — just a word. The spoken word. Word with a capital letter.

Rybakov in his book "Paganism ancient Slavs" (Wiley, 1981), rich informative material and interesting idea, says that "the period of the history of primitive mankind … shall … be considered as the period of formation of the general fund of ancient people thought about the nature and their place in it. " (Here the author clearly has in mind the ancient interglacial.)

These "thought" can not be dating, but they are reflected in the Word as a primary means of expression. Form of the language changed, but the essence of meaning of words remained, passing from generation to generation.

So, in the old Indian word was preserved that and tried to decipher the Tilak. Driven by his analysis of ancient literature, talking about the outcome of the Aryans of the polar regions, deeply interested in many of the leading scientists who have begun to supplement his mind a number of new evidence and the evidence or simply to promote them. The purpose of the propaganda served as retellings of the main provisions of Tilak, and argued with him, which also attracted the attention of the scientific community (here it should be mentioned that the magazine "Technology — Youth» (№ 10, 1984) M. Strunnna published the article "Where Hyperboreans lived? "and was immediately published a review of this article.)

Among the published works in this country a number of researchers, deeply and honestly engage in polemics or agree with it, consider only two. Previously, all responded to the work of Tilak Russian scientist E. Jelacic, who wrote the book "Far North as the birthplace of humanity" (St. Petersburg, 1910). He argued that Homo sapiens appeared in Europe from the North under pressure coming glaciers during the last ice age. According to current data, it was Valdai glaciation, which peaked in XXIV-XVIII millennium. e., then it should be stressed that the countries of Eastern Europe to the shores of the Arctic Ocean ice was not already in the XI millennium BC. e., — come to this conclusion the authors of the book "Palaeogeography of Europe over the last 100,000 years" (Moscow, 1982), although the ice is maintained in the lands of Scandinavia. Archaeologists have discovered the North in recent years, many sites of ancient man, which means that in the Arctic regions are consistently developing local culture and with the development of economy, people gradually migrated south, driven by the search for new lands.

Postglacial period in which we live with you, called the Holocene, has created conditions for the development of modern civilization. The duration of the project is calculated at 15-20 thousand years, and it is considered the beginning of the end of the last glaciation in northern Europe. "Rapid global warming began around 13,000 years BC. e. "; subarctic forests" moved about 300 kilometers north of their current polar border ", and VIII-V millennium BC. e. Temperature in the North even in January, did not fall below 0 ° C — all of this is evident from the summary data presented in the book and EP Borisenkova VM Pasetskogo "millennial record of extraordinary natural phenomena" (Wiley, 1988).

Attracted the attention of these authors and emphasizes the existence of the so-called thermal Boreal period, which lasted from about VI to VII millennium BC. e., during which the north of the conventional line "Kola Peninsula — Ural — Baikal" average temperature was 5 ° C higher than the south of this line. All this and once again indicates the presence of these early times it was in the polar regions of favorable conditions for the development of economic activity and human culture.
Taking the point of view of genetic association Tilak "Aryans" from PIE peoples, E. Jelacic agrees with Warren that the fundamental unity of the many cultural phenomena peculiar Indo-European, it was formed in the North (and there is no reason to argue with that statement.)

E. Jelacic detail and faithfully presents and comments on the ideas of Tilak cosmogonic concepts related to the Arctic, which are found in ancient Indian and ancient Iranian literature.

Many years later came the book "From Scythia to India" (authors: G. Bongard-Levin and E. Grantovsky, M., 1977, 1983), which also briefly outlines the views of Tilak and provides a general summary of a number of scientific theories and hypotheses on the origin of PIE and "Aryans." The authors correctly argue creators Nostratic theory, questioning the ability of relevant social, economic and cultural indicators, and other Semitic peoples of Asia Minor, indicators typical of Indo-European society and reflected in the data history and linguistics (add — and archeology, and cosmology, and mythology, and many other sciences).

Here and say that in our paleoclimatology also provides interesting evidence concerning the nature of the northern states in the X-VII millennium BC. e., and confirming the very ancient glacial retreat. So, we can see that at this period is in the Far North "absolute maximum" birch that there were pine and spruce forests, grow in abundance as broad-leaved trees with grass-forb cover soil. (The most recent information on these issues in the book "New data on the geochronology of the Quaternary period." Moscow, 1987.) All of these discoveries can be taken to the thoughts of Tilak with deep interest and trust.

That point of view on the origin of the Indo-European, which is called the polar complex, confirmed more and more new evidence of science.

