The design of the widely used carbon composites and polymer composites, whose share of the total weight is about 30%.
In place of the comprehensive application of composites, a few years ago, it seemed the most promising structural materials came reasonable sufficiency — in practice it is difficult to include such details in the power structure, the organization is complicated joints and transmission of forces and prevents their use in extremely low maintainability at ondamage. Changed fibers almost beyond repair in normal conditions, causing the entire unit to be replaced, and limiting their use of whole parts of small dimensions. The design of the MFI of the composites fabricated panels of the wing, canards, manhole covers and sash.
Aluminum-lithium alloys are 35% steel and titanium — 30%, even 5% is aboutChiyo materials (rubber, glass, etc.).
Supersonic cruise must provide two AL-41F turbofans. Engines equipped with rotary nozzles have a maximum afterburning thrust at 14,000 kgs own dry weight 1585-1600 kg. In normal takeoff weight of the aircraft they provide the thrust of the order of 1.3. Assigned resource AL-41F to first repair is 1000 hours, a resource moving parts nozzles — 250 hours. Engines were full amount of flight tests on the flying laboratory MiG-25 (flight 306). The maximum speed of MFI was to be M = 2.6, and the continuous cruising, achieved without the inclusion of the afterburner — M = 1.4-1.6. Afterburner mode is seen as a short-term battle with the enemy will catch up or providing a tactical advantage.
The aircraft is equipped with a ventral air intake divided into two sections (each serves its own engine). Air intakes are adjustable upper and lower horizontal wedge deflectable lip for smooth control of the flow at the inlet. The design of the input device has side slants and vertical central wedge. Equipment provided 1.44-flight refueling system.
The lower air intake is beneficial and requirements for high maneuverability characteristics, avoiding the disruption of the flow during intense maneuvers with access to large angles of attack and turns. Subject to the same aerodynamic configuration "duck" with high load-bearing properties. In addition, the CHR performs damping function when entering the critical angles.
-Lift — two-piece deflected socks, two pairs of ailerons and flaperons occupying almost all the leading and trailing edges, is connected to a digital-by-wire control system, which controls the behavior of statically unstable machine. Its characteristics make it possible to achieve this symbiosis of the airframe, engines with thrust vector control and on-board equipment while simplifying the work of the pilot, increasing the sensitivity of the control and preventing the machine from entering the extreme and outrageous modes. Total aircraft has seven pairs of control surfaces, including such non-traditional as rudders and keels on the lower "flippers" in the wing roots.
Reducing the radar visibility, achieved in general, the layout features of the aircraft and its radio-coated surfaces in 1.44 can be assessed only by specific structural solutions that reduce the ESR and the shield certain particularly notable in this spectrum units. The coatings are not necessary for the primary flight tests, the aircraft does not carry. Onby the overall layout with smooth contours, including a flattened oval cross-section fuselage, secrecy promotes internal deployment of weapons and shelter compressor engines also produce noticeable "spikes" during irradiation. Leading to them air passages are S-shaped. The gaps on joints ailerons, flaps, rudders and wings are made minimal. The same low-key technology is subject to installation and spaced fins on the wing with the collapse outwards 15 °.
However, a number of decisions, even if belonging to the individual needs of 1.44, does not fit well in the modern ideas on ways to reduce the ESR: lower keels, playing the role of corner reflectors, neglect proven organization sawtooth edges of covers and panels, angular joints fins, wings and fuselage, the presence of fairing the same "corners."
The movable part of a lamp at the opening rises up to the 2-arm with simultaneous slight shift back. Such kinematics can significantly reduce the effort, the need for open (with a thickness of 10 mm cover glass weighs more than 150 kg) and facilitate its drive.
Tricycle landing gear with nose wheel. Nasal rack with two wheels 620×180 retracted back to the flow. Because of the tight layout in the air intake, it fits into a niche not fully and closing its two doors are convex trough-shaped form. The main landing to the amortization of various types are removed in advance. They are low-pressure wheels 1030×320 with vented brakes. Using the wheels of the same type as the Su-25 and Su-27, due to the desire to simplify the design of the prototype.
1.44 weaponry can not be held, however, reserved compartments and laid nodes to install it. It was assumed that the fighter will be built-in 30-mm cannon with extended switching distance of effective fire, and its loophole will be closed by the movable sash to reduce radar formetnosti and the requirements of high-speed flight. In the inner compartment of 1.44 was supposed to put on the ejection units, most types of existing missiles "air-to-air" and "air-to-ground", as well as specially created for MFIs air combat missiles 5th generation.
Heavy missiles, bombs and hanging pots were suspended for three pairs of under-wing holders, components of which are laid in the design of the wing. However, embodiments of the external load is not the core, increasing the visibility and allowing you to make a supersonic flight.
