Tell me, what is your family, and I will tell you who you are.
We have a family — a father, mother and one or two children. At most, there are grandparents and uncle and aunt, and they tend to live somewhere else. If a father of three children, she is a large. In ancient times, first, all generations of the family usually lived under the same roof, but still somewhere nearby is the family cemetery, so the family took part invisible and long-dead ancestors. Second, children born more than now. In the XIX century, in terms of monogamy, ten or more children was common. And the Gentiles shall not forget, the rich and wealthy man is not considered shameful lead to his house as many wives as he could feed … Imagine this house. in which they live four or five brothers and their wives, children, parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, second cousins … the whole dorm, and everyone — family! Ethnographer studying the lives of the various nations, and called such a sibling group: a large family.
Every person living in a large family, he felt himself in the first place not the individual with their own needs and opportunities as we are now. He considered himself primarily as a member of the genus. He felt like a part of a single body, a single soul. Any Slav could name their ancestors centuries ago, and details of each of them, including the great-nephew, second cousin of his brother-in-great grandfather. With ancestors were associated with numerous festivals, many of which have survived to the present day (Radunica, Parents' Day). Ancestors — Chury, schury — kept their children, warned them, being them in the image of birds (remember the famous "Keep off me?").
Meet and calling himself, always added: son of so and grandchildren-so. Without it, the name was not the name, people would consider that a man who would not give his father and grandfather, is hiding something. But really, when they heard what you are kind, people immediately understand how to conduct themselves with you. Each clan had quite a reputation. In one famous people from time immemorial honesty and nobility, the other met crooks and bullies, So having met a representative of this kind, it should keep your eyes open. The man knew that when we first met it will be judged as worthy of his lineage. On the other hand, he himself felt responsible for the whole extended family. For one whole race mischief charge.
At the time, casual wear of everyone it was a complete "passport." Just as the military is seen on his uniform: What is the title, which won awards, where he fought and so on. In ancient times, each person's clothing with lots of detail, a lot of talk about its owner: the tribe from which he, what kind, and lots of other details. Looking for clothes, once it was possible to identify who it is coming from, and, hence, how to keep him. In ancient times, the exact same order existed among us in Russia. Until now, the Russian language is preserved proverb: "By their looks met, escorted to the mind." Just not all now know, from what distant times was this folk wisdom. Generally considered that the "dress for success" shows whether a person is rich and tasteful if worn. In fact, everything is much more serious: first met a man "dress for success" was determined his family and decide how to conduct themselves with him.
In this kind are never forgotten by all children, no abandoned elderly. When someone something happens, relatives — even the farthest we would call "water on the seventh jelly" — was ready to come to the rescue. Rebuild the burned house, share of property and wealth, to help fight off enemies, to intercede for the offended. In ancient Scandinavia happened even so, the court decided in favor of the controversial one who brings with him more relatives. And not because it was a kin to the court with arms … My family — my castle!
But every situation a person had to do as it would be better for his family. And his personal interests to comply only then. A society in which reigns supreme ROD, scientists call traditional. If you learn the basics of the ancient tradition, it appears that it is clearly aimed at the survival of the race. There is no "individualism" traditional society does not recognize. And, because humanity does not become extinct, so this situation most of the people more or less happy with.
Traditional society with a stretch can be likened to the anthill. Nature is like going to live or die this particular ant: if only survived anthill. That human society at certain stages of their development is concerned not so much about the individual fate of the individual, but about the survival of the community. That is — sort of.
What comes out of it?
Rod, completely define the life of each of its members, at times dictate its indomitable will in the most sensitive issues. For example, if two kinds of living in the neighborhood, decided to join their efforts together to hunt or fish in the sea for, or fight off enemies — most naturally seemed to seal the union related. If one race was an adult male, and the other — the girl's relatives could simply order them to marry. That's it! No excuses were not accepted. Big deal there, "love — not love." What little things when it comes to the welfare of the race! Can endure — together …
The man, who was in those days, "without kith or kin" — anyway, drove him or he would go himself — felt very uncomfortable. Singles inevitably get together, and just as inevitably their partnership, initially equal, obtained their internal structure, and on the basis of the same genus.
Rod was also the earliest form of social organization, and the most enduring. Man, do not see themselves differently as a family, wanted badly to close still had a father and brothers, ready to help squad leader therefore is considered the father of his people, and the soldiers of the same rank — brothers. This can be explained an interesting example from the life of ancient Russia, which at the time was dominated by about the same order. Members of such and such a prince squads our records are also called "chadyu" that is, in a literal translation of his "children." Prince Vasilko warriors, for example, is called "Vasylkovych." Although the physical relationship is no question.
Talking about the tribal society, the scientists write, "relatives were not born." Paradoxical at first glance, the phrase means that the newborn, which appeared in the family had yet to "prove" his right to be a member of it, above it made quite certain rituals, in the course of which was to be found out, this is a human baby, or "changeling" , an evil spirit in the guise of a child.
Need it any wonder that the military and "kind", which entered the already established, adults, subjected to numerous tests for new members?