In the conditions of mild climate of the Arctic regions, where forest tundra could be replaced before the end of the warm period (ie, the so-called Holocene climatic optimum, which ended in our North of III millennium BC. Oe.) There are all conditions for development of the culture of ancient society . And this culture with the advent of a new cooling there leaving people carried away with them, keeping her tracks in their collective memory, in the Word and to communicate their knowledge to the people with whom they met, neighbors and your family throughout his long journey to the south and east. And from there, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean areas and its related land, brought the ancient Aryans (as part of the Indo-European array) the information about the phenomena of nature, which does not and never could have arisen in India or Iran, and even more so in countries of the Near and Asia Minor, and therefore so long considered the "white spots" Vedic and epic literature.

Particular confusion caused, for example, the references in the Vedas and the epics that the North Star stood motionless at the zenith, and around in circles all the heavenly bodies. All agree that this can only be at the North Pole, and thus made it all up. But in fact, the inhabitants of Eastern North can see it's not exactly at the peak, and pretty close to it, about the meridian altitude of 80 °, as it is now, and relate to its position the way of other celestial bodies circling the polar sky. And not only could see, but they could have consciously observe the sky and lock in their understanding, in its own memory and observations and conclusions from them, linking it with all its practical earthly life.
Although the authors of the book "From Scythia to India" consider it perfectly clear that "now we can not talk" about the polar regions, all the latest scientific data can be reduced to what it is about them can and should be involved. In his own book, the authors refer to themselves and to a number of medieval scholars of the East, which also analyzed the data of ancient Indian literature, showing them the interest and confidence, and, obviously, clearly realizing that so many polar realities in the full range of their matches can not be attributed to inventions or fabulous views. And we all now know for sure that were invented for the most part, only the so-called author's literary fairy tales, while all the images of folk tales have deep historical roots in the thick of the millennium.

Many heroes of myths also have their specific prototypes, many of which have already been identified by researchers. (And these days, right in front of us there was a recent example, the process of mythologizing of a number of historical figures who have committed deeds in the name of Christianity — Orthodox Church canonized them to the saints, and after 3-4 generations of believers will pay for them their prayers, not knowing most of them, that their names are hidden lived in Russia very specific people.)

In the deep currents of the Rigveda and the Avesta, as well as in included in the epic legends, myths and legends, of course kept the memory of the events and phenomena that took place long before these monuments took shape in certain literary vaults, and were later sealed in writing .

What attracted them to the attention of Tilak? That formed the basis of his polar complex?
Recall that the above data from a number of modern science to confirm the presence of X-VIII millennium. e. in the polar regions of the natural conditions necessary for the development of the economy and culture of the people, and therefore their ability to take into account the cyclical nature of certain phenomena of nature and, accordingly, record their observations in a sign, a symbol, a word. If signs and symbols are the codes, ciphers which knowledge could be applied to material objects, which ensured their immortality — archaeologists to this day by finding the work and interpretation of signs in the rock, mammoth ivory, stone, pottery, and so n ., dating back to the ancient and the new stone age — that word because it was intangible. Remember the words of the poet Gumilev: "If, like pink flame word floated in the sky?" This "pink flames", the most complete and clear builds understanding between people and enables the most understandable way to pass from generation to generation the baton of accumulated knowledge and experience could be of recorded only in memory.

Only available through the centuries — nay centuries, millennia — was immaterial transmission words from senior junior, from mouth to mouth. And join in the deepest layer of the ancient priests (as they any name — sages, teachers, shamans, prophets) was primarily the keeper Words abide strictly forbidden to make any changes to it. Supplement oral texts was possible, but can not change the fact that is confirmed by experience and practice, and partly at the cost of many serious victims — not. Here, again, and came to us through the ten millennia polar realities revealed Tilak, recall that in our days the Rig Veda hymns are chanted by the priests, the Brahmins intact and sound as apparently sounded long before Mr. e. and in the far north, and in the lands later cultures of ancient Eastern Europe, and all the way to the Aryan ancestors of the Eurasian steppes until they came to India and Iran in the II millennium BC. e. (And possibly the appearance of their avant-garde wave there before).

