In the process of self-production aircraft did not once been improved and modernized. Since 1976, the production of a lightweight version of the fighter under the symbol MiG-23ML (article 23-12, L — light). This aircraft was the latest power plants having excessive draft (Turbojet engines R35F-300), the radar "Sapphire-23ML" teplopelengator TA-23M, an improved automatic control system, the LED on the windshield HUD ASP-17ML and identification system "friend or foe "SRO-2M. All these changes have allowed to increase combat abilities machine.
The need for increased maneuverability and combat abilities fighter was grounded in the emergence of the U.S. Air Force machines 4th generation F-15A, YF-16 and YF-17, and the delay in the establishment of Russian counterparts — the MiG-29 and T-10. The MiG-23ML was created as a temporary measure and the candidate promising the MiG-29. The new fighter could actually make it easier to 1250 kg. compared with the MiG-23M. With all this he has been truncated (forkil almost came to nothing), the length of the fuselage was reduced because designers abandoned the 4th fuel tank. Despite the fact that the total amount of fuel was reduced to 4,300 liters., By reducing the weight and drag design range managed to keep the same. New engines have increased maneuverability fighter, providing him a very excellent overclocking features (for a given parameter MiG-23ML even surpassed South American F-16).
One of the fundamentally innovation that significantly increment combat abilities machine, was the introduction of SOUA — limiting system of angles of attack. With the introduction of such a system the pilot could fly without fear of failure plane in a tailspin, and the very use of the existing potential maneuverable fighter. In this system cut one cylinder with a rod, which pushed the control forward specifically at a time when the fighter went to the limit for this mode of flight angle of attack. Was growing faster than the angle of attack, the previously tripped the mechanism, making it impractical for dynamic cast fighter outrageous angles of attack. Immediately the plane MiG23ML same system appeared on the machines MiG-23UM and MiG-27.
One of the places feeble MiG-23ML was his radar "Sapphire-23ML." In the main mode of the radar survey, the detection range of enemy aircraft was 50-55 km. in manual mode and up to 85 km. the automatic hover off the ground. On the basis of this, during the Arab-Israeli conflict and the war in Iraq when guiding fighters from the ground, it was unrealistic (difficult interference or absent altogether), the enemy, who had a fighter F-16 and F-15, received at the time of rapprochement with the MiG-23ML advantage . Due to the established in the American fighters improved radar before they found the enemy at a distance of 60-70 km. At the same time, target acquisition radar MiG-23 produced only from a distance of 30-50 km. in the frontal hemisphere.
The MiG-23ML series was done for the needs of the Soviet Air Force from 1976 to 1981, the construction of the aircraft for export was carried out until 1985. According to the views of front-line pilots, some of them to war in the Middle East, the MiG-23ML has basically could call vsepolnotsennym, truly combat fighter.
Description of construction
The MiG-23ML — it vysokoplan holding variable-sweep wing and all-moving horizontal tail. The fuselage is semi-monocoque design. His nose sealed compartment includes electrical equipment and radar, the front landing gear compartment and the cockpit. Over the cockpit are vozduhopoglotiteli, fuel tank number 1, the equipment compartment and a compartment gun, the main power compartment he is number 2 fuel tank, engine compartment and tank number three. The tail part of the fighter has 4 sections of the air brakes, afterburner and feathering hinge assemblies.
Lantern cockpit contains a visor with electro-PIC and the hinged portion curb pneumatic drive. In order to prevent misting lamp inside the perimeter of the lower part are mounted hot air blower pipe which is here supplied from the compressor motor. For the ventilation of the cockpit while on duty or on the ground taxiing on the runway canopy can be raised to 100 mm. Review of the pilot reversed by creating a special periscope — viewing device TC-27AMLU, which is fixed to the fold of the flashlight. Inside the cockpit on the frontal arc of the swing are two mirrors that are designed to review wing fighter planes.
The aircraft wing contains the 2nd turning trapezoidal console and motionless part (sweep angle on the front edge of the wing 70 degrees). Immobility of the wing contains two compartments: front, in what are oxygen cylinders station antenna warning receiver, mounting elements of the pylons, the respondent state identification system "friend or foe" and the central compartment, which acts as the main load-bearing element of the wing. Specifically, the console attached to it, and once he is with this capacity to store fuel. Wing panel MiG-23ML is a two-spar. The vertical tail plane includes own composition rudder, keel, ventral ridge. Fighter tricycle landing gear, ensures operation of the machine with concrete and dirt runways. In the case of a landing at speeds up to 320 km / h can be applied brake parachute PT-10370-65.
