Mina top

New technologies and principles allow a mine not just passively wait for the target, and assault the enemy with the most unexpected directions — for example, from the top.

The famous German Panzer General Guderian believed that the main danger to the tank is the enemy tank, followed by anti-tank gun, on the 3rd — anti-tank mines. Planes in the fourth place, if the mines out of action for about 23% of tanks, the aircraft — only 4%.

In an effort to protect against anti-tank guns, the designers have made thicker armor tanks, artillery responded to that caliber and increasing the speed of the projectile (first second world thickness of armor usually does not exceed 15-20 mm, and the caliber of guns — 45 mm, and at the end of the war thickness of armor headed for 200 mm anti-tank guns and caliber — 100 mm or more). Now armor tanks for its protective properties equivalent to 500-750 and even 850 mm, and the penetration of anti-tank missiles (ATGM) increased to 900-1000 mm. Aside from this race did not go and anti-tank mines.

Hit bottom

Anti-tank mines from the beginning were aimed at the most vulnerable points of the tank — the chassis, and a bottom side.

First, the second anti-tank mines in the middle of the world dominated protivogusenichnye. All other types were presented only with 2 standards — Russian protivodnischevoy mine AKC and Russian protivobortovoy LMG.

Despite the fact that the weight of the warhead anti-tank mines during the war and post-war period has increased from 2 kg to 10 kg, and even more rarely protivogusenichnaya mine output tank down one hundred percent. Often suffers only chassis, which can be returned. This event is also the success of the mine facilities (mine sweepers) resulted in the development of protivodnischevyh min. These mines destroy a tank, and not just temporarily disable it. Well, an explosive charge can be significantly less — because he is required only to break through a very narrow bottom armor.

And yet remained common to all mines "Achilles' heel": mine is a mine field, and its purpose sensors — devices that detect the tank and the outstanding team at undermining the mines — are installed or at the most a mine, or close to it. Meanwhile, were made by the new mine sweepers, which forced mines operate without waiting for the approximation of the tank. In this case, make such trawls easier than push the device against protivogusenichnyh min. If the target sensor protivodnischevoy mine is a pin sticking out of the ground, it is quite stretched between rollers trawl chain, so she forced the mine blown up in advance. Even easier to fool the magic of mine-explosive technology second half of the XX century — magnetic fuzes. Quite attached to the frontal armor of the tank a couple of induction coils, powered by the power-supply, and they create a magnetic field in front of the tank, which will force a mine blown up in advance.

Attack from the flank

The creators of mines had to send back its own view on the side of the tank, especially because there is already a very effective hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers. It only remained to equip them with the appropriate sensors goals that would react to the tank and provide instructions for a shot grenade launcher. Specifically arranged so Russian mine TM-73, M24 and M66 South American, British Adder. A similar scheme of arrangement eliminates the need for anti-tank mines in a minefield. Mina (grenade launcher) can be set aside, at a distance of 200 m from the minefield. The standard equipment of the mines was 2 sensors goal. 1st — seismic, or geophones — to reveal the approach of the tank on the waves of shaking or by sound waves traveling in the ground. 2nd sensor goal, which cut one team first sensor — infrared, pinpoint the tank for heat engine. Management System mines could only find the most profitable time and command the shot grenade launcher.

And yet protivobortovye mines have some significant shortcomings. First, he shot grenade launcher does not mean the defeat of mandatory tank. Grenade can carry off course the wind, the speed of the tank may prove to be very large or very malehankih. Pineapple can proparhat behind or in front of the tank and do not perform their own tasks. In addition, mines have to disguise, so even bother about that on the flight path grenade was not interference (shrub, the highest grass, various objects) that can knock down a grenade with the course or result in premature explosion. It is clear that to put a mine can only manually.

These shortcomings could partly overcome by replacing the grenade EFP (so, for example, is made in Russian mine protivobortovoy TM-83). The flight speed of supersonic shock core, his flight is not affected by weather conditions and little interference in the form of grass or bushes.

But after a tank can not go in the direction expected by the miners. What did give you? The views of designers have turned anti-tank mines … to the sky. That's perfect place to put the mines! The projection of the largest tank top. Armor roof is the narrowest. Thermal emission engine — the most measured. Means it is best and easiest to hit a tank top.

But for a long time to keep mine in the sky unreal, and yet sometimes she has to wait own hours for months. Means it must be placed in the ground. In the ground, but strikes from the top? Phenomenon?