Some of the ancient Indian religious (or more precisely — the religious and philosophical, religious, historical, religious and narrative) literature includes not only the Vedas, and treatises on law and science. One of the most important places in them is, for example, the book "Laws of Manu" (Wiley, 1960), in which we find these words: "The sun divides day and night — human and divine … The gods day and night — (human) year again divided into two parts: the day — the period of the sun to the north, night — the period of the motion to the south "(Chapter I). Sun, drifting south for six months, could only mean the polar night, as well as the outgoing north — only nezakatny polar day. (By the way, here is said that the name of the brahmin priest to be a word — yes, the priests were the keepers of the Word, donesshimi it to you and me.) As part of the Avesta (Vendidad a) also states that for one day and the gods one night — this is what is the year. Such a common mythological and cosmological ideas — and there are plenty of them in the Rig Veda and Avesta — could arise only in the earliest period of life of the common ancestors of Aryans in similar environmental conditions in the period of the formation of common cultural complexes.

Tilak pays attention to the fact that in a number of Vedic hymns sung during the "flickering shadows", referred to as the dawn, which happens twice a year and lasts about 50-60 days, including the appearance of the sun out of the corner. (These "periods of dawn" are named in the literature of India sunrise and sunset of the day of the gods.) This is actually reduces the duration of darkness for 2 months, thus increasing this term period of illumination areas, even the reflected light (and reflected solar radiation) which increased growing seasons and strengthen health, like all warm-blooded animals.
This is confirmed by the fact that in the hymns of the Rig Veda the goddess of the dawn Ushas often sung in the plural: "These old sisters for (many) it is the last days after the former," or, "That's it appeared, is the first of many … showing off immaculate body … as a lover, produces (his) breast … My sister gave way to big sister … flaming rays of Surya '(ie the sun). (Adapted from the book "The Rigveda. Selected hymns." Moscow, 1972.) Even these terse lines portrayed gradual shift sisters Dawn and the increasing length of daylight from day to day, until finally "bares her breasts," the older sister, has already flaming sun.

In the Rig Veda (Book I, hymns from) drew attention Tilak and a description of how the goddess Ushas sad with the onset of a long twilight, the nursing of the sun into darkness, and enjoying the twilight of dawn, marking the imminent appearance of lights in the sky. Variously translated this hymn (and all others) various commentators of the Vedas, but Tilak guided not only a linguistic analysis of the material, but also enshrined in the memory of hundreds of previous generations of his perception of the internal sense, which is extremely valuable in the analysis of any monuments of national culture (recall that scientists of all countries now write a lot about genetic memory, and even the "memory cells").

By the heroic god Indra faces very expressive plea: "O Indra, I would like to achieve a reliable light, so do not ruin us long darkness!", Which tried to interpret and metaphysically, but we should not forget the ancient hymns and their ubiquitous concrete, "landing "content.

After illumination in the Arctic land allocated on average as follows: 3 months the sun never sets, 4 months (spring + autumn) comes gradually shortened day, 2 months and 3 months twilight darkness of polar night. That's all this is described in the literature of the Aryans. Although it is believed that the duration of more dawns, the night lasted only 2 or 2.5 months of the year, but the data are difficult to trace with precision the ancient monuments by metaphorical poetic descriptions.

As dawns on the horizon, and the sun and the stars in the sky make a circular motion, and these pictures can only be observed in the polar (and polar) regions. Tilak said that, judging by the monuments, the Great Bear, called Constellation in India seven prophets are always visible in the sky when it is dark (Rigveda, I), whereas in the more southern regions — and even more so in India — it appears only low on the northern horizon. This is also an important observation, because since ancient times, the Seven prophets revered in Hinduism as the authors of the Vedic hymns and the founders of all the sacred knowledge. This constellation must have played an important role in the orientation of the people by the stars associated with the economic activity, do not stop, of course, and during the "dream of the gods," that is the polar night.

In Vedic and epic literature always found the story of the demon (or demons) long swallows the sun, the god Indra is with him (them) serious battles, releasing light. This God researchers attribute to the most ancient characters Rigveda, as it is important to mention here. He has been fighting with the black demons, make alliances with some creatures in black and hating the light. In addition to the sun, they captivate and water, making them immobile as stone, and Indra returns to life as water and then the river rushing to the sea.

In the Rig Veda praised this act and said that Indra, killing a demon with a club (where attention should be paid also to the oldest type of weapon), "has created the sun, the sky and the dawn", released water, which "stood shackled", "found a hidden secret treasure sky … immured in a rock, in the endless rock "and" buried black skin. "

(It is worth mentioning that in Slavic mythology with the image of Indra, acting in such a role, you can pull together mentioned in the "Book of Doves" beast Indrik that "every beast of the father" and "clears all the keys inaccurate" (it was there mention and as Indra and Indroka): This image, apparently, was born in the era of convergence of advancing from the north to the Aryan ancestors of the Slavs, to this day remains the western Slavs male name Indra.)