1.44 did not carry the full range of targeting and navigation equipment, limited only by the necessary piloting systems (this explains the small cone contingency radar, and some of the "radio-" fairings, such as "caps" keels on the first machine just made up). At the same time, complex aggregates were refinement, including flying and laboratories. The aircraft was supposed to install Doppler radar 5th generation phased-array, which allows to track more than 20 targets and simultaneously attack the 6 and the optical sighting equipment and infrared channels to detect, track and target acquisition in low visibility. The use of such equipment shall be considered as a priority under the terms of stealth (radar plane provides a powerful radiation).
To organize radar rearview and side station jamming envisaged compartments in the keel beam.
Much attention was paid to automate tasks, particularly significant in the internal placement of weapons hidden in the compartment when the missile seeker need external target designation from the aircraft until the moment of launch. In co-pilot and the machine fully realize the principles of "see-beat" and "fire-and-forget".
Preliminary work on the creation of a heavy fifth-generation fighter for the Air Force and Air Defense and intended primarily to rep
lace the Su-27 and, in part, the MiG-31, began in late 1979, when broadly defined priorities in the requirements for the fighter of the future . They were to be the following areas:
multifunctionality is supposed to be possible under the actions of air and ground targets;
low visibility in all spectra (visual, radar, thermal and electromagnetic);
maneuverability, which contemplates the realization of non-traditional methods and tactical air combat elements, and expand the range of possible flight modes without going to the brink of collapse and the stall;
supersonic cruising speed, allowing for a vigorous manner of aerial combat, the imposition of the initiative to the enemy and rapid response to changing tactical situation.
Preliminary similarities fighter who has received a temporary code CB "product 5.12", took shape in the early '80s. The name for the secrecy was given by analogy with what was used in the working documents for the MiG-29, with a further refinement of the modification (9.12, 9.13, 9.15, etc.). Thus, even if accidental leakage of information giving the impression that it is about one of the options "twenty-ninth." The general theme of leadership exercised by the General Designer Rostislav Belyakov, chief designer was appointed Georgy Sedov (in 1997 it was replaced by Yuri collars).
Meanwhile, there were reports of almost parallel to the unfolding of American works on a project-term tactical fighter ATF (Advanced Tactical Fighter). Without delay a decision on the state level held and we have — Closed joint resolution of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, adopted in 1986, stipulated milestones, timelines and responsible program IFI — multirole fighter. Leading aviation research institute, the Defense Ministry and Air Force with KB formed a conceptual image of the new fighter, on the basis of which the Air Force has formulated clear terms of reference for the perspective plane.
Its design was based on the in all the same formula "three Cs", but her priorities have changed:
supersonic cruising speed;
Implementation is quite contradictory requirements demanded a large amount of research. The shift in focus has resulted in significant differences IFI scheme from previous generation fighters, just come into service: had to give up the integrated layout, greatly increases the midsection and is contrary to the requirements of supersonic cruise, the wing has lost and gained an influx of positive cross «V», proposed new control surfaces, which had yet to find a name. However, MFIs, according to one of the constructors viewed "evolved MiG-25" — high-speed fighter, "grown up" to a new level. The aerodynamic concept of the IFIs worked through in TsAGI commended for their implementation of the following solutions:
a "duck", favorable both in terms of maneuverability, as well as the best carrier options from the back centering, statically unstable;
large wing area and a triangular shape with a sweep on the leading edge of 40-45 °;
A thrust engines to improve take-off performance and providing super maneuverability;
ventral adjustable air intake for optimal supersonic and subsonic, and at low speeds and high angles of attack and has a lower radar signature for due to the "shadowing" on top of the fuselage;
internal or conformal placement of weapons.
Preliminary design of the future fighter was performed by specialists OKB. Mikoyan in his 1985 feature was the fact that it was carried out in 2-parts — by multifunctional front-line fighter and air defense fighter, dubbed the IFIs and the easy front-line fighter — PRL. With all of this involves a high degree of commonality between the two aircraft. In 1986, MSW them. Mikoyan jointly with the other works successfully defended a preliminary design of the aircraft IFIs and PRL, winning the competition against EDO im.Suhogo. In the same year, issued a joint party and government decree, according to which the MMP them. Mikoyan was entrusted to the development of MFIs in the "weight category" Su-27.
After passing the mock-up committee approving the appearance of IFI refinement and clarification of his scheme continued. The first drawings to the "product 5.12" has been released in 1986, but the original version of (the term adopted in practice, CB, I mean in the next version aboutprocess of creating the machine) has undergone significant changes. In addition to attracting mathematical tool and a huge amount of wind tunnel of TsAGI, research was "the product 5.12" for large-scale controlled flying models.