So, wishing to join the military fraternity appointed and probation, and a very serious examination. And exam test is not meant purely professional skills — agility, strength. possession of weapons — but also mandatory audit of spiritual qualities, as well as the mystical initiation.
Referring to the initiate, once we note that in ancient times all military alliances were secret and through mystical. We can now remotely imagine something like that, but when it comes to secret schools of martial arts. In ancient times, as this applies to all professional military community. Why is that?
The soldiers involved in the fighting, killing and shedding blood. The man who killed any living thing, and in particular the other person, "penetrates the hole" between the worlds of the dead and the living. This hole is delayed for some time, and who knows what evil force will have time to rush through it? Not to mention the souls massacred enemies that will try in every way to take revenge on the murderer, and along with all those who will be nearby. In short, the person who committed the murder — even in battle, fighting for his tribe — invariably declared "unclean."
We note immediately that in ancient times the word did not have the negative meaning that we attach to it now. It meant not contact with the "evil spirit" and evil, but simply "lack of purity", and thus more vulnerable to the evil forces. It is this vulnerability and was inherent in the opinion of the ancients, tribesman, who fought and killed. For a time he was not allowed to the general life of the tribe, he lived and ate separately, making purification rites. Is it any wonder, then, that the soldiers, who in view of the "specifics" of their work had a special relationship with life and death, were in the eyes of their fellow civilians special people? The researchers write that the warriors from ancient times was accompanied by a strange aura that combines the elect and reprobate. Rejection was due mainly to the fact that close to the soldiers all the time vital danger — not only and not so much real, but, as we have just seen, the mystical, and therefore threatens not one body, but an immortal soul. As for the elect, the victorious warrior, having attained military glory and booty, cause naturally jealous men, women, and won the favor of forcing fellow think he is likely to patronize a particularly powerful gods …
All of these reasons in ancient times men were forced to settle separately in special homes, their "team", and foreign troops in the house do not really allowed. By the time of the Vikings these traditions are rooted in the past, but has not yet been disappeared. On the banks of the Baltic Sea archaeologists excavated several Norman fortifications, and so, all the evidence suggests that life in these forts was established just on the principles of professional military mystical brotherhood.
The concept of honor Slavs were known by the name of truth. A reputation for it was often more expensive than life, and to determine its relationship not only with people but also with the spirits, gods, animals … should distinguish their personal truth and justice kind.
First, the personal truth. Is the reputation of the man's face. Basic norms of behavior are known to all and written in special laws, known as the "truth." So, lying, perjury, perjury, adultery duty, cowardice, the rejection of the call to fight, hulitelnaya song psaltery player, insulting (to insult) which damages the honor. For terrible acts, like murder relative, incest, violations of the laws of hospitality one can be outlawed. In contrast, a relative of revenge, defeating an enemy or a monster, good luck in the hunt, winning the match (above or equal to the strongest enemy), the device or the feast contest, presentation of a gift, marriage, a paean psaltery player, a service from great Duke lead to an increase in honor of the character . However, the correct behavior of a single character can only define himself. But mired in dishonest murder, not take care of the burial of a fallen enemy, etc. risks to bring down punishment on the head of both humans and gods. The truth is a peculiar kind of "passport", by which he was known to others. Man out of the good kind of a priori considered worthy (belonging to a particular race can be easily distinguished by the signs on the body). And vice versa. Hence, by the way, "meet on clothes …"
Chaired the genus (the city) the best in the hold. True prince must be very high. Mired prince immediately expelled from his seat (otherwise offend the gods, and there — crop failure, raid, disease :). In its place was put the other, certainly worthy. Prince could also drive on the insistence of the Magi (but then was not the wise Magi). The truth is the sum kind of "truth" of its members. It also increased as a result of collective action commands, such as for holidays, arranged correctly, lush wedding, funeral. The wise men, the elderly and psaltery players know that is to the credit of the team, and her shame.
Murder of a member of one member of a different kind are usually caused enmity birth.
I had read in some papers that, well, the Slavs vendetta never knew. But this is not true. Should look into the "Russian Truth" — a collection of old laws (the "truth", by the way, when translated into modern language and means "determination, rule, law," and "compliance with the law"). So, "Russian Truth" recorded in the XI century, not only recognizes the blood feud, and even determine the procedures by which a relative of what should otmschat! At all ages, and there were lines of the devil, and the tragic accident, when a man kills a man. And, naturally, wanted to track down the relatives of the victims and punish the guilty. Now when this happens, people turn to law enforcement. A thousand years ago, people preferred to rely on themselves. Force to restore order could only leader, who stood for professional soldiers — Hird Scandinavian, Slavic squad. But the leader, — The king or prince — was, as a rule, far. Or in its capital, or even in the overseas campaign. And his authority as ruler of the country, the leader of the people (not just men) still installed.
As mentioned just above the head says that, according to the concepts of the time, apart from the kind of people does not mean much. The man was primarily a member of a family, and individual personality — is second. Therefore, the "murder" was solved dvoimi not between people, but between two families.