It is clear that stories like those described, can be generated only in myth-making polar realities. In the retelling, created later in the south, these demons have called just clouds covering the sun, or "heavenly" snake — dragons, absorbing it into the eclipse, and the release of water generally does not explained.

In the Rig Veda are required to sacrifice to Indra heady and gives him the strength to fight drink soma. This sacrifice was, according to ancient prescriptions last one hundred days in a row, clearly coincides with the polar night. Later this term hymns gradually reduced to 30-20 days, and then to once (as night is reduced to the level of one day). The last requirement is consistent with the fact that Indra is possible to struggle with the clouds no longer than a day or two — it shows the disappearance of the memory of the people feel horror of eternal night, but again speaks mandatory inviolable preservation of each word and the requirements of more ancient hymns whose meaning is being lost.
Tilak rightly emphasizes that in the Vedic literature it is difficult to see lying on the surface description, talking about the arctic homeland of the Aryans, but in the depths of many hymns can find hidden clues and references, indicating the certainty of this historical fact.

In the Avesta, too, have memories of what was once the homeland of the Aryans bright beautiful country, but an evil demon sent down to her cold and snow that hit its year to 10 months, the sun rises only once a year and he has become one night, one day. On the advice of the gods people left there forever.

It should be said in passing, that in science for a long time under dispute that represented him intoxicating drink soma, which gave Indra (and priests and others) and the excitation force. It saw and juice ephedra, and hops, and even fly agaric, has a narcotic effect. Apparently, at different times and in different areas of the Aryan migrations soma called different intoxicating beverages, whereas the author of this article believes that the oldest and probably the most common type of catfish was dairy or horticultural moonshine. In the Rig Veda, the most often mentioned that the soma is necessary not only to squeeze, but then cook, that is subject sublimation, which confirms this conjecture. All herders known recipe for (sublimation) of moonshine perekisshego milk. Pastoralism, judging again by the same Rigveda was very old Aryan occupation, and in the most ancient hymns constantly mentioned abundant colorful herd of cows, bringing them to the gods, their excellent fat milk, etc. (who knows, whether direct descendants of cattle are our once glorious holmogorki?). Perhaps this type of catfish from milk ancient produce moonshine, manufactured in a more southern areas, such as the area of Tripoli culture. But Indra, releasing in ancient times the sun and water, drank, obviously milk moonshine.

In other hymns along with the soma, extruded (from what?) By extrusion stones are mentioned not only cows, but also horses, which previously was not out of the question. From this we can conclude that the later origin of these hymns (such as "squeezed out" Soma) and the possibility to connect them to the era of horse breeding, which began to develop in the Aryan environment in one part of the Indo-European community in the same era Tripoli, from the IV millennium BC. e.

Speaking of the soma and the Arctic theory, we must stop and strikes the imagination legend that is of milk (white? Iced?) Ocean inaccessible to people Meru, reflecting peak sunshine, her gods dwell, and walk around it to All the bright sky. There arguing with the gods of light Neboga, patrons of darkness, and decided to spend churning the ocean of milk to get a drink in the process of power and immortality, Amrit (soma). After describing the churning and struggle between two forces says Amrita went to the gods, and that the drink helped Indra defeat the serpent of darkness.

This mountain scientists have searched around the world, and many came to the conclusion that the ocean and surrounded by white people inaccessible to the area could only be at the North Pole, where the imagination of man has erected a mountain as the only suitable shelter to the great gods, and have any further description of celestial phenomena accurately correspond to the Arctic regions. They also correspond to the Northern Lights and pictures, explain to people referred to as the visible gods struggle with demons, when everywhere the sky poured streams of blood, falling gold mesh ornaments, gleaming fire a variety of weapons, the sky was covered with a huge boom spikes of gold, and all this after the victory gods took to the ocean. These descriptions of different volume and colorful varieties found in many literary monuments of ancient India.