Russian protivobortovaya mine TM-83 shooting at the tank on the side of EFP

Flesh-eating hornet

Apparently, the first prototype of such mines should be considered a South American mine WAM M93 Hornet («Hornet"). Working out of her began in 1986. Since the intention was to create four versions of this mine and the nature of its actions on the target was very different from all previously recognized, they were united by a common title Family of Wide Area Munitions (WAM), in an exemplary translation into Russian — "The family of ammunition, having a significant zone of control" .

The first member of the family — HE-WAM. It's mine, installed and driven into the firing position by hand. Revolving translate into harmless provision is not provided, but mine has a system of self-destruction.

HE-Hornet PIP # 1 — improved, more expensive version: this mine can be switched to non-dangerous position with the radio transmitter and reset. Third option — HE-Hornet PIP # 2 — is able to detect not only the tanks, and light wheeled vehicles. And in the end the fourth — DA-Hornet: this mine can be set using rockets or aircraft. Time combat operation mines, weighing about 16 kg — up to 30 days, then it self-destructs.

The idea to use such mines tempting, since the defeat of the tank is guaranteed. But having begun work on a mine in 1986, the Americans were able to bring it to the end only in 1997. Tests conducted in September 1997 on the ground in Arizona, showed that all is not as rosy far — from 6 minutes, only three responded to the T-72, only one of them hit the target. Subsequent tests revealed a significant effect on combat duty minute low and high temperatures, strong winds (greater than 5 m / s), snow, rain, smoke or dust.

Taxpayers development and the ready the first batch of these mines will cost $ 800 million thus, despite the almost complete failure of the test, it is planned to purchase 15,259 minutes (one piece is worth about $ 52,400). By the end of 2005 programm tests have not finished, but in June of 1999 in the South American Field Manual FM 20-32 this mine was listed as a munition comprising the U.S. Army.

The Russian version

And what about our homeland? Our engineers are also working on th
e idea of defeat enemy tanks on top, but they went in a different direction to discover how politicians love to read, "asymmetrical response". Russian army is now in no position to buy mine at $ 52,000 apiece, and even pay for their development. But "necessity is the mother of invention" — because it was found normal, intelligent and affordable solution.

On the international show of means of defense and security (Russian Defense Expo-2001), held in July 2001 at the site "Prospector" Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metal tests, the Capital Research Institute of Machine Building THEM showed ordnance such purpose, which is officially called the "Engineering ammunition with cluster warhead to destroy groups of troops and light armored vehicles M-225. "

M-225 is provided with a combined sensor target comprising seismic, thermal and magnetic sensors. If a mine is in alert status, then the invasion of target detection area (radius of 150-250 m) sensors inform the control panel on the disposition of the object (person, vehicle), the number of goals, speed and direction of travel, distance to the affected area. Remote control processes incoming signals and sends the operator tips: min advisable to undermine what specific mines are standing on alert purposefully undermine many mines are in the passive mode, purposefully placed in a mode of combat duty. If the goals are directly in the affected areas a few minutes, you are given advice on what they should be of particular undermine it.
It is curious that this round is actually being an anti / antivehicle mine is not subject to any yurispundentsiyu the Ottawa Convention or Protocol II-th Geneva Convention. Its title is no word "mine" (it is "engineering munition"). Moreover, according to Article 2 of the Ottawa Convention, "'mine' means a munition designed to be placed under, on or near the land surface of the earth or other surface area and to be exploded by the presence, proximity or the specific effects of human-moving or the means." And this mine explodes by the operator — as it can be considered
big gun — say, "stationary mortar caliber 600 mm." By the way, it's not hard to make out of control. Quite a turn away from the control panel and the operator and attach it to the control unit sets of anti-personnel mines "Hunting" (or even a simple fuse MSY with pull wire) and a couple of snack provodochki in the sensor unit. Cope with this at least some combat engineer sergeant.

Mines: the rise or decline?

In these days of repeated situation that took place before the second world war. Then the mines as a weapon underestimated, they did not pay any attention, and in the course of the war in haste had to urgently develop the applicable standards of minutes, quickly learning the personnel, and with all this to bear huge losses due to the inability to cover their positions these simple, but a very effective tool.

Forced to the modern development of military technology and, specifically, the presence of high-precision cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions to abandon the mines? Almost.

"… Future fight — it's the highest speed, huge area, but relatively small army — says the British military historian Mike Kroll. — The ability to quickly close the mines area and destroy the enemy with little financial and labor costs will be crucial to the defense.

The role of the mines will be expanded to such an extent that its original form will be slightly recognizable. No longer requires the victim of a mine stepped on a physical level, the mine itself will find its target — a tank, a helicopter, maybe even a jet plane or satellite — and deploys in her direction their deadly warhead. Modern electronics and new ways of searching for targets can increment efficiency min. Technical capacity will be limited minutes coming just diabolical ingenuity of man. "

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