Developing the ability to kill and defend accompanied the entire history of mankind. Fortunately, in the near future most of the weapons used only in exercises. Only their existence is already working as a deterrent. But the war, though possible, is an important stimulus for the development of technology and science. That’s why many of the new types of weapons and the development of the common information can be found even in the public domain. After analyzing them, «b» tried to imagine how to change the «art of war» in the coming 10-20 years.
Not a number, but the ability to
The main objective of all types of weapons — expansion of human capabilities. Sticks and stones increased strength and range of influence on each other first Homo sapiens. And the same purpose is served by the most modern varieties of hand tools. In this sector expect revolutions hard. Is that the introduction of new materials will allow to change the properties of existing weapons. However, a significant effect on this will not superior properties, and, express way, secondary, namely the possibility of detecting the existing control methods (X-rays). This has implications for faster sabotage units and terrorists than a standing army.
Development of weapons comes from two fronts. On the one hand, the human ability to constantly grow tanks, fighter planes and even aircraft carriers can be seen as tools that increase the efficiency of human acts. And, accordingly, reduced the need for manpower.
On the other hand, grew efficiency leads to an increase in the value of each fighter, not to mention the officers. Requirements for the protection of personnel constantly grow, because each party fighting depends increasingly and more. Because developing remedies. So bronekostyum «Warrior» protects 90% of the skin soldier from shrapnel and bullets min Kalashnikov. Since it covers the ultraviolet and infrared radiation that reduces the possibility of detection also using a night vision device.
The next step should be a fusion of protective equipment and weapons in the form of either an exoskeleton suit with integrated instrument, auxiliary systems, protection and life support systems. Concepts long we can follow different mind-blowing works: a mind-blowing novels described protective suits that make a person stronger and faster, have integrated night vision or even make it invisible. Well, comics and films such as «Man of Steel» showed us how they might look.
The main direction of the development of this equipment — facilitating miniaturization and systems. Suit «Fighter 21» weighs 36 kg, is a lot. The main task of the developers — lowering weight even up to 20-22 kg. By the way, weighs about as «Warrior». But it only protects the fighter while «Fighter 21» must have an integrated instrument and life support systems. What — not specified.
Modern technologies have allowed the miniaturization of many systems to the maximum, and host such a suit can be completely sewn into it so that people notice it just incase. But to work systems, and in particular gun will need a powerful power supply. And the occurrence of benign compact and massive akkuma or fuel cell will give significant impetus to the development of similar systems.
Exoskeleton HULC, developed by Lockheed Martin, increases the «carrying capacity» 90 kg person, and its speed of 11 km / h and at peak times and up to 16 km / h But its battery provides exoskeleton for 1 hour. Even without akkuma it also helps to carry the increased load due to load redistribution, its effectiveness is still lower. In a pinch features akkumy and other sources of energy producers interested so many types of equipment, so this task will inevitably be solved.
British BAe Systems in 2011 showed disappearing tank: armor panels are installed, which may vary by temperature, and an armored car, or at least some other mc connected with the environment, becoming invisible … So far only for infrared night vision systems and guidance systems. But in the future can be presented to himself, such methods to work in the visible spectrum of the individual electrical waves.
Progress in the production of monitors, and the miniaturization of cameras allow at some point to make panels that perfectly mimic what the observer sees them, in other words to «disappear.» If the monitors will be quite flexible and bolshennymi, it will be possible to make an invisible suit. As described by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky in «Beetle in the Anthill»: «Your stupid odezhka earned all the same — click on Schekn own. — You can hardly see. Only the face. You have no form, as water or steam. «
But so worth messing with the protection of manpower? Maybe improved properties will allow fighter constructively reduce them?
Further step in the development of military science course should be an exception from a particular person, weapon control or, at least, removing him from the battlefield. First steps in this direction have been made yet in the development of torpedoes, then homing missiles. Result of a movement in this direction were drones, which are already used in both military and civilian purposes in. However, Russian developers have gained here is not expected success, and a contract for the supply of drones Russian Defense Ministry concludes with Israeli Aircraft Industries.
Nonhumans in uniform
But most of the existing automatic systems is relatively a narrow specialization. With all this, no army in the world is not ready and is unlikely to be ready in the foreseeable future quite abandon the mobility and versatility of the ordinary infantry and its varieties. And here the person would be able to change the bot. The problem is that modern boats and also far in their abilities on the person.