Returning to Tilak, pay attention to what he found in the Vedic literature (including V and VI books Rigveda) and an indication of a division of the year at the North Pole in two halves — dark and bright. By opening hymn writers could come only speculative way, and it shows the high ability to conduct astronomical observations and draw conclusions, vesting them in the form of mythical tales. Thus, in the hymns sung, the God who has a head, one side of which is formed by the dark days, and another — day light, in another description of this god has only two forms, or half of his body — dark and bright. These observations, and relevant findings of these could be made only in the polar regions, because you can not see anywhere else "days of darkness", and even lasting half a year. Is not explained until the verse of Mahabharata, which states that the three hundred and sixty cows give birth to one calf (ie, 360 days a year up) and allow to suck it only twice (Adiparva, Leningrad, 1950, p. 46). What does it mean if you do not see at this division of the year into two halves? And there (p. 53) says: "As the continuously moving the Arctic Circle, it is found three hundred and sixty divisions …" — it's hard to pinpoint the Arctic realities.

Tilak pays attention to another interesting phenomenon — the presence in the most ancient parts of the Vedas only six deities of the sun (light, lights), named Aditya. In the more recent hymns and myths say nothing of the 12 Adityas, which researchers recognize deities months of the year. The first indication of the same as the description of the six-month fair (and Semilight) half of the year, and the second — with a much more recent solar calendar known Indo-European community and all it stand out from the array of people, including the Aryans.

Since the time of stay of ancient Aryans in the Arctic lunar calendar played a decisive role in terms of months (in modern India it is counted and officially published materials, and throughout the calendar ritual life of the people.) In the polar regions of the moon during the full moon passes through the "point of the North" 13 times a year, which means that the whole year consists of 13 lunar months. This lunar calendar in the later period of the different people began to agree with the sun — the addition of days to months (in India have a month to 32 days) or decrease their (our February), the addition of a full month after a number of years. But in the Rig Veda and other ancient monuments of literature devoted to the moon so many hymns and regulations associated with it, which is still in the minds of the people of this country the cult of the moon is the pre-eminent place in comparison to the cult of the sun — even millennia Farming could not shake this relationship.

As a result of all these thousands of years, during which the ancestors of the Aryans (here a question arises: perhaps the ancestors of the Slavs?) Moved through the countries of Eastern Europe to the south, and they have people with whom they come in contact (after all, not unpopulated desert as they were), has developed a lot of common or similar cultural traits. In particular, the Slavic paganism is an inexhaustible, though poorly understood fount of common features: the names and functions of mythical characters, ritual and customs associated with their honor or humiliation, calendar holidays, and sacrifice, and much, much more stores a clearly traceable The correspondence, which originated in ancient times. This is partly described in the author's book "Hinduism" (Wiley, 1977), as well as examples of the many Slavic-language Sanskrit parallels presented in a popular article "Secret origins visible rivers" ("Technique — Youth", 1982, № 8). But Tilak, who was not an expert in Slavic languages and folklore, however, tracing a series of convergences in the myths of Western nations and the Aryans, could not fail to draw attention to the presence in the Slavic tales of such a character as Koschei, absorbing light and life, could not match it with the image of the polar night and the deeds described in the Vedas bright hero who liberates the sun. (The ancient character of Slavic paganism is the shepherd who kills his staff zmeedrakona devouring light, from that image later born hero Egory light, which entered into Christianity in the form of George. Such development of the cult of the hero of light is not in any religion other than Orthodoxy, although the image zmeebortsa hero known in ancient beliefs of many people.)

All these attempts to match are just the beginning of the path, which is sure to get our science, conducting research and comparative analysis of the cultural heritage of the Slavs and Aryans — the people closest and most long-lived next to or mixed on lands of Eastern Europe.

Traces of the Aryan traveling south through the countries Kurgan, also traced by scientists, finding them in the archaeological sites, and spiritual culture of Siberian Scythians, but the issue should be addressed in a separate work devoted to him than some of our busy and well-known researchers. Archaeologists have revealed the presence of not only the Neolithic, and Palaeolithic sites in polar Siberia (a recent example of which can serve as the excavations carried out in the lower reaches of the river Indigirka A. Mochanov in 1980), so it can be argued that all the lands along shores of the Arctic Ocean civilization developed (that yielding to the glaciers coming, then again back to the coast) from time immemorial. Here we were able to pay attention only to a brief overview of issues related with only part of the polar realities analyzed Tilak.

There is no room for a more complete and extensive description of his accomplishment analytical analysis of the monuments of Indian and Iranian literature, and can only regret the fact that our discipline his interesting work has not yet found its proper evaluation, not to mention the fact that his book has not been translated into Russian. I would also like to express the hope that this gap will be filled in the near future, and the thoughts of Tilak greatly help us illuminate many dark places in our ancient history.

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