The power plant of the MiG-23ML has afterburning turbojet engine P-35-300. Vozduhopoglotiteli aircraft side, adjustable wedges with variable configuration. Area of the inlet section vozduhopoglotiteley maximum when the landing gear and low at supersonic flight conditions. System start the engine fighter on the ground autonomous from the turbine starter TC-11. During the flight, the motor is running from an autorotation, huge altitudes to start the motor apply makeup oxygen.
The fuel system consists of a fighter 3 (on previous models fighter 4) fuselage and 4 (previously — 6) wing fuel tanks, compartments. Total volume of 4300 liters of fuel. In this implementation may be 3 PTB 1 ventral capacity of 800 liters. And 2 underwing to 480 liters. As the fuel the plane uses jet fuel following brands: T-1, TS-1 and RT. Centralized fueling pressure for all fuel tanks mounted apart, is produced by filling a sink node located on the left side of the aircraft. With all of this probable and open filling their fuel tanks through the filler neck.
Plane equip fire-fighting equipment, which includes its own composition of a fire alarm system that includes 5 ionization sensors located in the engine compartment and the fire suppression system, which is a 3-liter extinguisher UBSH DX-3-1 and the collector-expander. Aircraft to equip air-conditioning system, which is used to maintain a good temperature and pressure in the cockpit and avionics compartments certain. At an altitude up to 2000 meters of cabin fighter freely ventilated
, then the differential pressure rises evenly, reaching at an altitude of 9-12 km. magnitude of 0.3 kgf / cm ', this value is maintained until the merits of a practical ceiling plane flight.
Armament includes a 23-mm automatic gun GSH-23L (200 rounds ammo, rate of 3,400 rounds / min). Additionally likely setting for the MiG-23ML 2-such as guns in special containers UPK-23/250 gun with 250 rounds. For the destruction of air targets aircraft can be used up to 2 medium-range missiles R-23R (with semi-active radar homing), R-24R (radio command and semi-active radar homing), R-23T with thermal homing head, P-24T (CBC) which are hung motionless on the wing. As a short-range weapon used by the 2nd thermal UR R-13M, R-13M1 or 4th R-60 or R-60M on the ventral hardpoints.
RAC "MiG" for the purpose of full disclosure of significant potential front-line MiG-23 fighter-bombers and MiG-27 fighter aircraft modernization program from done, which takes into account the special requirements of different customers. These applets divine setting to fighter a number of new avionics systems, also expanding the range of weapons used by the introduction of new models. Brand new weapon control system aircraft may be based on the basis of functional radar or include in your own makeup additional system that is meant to instruct modern radio correction SD "air-to-air" and for the formation flying mission.
The structure of the avionics upgraded fighter can be included modern display system disk imaging, including functional screen and display on the windshield, helmet-mounted target designation system pilot. Undergo modernization and communication and navigation systems, video recording, jamming, recording, monitoring and processing of incoming flight disk imaging.
In the arms of the upgraded fighters can be included modern missiles such as the RVV-AE, R-73E and F-27R1. At the request of the customer fighter can be adapted to the use of guided missiles "air-to-air" and "air-to-ground" of other types.
Flight and technical properties of the MiG-23ML:
Dimensions Wingspan — 14.10 / 7.78 m, the length of the fighter — 16,7 m, height — 5.0 m
Wing Area — 37.27 / 34.16 m. m
Normal take-off weight of the aircraft — 15 600 kg., The highest take-off — 20,100 lbs.
The supplies of fuel — 4300 liters.
Motor type — two P-35 turbofans, thrust unforced — 8850 kgs., Afterburner — 13,000 kgs.
The highest speed — 2500 km / h
Operational range — up to 1,450 km.
Ferry range — 2,360 km. with 3 drop tanks.
Service ceiling — 17,700 m
Crew — 1 person.
Armament: January 23-mm gun GSH-23L, the combat load of up to 2,000 kg., On 5 hardpoints.
Sources disk imaging:
Museum in Le Bourget