With all this military use, most likely, is one of the most important for humanoid bots with fun guests as butler. Virtually every industrial or household even easier to solve the puzzle using specially designed equipment. Hardly anyone now really need robots and robots laundress dishwashers when there are washing machines and dishwashers. But a fighter — this is largely universal combat unit, and in order to change it, you need a lot of automated systems. In addition to the inevitable transition period is necessary to ensure continuity of arms and equipment. Flawless substitute man — is humanoid robot android. Because thought Terminator completely realistic. Is that his disguise as a man there’s no need.
Mail, telephone, telegraph …
Means of communication have always been an important element of management in general, and for the army and the war they are completely unnecessary. Informational component of the effectiveness of troops should not be underestimated and overestimated unrealistic. Commanders at various levels must have constant information on the current situation and be able to bring their solutions to the downline.
And from this point of view, we have already made a great leap forward. Specifically in connection whatsoever and data namely the world’s population has moved in recent years to more orders than in the past millennium. But in the main quantitative development here, not quality: grow bandwidth communication channels and their protection. But it’s all the same electrical waves. A means they can be completely or partially suppress. The duel goes on the blade and shield currently transported imperceptible to ordinary man. However, so far the largest range of electric pulse of Russian installation only about 1 km away. But dashing failure beginning …
This may include a laser and weapon: at this stage of its ability to very light behind the blades of the Jedi «Star Wars», but rather fully in order to interfere with the optical sensors. Namely, specifically, this is one of the main functions of the laser gun was developed in the 1980s for Russian astronauts. Now the heirs of those guns used against paparazzi zasvechivaya photographic matrix.
But a comparable level of computerization located in close assistance of technology protects the machine from one side of another strike: an electrical impulse can not only spoil someone else’s hardware, and its. Although there are likely options: the Global Positioning System GPS NavStar can transmit signals selectively only for «their own». And the U.S. government has the opportunity not just benefited in conflict zones.
However, positioning systems are not the same: working Russian GLONASS expected counterparts from other states.
Prepyadstviya solution should become the greatest autonomy managed object, whether it is a bot or homing missile. After receiving a task, the system should be ready for that, correct the command may not get referred to as «all by herself, she …». You need to not only increase the performance of a computer «brain» and the presence of clear, effective and compact sensors. It is close to the war games and pleasures: miniature gyroscopes and acceleration detectors still need developers and military equipment, and the creators of the phones or gaming consoles. Plotting homing projectile, it turns out, does less principled task than a game of golf or a three-dimensional Tetris display tele …
But also tools essentially in compliance with all criteria algorithms. Virtually complication logic and self-based basic principles like «own to help out others to destroy.» And here we’re back to the bots and other machines.
True, there will be a critical principle volumes stored info and performance when it is processed. Taking into account the desired level of reliability, even taking into account the necessary criteria for the protection of hostilities, modern computer systems can not be fully general and with all this quite mobile.
A possible compromise would be the integration of man and machine. At the same time the ability to integrate biology and technology have worked through: people with disabilities can use the prosthesis with «mind» control. So that people can strengthen their abilities in using technology not only the introduction of the exoskeleton or special suits, and the substitution or addition of certain body parts mechanical elements.
Implantation of various organs, aesthetic surgery and even sex change nowadays have become completely simple operations. They are not available to many, many seem raschudesnye Straseni either, but there is hardly anyone who considers them unenforceable. Hence, close to the modernization of man to expand his abilities. The very fact of a huge number of works of art on the theme of human transformation indicates that this is a topic for discussion. The world’s population already accustomed to the ability to round sponge, increase bust or reduce the layer of fat and now thinks, should not we learn to strengthen existing muscles or fingers … or add arms themselves. Now it seems immoral and inhuman savagery. While the basis of beliefs impact on the lives of the individual body shaping under any professional need less scary and not out of habit than Prof. feeding of athletes, because they are also developing certain capabilities from early youth. And, anyway, it’s still better than the division of people across strata regardless of race, color, or other parameter, which affect people could not and can not. Speaking of races. Rumors of a bio weapon acts directed at times appear. In the legends of viruses that infect only members of a particular nationality, as usual, there is some truth. In principle, the virus can be designed by giving them specific properties. The degree of accuracy is difficult to estimate such a method: to advertise explicit data about such works hardly appropriate based on the beliefs of their creators. But adapt them to defeat the representatives of some ethnic unreal, unrealistic at this not just to the burning level of science. Very vast group will strike such a virus. A gun should be pretty clear. That, in general, did not prevent the Russian authorities in 2007 to take measures to combat «terrorism gene.» And namely, to prohibit the exportation of biomaterials beyond. Unfortunately, no one explained to whether suppressed biomaterials outflow of Russians in embassies and local hotels in the gutter.