Dumped from a helicopter a half-ton four-meter suspension "five" youwent to the extreme regimes, demonstrating the behavior and control of future car at supercritical angles of attack and master the technique of helping out of the dangerous conditions.
Because of the secrecy topics tested were conducted in the steppes of the landfill NICK Air Force under the Aktobe. Flights held in conjunction solely to the "windows" between spans Western intelligence satellites, and the models had on the background terrain masking yellow-green color. Instructed to pick them up in a few minutes after landing.
These tests did not go smoothly, failure analysis and accident after a "controlled fall" were common, but their information pays for films telemetry and flight recorders, here marching in the case. Entries allowed to judge the effectiveness of those or other decisions, they studied the test pilots who have received a unique opportunity ahead of time to evaluate the behavior of the aircraft of the future — especially in hazardous conditions. In flights of models with conventional mechanical control is by 1990 was achieved without sustainable behavior tendency to stall at 60 ° angles and spin characteristics, and eligible for machines "sustainable" schemes. In itself, this was promising, because previously it was thought that a statically unstable aircraft like the layout, the control system is not equipped with an artificial preservation of stability, almost uncontrollable.
On the basis of ongoing trials and the search to change the design. Innovations, sometimes substantial, implemented and assembled at the factory when the first prototype of the KB. Work on it began in 1989, already under the code "Project 1.42". By 1994, the project has undergone 6 th editions, four of which have been tested for flying model.
Originally planned to equip aircraft engines with flat nozzles that reduce radar signature and screening drives turbines. However, such a design, at first glance a simple, proved difficult to realize due to the poor distribution of temperature fields in the "box" nozzle in the transition from round to rectangular, which threatened to burn-out of the walls. The transition to a flat nozzles had to be postponed, and in the meantime succeeded in dvigatelisty thrust vector control by rejecting the usual round-controlled nozzles, and in 1991 they were introduced to the main edition.
MFI wing with a straight leading edge without an influx differed from become common on previous generation fighters. The formation of vortices flowing front edges and positively affecting the stability of the (academic TSAGI Byushgens metaphorically compared them to "the rails on which the slide plane without failing at high angles"), designed to carry the beam mounting of CHR, the
location of which had to carefully select an experimental way — from their installation, thickness and elevation above the wing depends on the optimal flow of demolition and gathering vortices forming flow wing. This is especially important for adaptive wing structure when working together deviating socks and flaperons changes the picture flow, "Fitting" wing to the flight regime.
The task was daunting: the first two editions with a "clean" PGO changed the order in which the blades of CHR (the term "stabilizer" has lost its meaning, because the canard IFI essentially performs other functions) were impressive vortex generating tooth. In practice, such a decision KB has already been used in improving the MiG-23 — then equipped it with a tooth of the wing, and then the center-influx, which has a positive impact on maneuverability.
The corresponding transformation and underwent placement of weapons. The variants of the internal gruzootsekah at the top of the fuselage, where the missiles were thrown out after the opening of the valves would hydropneumatic pushers (design, having worked on the MiG-31, but with a ventral semi-recessed seating). Such an arrangement has promised some advantages, making it easy to grip and trigger on vysheletyaschim goals and maneuvering with overdrive. However, it inevitably led to problems in the operation — to rise to four-meter height of the rocket mass, even in the lightest P-73m exceeds 100 kg, while the long-range missiles reached 300-400 kg, would require special cranes and scaffolds for each aircraft — too expensive, bulky and completely unacceptable for domestic practice solution. As a result, weapons bay took the position at the bottom of the fuselage, where the rocket with the known simple tools can be hung directly from the trucks.
IFI had to get a new generation of radar with a phased antenna array. Such a structure consisting of many small modules, each of which is a separate miniizluchatelem, has a greater speed and efficiency than conventional radar antenna rotating mirror, less complex mechanically and more resistant to damage. A novelty in the complex weapons are radar "protect the tail" with the discovery of the enemy in the rear hemisphere and targeting missiles, including a reverse start that run back on the flight (this method was worked out for missiles R-60 and R-73).
Meanwhile, the construction of the prototype problems, was more significant than the inevitable difficulties in the new case of designers and engineers. By the end of 1991, all the Soviet military-industrial complex with a sweep entered a severe crisis. "Defense" has lost its former privileged status dramatically reduced the allocated funds, companies and design left many knowledgeable professionals.
Add to this defaults and violations of economic ties, which was an attempt to overcome the association Mikoyan pilot plant at KB (ANPK MIG) and MAPE, and since 1996 — also included in the VPK MAPO 12 related businesses, as well as "Aviabank." Harnessed "in one cart" heterogeneous structure of the problem, however, is not decided. Financial and Operational focus of the new leadership is not the best way affected the lives KB, not adapted to the short-term impact. "Defense" in Soviet times could serve as an example of economical use of resources, and now new opportunities at times led to the disappearance of money with no return.
