Prevention of mastitis — give birth and breastfeed!

Chief mammolog Moscow:

The diagnosis of "breast cancer" risks heard in the course of his life, every eighth woman. Thus, if the diagnosis is put on time, 94% of patients recover completely. But many people simply do not know what it means "time." 42% of women with breast cancer seek treatment only at the last stage of the disease when life is hanging by a thread.

This reporter spoke with the chief mammologist Moscow Health Committee, honored doctorRussia, the candidate of medical sciencesEvsey Grigorevichem Pinhosevichem.

— Evsej G., recently about breast cancer too much noise. What is this, some Epidemic?

— No, the epidemic we do not talk. But now all over the world, including in our state is actually observed increase in incidence — about 3% annually. The second reason — certainly improved diagnostics. Diagnosis of course does not affect the incidence. But we have to detect the disease at an earlier stage. Because of The number of people who take on the account, can grow a little faster. For example, in the first years after we started in Moscow actively working in this direction, we have increased the incidence of5-7%.

— And what is this job?

— In Moscow, since 1998, in accordance with the decision of the Government of Moscow and the order of the Department of Health in Moscow, held sub-program "Preventive screening of the female population of Moscow in order to identify the various breast diseases." Once every two years for women between 40 and 60 years old are subject to preventive screening mammography — a special x-ray machine, designed for the study of mammary glands.

— How exactly do you attract women to this study?

— Usually, when therapists or sister attending the precinct apartment, they are invited to a mammogram. Furthermore, when woman gets to the clinic — for whatever reason — it is also directed to these studies.

— There is an opinion that screening is not much more effective than self-study. Because even if mammography revealed a tumor at an early stage, it is still at this stage is not treated.

— No, that's not true. We have in the past year were operated about 100 women with non-palpable tumors — thatthere is with this, which can not be detected by self-hands.

— But you said yourself that the equipment is expensive. Maybe it's better to train a million women self-examination than a thousand women check on this machine?

— Skills Training We also attach great importance. Publish a special pamphlet which gives details about it. But we must understand that when a tumor palpable — it is already big enough. But the smaller the tumor, the greater the opportunity to make sparing surgery when removing a small lesion.

— So you think that the Russian government should develop a screening program?

— Yes, it is the state. Such as it was in the USSR Photo X-rays of the chest for the detection of tuberculosis.

— If we continue the analogy: the USSR was a powerful network of tuberculosis dispensaries. Your center used to be called "Breast dispensary" — and he was the only one in this country. What is the role it plays in the overall system of breast cancer diagnosis in the capital?

— We have been established in Moscow on a three-level system diagnostics. First woman goes to the local clinic, where she was doing after examining mammography X-ray room. The second level — district mammography department. And finally, if needed quite complex studies to determine if some small changes — they are referred to our center. Imagine what it is: you get a needle in thetumor the size of half a centimeter. We now have a digital device, where the needle is calculated on the computer.

So in Moscow this whole system is well developed. But it took three decades …

— How do you feel about the other types of breast cancer? Say, for mammoscintigraphy?

— I belong to these methods as additional. Basic, fundamental method for the study of women over 35 years yet is an X-ray mammography. Younger women, we sometimes aim at ultrasound — is also used as an auxiliary method for differential diagnosis, for example, to distinguish between benign tumor and cyst.

— Is it possible to reduce the incidence of other ways? Eliminate themselves causes of breast cancer?

— The causes of cancer are many. Butthere is Explicit risk. First, it is the women who for direct maternal line was cancer breast cancer.

Second — women who have abortions up to 18 years. We talk a lot about it, but to make people we can not. When the girl became pregnant at age 16, she usually does not care about what happened to her will through 10-20 years.

The third risk group — women with certain forms of mastitis. Generally mastitis is almost every woman. But there are so-called "glandular" forms, such patients we take on clinical examination.

The next factor — breast-feeding. Who went to a fashion: the less a woman is nursing, the better for her. But not for her breasts! Breast-feeding is necessary because it causes mammary glands to work to fulfill their physiological functions. By the way, the same applies to families — our grandmothers gave birth to a lot more, and they had fewer problems with tumors.

And another risk group, which today, unfortunately, more often contributes to the development of malignant tumors. This injury. Women who drive cars, often beating chest on the steering wheel. And those who travel in crowded buses and subway also get micro-trauma at the flea market. When micro-trauma one — it's nothing. But when they are constant, this contributes to the development of various diseases, including cancer.

— There is much debate about whether women tan without the top of the leotard.

— I believe that the direct sunlight on the breast can not be in any way useful. Especially when I see my colleagues and patients some mastitis — we speak out strongly against the deck under the direct sun. If you go to the beach — sitting under an umbrella. And when you go out to swim — wear a swimsuit. I'm not saying that everyone who sunbathe naked, absolutely sick with cancer. But the risk is increased.

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