In this way there are more exotic ideas. In 2007, the eminent Ignobelevskuyu (in the Russian language is also known as Ig Nobel) prize was awarded to a group of scientists in the U.S. Air Force laboratory Ohio, who offered to do so referred to as the gay bomb. Massive aphrodisiacs were so excite the enemy soldier that they would have forgotten about the war and rushed to have sex together, apart from the performance of combat tasks. In general, the idea was just only one of a list and its presentation was given to a few lines in the three-page document, prepared in 1994. Future development of course it has not received.
Although in the same report mentioned and other varieties of non-lethal effects, such as increased sensitivity of the skin of the enemy fighter to sunlight. For non-lethal weapons are other ways partial defeat personnel. For example, it is well known that infrasound causes a feeling of depression and depression, and the available types of laser weapons can temporarily blind completely not only optics devices, and humans.
Israeli army has long uses different kinds of sound cannons. Initially, they were intended to influence the mass, but also be successfully used for the defense of large vessels from pirates and in almost all other cases. Under certain conditions, in general, sound cannons can destroy or cause severe damage.
Similar polling methods and general idea of non-lethal lesions enemy manpower has long listed more applicable. On the one hand, people are still alive, but with all this fighting capacity of their falls. On the other — fighting capacity can not even go down to zero, while negative values. Humanitarian principles and judgment to maintain morale have long brought the wounded comrades care of the rank of one of the main values of the fighter. Because the presence of the wounded is not just to decrease the combat capability of one unit, and the highest possibility of distraction, also reducing the combat capability of the other fighters.
Hence another principal direction of progress army, albeit indirectly associated with weapons: search, rescue and protection of combatants. Here we posodeystvuyut as the development of the same communication and information technologies as well as new medical techniques and tools like automatic kits, diagnosticians, and even robotic microsurgery. Well nanosurgery too.
The principle of deterrence
Since 1945, the main element of the military doctrine of many states was the strategy of deterrence. However, in order to deter, you need to be suppressed even stronger than in either. The result was an arms race, which is unlikely to end in the moment before, as all the countries of the Earth will be merged into a single government or even a confederation.
The basic meaning of the arms race is to develop not only the gun itself — as it became clear even Russian newspapers in the 1970s, supplies of nuclear weapons allow planetoid to kill a couple of times. Well, or, at least, make it very awkward place to stay.
The main objective is not just somewhere to make a «big boom» but to do it specifically where you want, when and where we need it. And for this purpose — to overcome the resistance of the enemy. Once these tasks are solved by means of missiles, submarines with the same missiles, distant aircraft. Progress here and there: planes and missiles flying all faster and further and suggest the goal is still precisely. Fortunately or unfortunately, we have not had a chance to check the effectiveness of these systems on a global scale.
Atomic bombs and other massive steel evil known and in general, the usual. The ability to implement them small: a bad outcome for all parties involved as well as the non-participating in the conflict, it is very obvious, and even the most secure in the world yacht sail the seas in anticipation of the end of «nuclear winter» boring. Other tools, as revealed in the process of local conflicts, the contracting functions do not: the threat of loss of military facilities do not usually bother a potential enemy, and the possibility of purposeful destruction of civilians is considered unacceptable for the major players in the international arena.
Even more frightening look new abilities defeat that promise is hypothetical or geophysical tectonic weapon. This is an opportunity to cause significant environmental disasters in a particular region. For example, tsunamis, typhoons or (tectonic weapon) earthquake. Suggested something similar in his memoirs his Academician Sakharov. But the idea has not attracted the military, who were mass destruction against the civilian population.
If such an instrument really exists and has been used, the results of the implementation (in 1908 in the Stony Tunguska or near Fukushima in this century) is not so much shocking mass destruction as accuracy. In truth, if the purpose of the war considered «the continuation of politics by other means», rather than the destruction of everything, weakening economic power is more important comparing the opponent to the ground of its cities and fortresses.
Formally in 1976 at the initiative of the USSR appeared UN Convention «On the Prohibition of Military or at least some other aggressive use of the impact on the environment.» So in the possession of such a weapon nobody will admit it. But if you talk cynically, the possibility of its existence and implementation of it may not have the impact. Security in this case can enhance its efficacy. Diplomats do not have to justify to the public, but on the hidden power of this philistine country (or its aggressive) will guarantee the necessary impact. Then war is unnecessary. But most effectively win the battle, not from it.