For this was the IFIs chilling effect: Marks on specific articles finances "dissolved" in the bowels of the MIC and the adjacent structures, while construction machinery at times felt faint. Arose from the fighter's "dispute" to reach other times of the president, but the work continued or shaky, or rolls. It happened, for example, when installing a control system for which the Nizhny Novgorod plant "Gidromash" did not agree to put residences servos. Remained understaffed, and other systems that had to conserve. Do not get along with the new leadership, left the company test pilot Michael Kvochur, which was to be on the leading MFIs.
Eventually the plane, although not equipped yet part of the units, in early 1994, was transferred to FRI. In December, it was performed the first high-speed taxiing with a margin pillar. Once this has occurred, "the era of stagnation." Collecting dust in the plane hangar, and its display, the expected year after year, all the while putting off under specious pretexts. The vacuum was filled stingy information company representatives and MAP, confirming the existence of a new fighter aircraft (which in itself was unusual, even with the advent of glasnost — the presence Sukhovsky C-37 is not a word was said right before his first flight).
Air Show at Le Bourget in June 1995, Deputy General Designer Anatoly Belosvet said the company expects to 1.42 show at an exhibition in Zhukovsky. However, the demonstration then canceled just hours before the opening of the MAKS-95, explaining that the prohibition of war, although the wet-paint the aircraft was ready for rollout. In the secret area hangar only allowed leadership of the Ministry of Defence and the government.
Press Service, compensating for a failed event, extended interview Rostislav Belyakov, which said that 1.42 was created in response to the American program of the ATF, as CB "firmly adhere to the relevant characteristics of the project requirements of the Air Force." As a result, MFIs had to be not only equal to the American fighter, and "beat him on a number of characteristics." The last statement on the already hard who flew American aircraft then become almost a ritual, repeating year after year.
Meanwhile, the IFI was officially mentioned again March 21, 1996 show at the training MiG-AT. General Director of MAPO-MiG Vladimir Kuzmin announced that, subject to adequate funding, the new fighter could be raised in the air "in six months." Demonstration of 1.42 and was expected at the MAKS-97, was transferred from the day or for a day, but in the end did not take place again.
As a result, the program has become more and more MFIs to lag behind the U.S. ATF. And further delay was possible. His role was played by the success of its neighbors and competitors: September 25, 1997 suhovtsy lifted into the air its own tactical fighter prototype P.37 "Berkut". Finally, after much delay, the decision was made to demonstrate the IFIs, though flightless, in conjunction with the show to the 60th anniversary of the company.
Showing the aircraft took place on 12 January 1999, LII, which was invited to a lot of journalists, military attaches of foreign countries and a solid contingent of local dignitaries, including members of the government, on which depended the fate of 1.42. Among the guests were in Zhukovsky, Russian Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev, Air Force Commander Anatoly Kornukov, Economy Minister Andrei Shapoval'yants and assistant to the president Yevgeny Shaposhnikov.
Just behind the show held a press conference. Questions are answered not only the CEO AIPC "MiG" Mikhail Korzhuev and chief designer Yuri collars, and government representatives. If OKB expressed confidence in the success and the reality of the stated characteristics, the ministers of defense and the economy were more reserved, vaguely saying the financing of tests.
In the presence of distinguished guests OKB were in a difficult situation: all call features and advantages of the fighter is not "punch through the air," sounded as if he were confirmed in practice, a
nd the presentation of the very first prototype acquired with the filing of the nature of some of those present "sales" did not really equipped cars. Fuel to the fire poured subsequent newspaper articles, absolutely illiterate and often wore the character outright persecution.
At the same time, the very first publication with detailed descriptions and photos "MiG 1.42" appeared for the day before the official show in American aviation weekly "Aviation Week & Space Technology" on January 11, 1999.
February 29, 2000 the first plane off the ground. The test flight took place on the flight-testing and honing base (Lee and SB), located at the airport Flight Research Institute. Gromov in Zhukovsky near Moscow. The flight, which lasted 18 minutes (from 11:25 for 11:43 Moscow time), was held in full compliance with the job. The plane you scoredwiththat about 1,000 m, made two circles over the airport at a speed of 500-600 km / h, and then successfully completed the landing.
April 27, 2000 made a 1.44 second 22-minute test flight. In flight was checked and the number of aircraft propulsion systems, in addition, in contrast to the first flight in a fighter plane produced and removed the chassis.
As for the plane, it showed a pattern somewhat different from Project 1.42 in its bundled version. Therefore, the first flight model of the IFIs was built by "the product 1.44" with a well-defined and rather narrow target destination — evaluation of the aircraft in the air, the definition of the features of its behavior and handling, as well as "break-in" of new engines.
At the moment, work on the project stopped.