Specialists joke that the people of those times you can write a work of fiction in any genre: psychological novel, thriller, a heartbreaking love drama, mysticism, horror … — anything, except … detective. Dedicated detective solving the crime and finding out who the culprit is. For example, in ancient Scandinavia (with very few exceptions) the offender himself heading for the nearest shelter and a detailed account of what happened … why? The reason is very simple. If he had tried to conceal what he did, he had the reputation of a fellow coward and "unmanly man", unable to account for their own actions. And it was the worst thing that could happen to a man in those days. In the chapter "The Duel" is a quote from the law, according to which to label someone "unmanly" meant to say simply unspeakable speech! Hence, unless the person was not already quite complete scoundrel, irrevocable loss of reputation, he preferred the opportunity very harsh retribution. Further developments could unfold differently, depending also on the "corpus delicti", and the characteristics of the "collective personality", which is faced family. Could have ended in reconciliation, could — a refund (vira). But when it came to blood feuds, it was again the site of one kind of another. The foregoing does not mean that all the men of the family of the victim to take up arms and went to the polls to exterminate the offenders. Not at all. Just revenged not to the perpetrator, and his family. The question is, how tight the whole "bad turn" hostile family? And here's how. Exterminate it the best, most decent man. Offender who more often than not … It is for this very reason, as they say reputable scientists, the ability of blood revenge was not so much the reason for the endless bloody fights as a powerful deterrent. If it were otherwise, people would simply have died, cut out each other. This did not happen because of blood feud — and hence the Day it — best to avoid.
Was the common way to figure out the relationship, to prove his innocence, to achieve anything. Always preceded by a fight call. Reject a call — then cover themselves with shame. It is not always fought to the death, often had an arrangement of the "before the first strike", "up to the first wound," etc. The fight was a religious rite, and both parties need to treat it accordingly. He could pass as a witness, and without them, as equal arms, and not very much. By appointment. Ritual fights, as well as those who would like to draw the attention of the gods, were without armor, most opponents fought all naked to the waist.
Duel necessarily precede any major battles.
Slavic society of the time was not shared by the visible discharge. The authority of a person is determined by his personal truth, the truth of his family, occupied position.
However, the reigning already handed down (but instead to nothing suitable heir of the deceased prince city could easily put on a respectable kolodeznika). The Warriors (partly for the reasons mentioned earlier) is the only well-defined category.
Land owned by freemen. Engaged in agriculture, in the war fought militiamen. Fed the soldiers, princes, and the Magi. Artisans and other people who did not have the land paid or that more often used to work.
Guslyar in Russia occupies a special position. These people and entertained the Prince and the people, and told stories about the days gone by, and talked about how the world works. In the case and could conjure, his special, poetic magic. They are also the guardians of the ancient laws and regulations. It was believed that if guslar before execution of an important case (eg, courtship or war) sang the song, then the case ensure good luck. Without psaltery players did not do funerals of princes, knights, etc., and a wedding without a singer — this is not a wedding. Psaltery players very respected, considered an honor to receive them. Mistreated, and even more to harm or kill the psaltery players in principle possible, but these acts of shame covered person who committed them. Magi — a respected and revered profession. This is the wisest of the wise. Become a magician only after many years of study. Magi serve as intermediaries between the people and the gods, perform rituals, prayers and sacrifices (including human). Magi resolve disputes between people who advised whom to elect a prince. Fiddled with rituals, spells, magic potions. And were able to treat (especially magical diseases such as the evil eye). Witches and nymphs lived mostly in the woods, herbs and spells known. Attitude to them ordinary people were cautious, because not known by what means they have and what can, what they do — good or bad.
Exiles — people, for one reason or another banished from the tribe / family. They do not feed, they do not help, do not treat, do not like. If they survive — it's a great success. A person can expel a special ceremony in the presence of the sorcerer.
Slavery itself Slavs did not know. Captive / prisoner became "bondsmen" for a certain period, after which could go on all four sides or to remain in the position of the free. Additionally, you can redeem it — for the same amount, which was paid at purchase or by agreement with the prisoners.
The principal ceremonies
To become a member of the tribe, the child had to be initiated. She came in three stages. First — directly at birth, when the umbilical cord and cut off the tip of the midwife combat radius in the case of a boy, or a pair of scissors in the case of the girl and the child swaddled in a diaper with the signs of nature.
After reaching a boy of three years, he held podstyagu — ie it planted on the horse, girded with the sword, and three times obvozili around the yard. After that, he began to teach his own men's responsibilities. A girl for the first time in three years, giving a spindle and spinning wheel. The action is also sacred, and the first thread, spun her daughter, mother girds her wedding day to prevent spoilage. Spinning all the peoples associated with destiny, and the age of three girls were taught to spin fate themselves and their home.
At twelve — thirteen years after reaching the age of marriage for boys and girls led the men's and women's home, where they receive a complete set of sacred knowledge they need for life. Then she jumped up in skirts (genus skirts nosivshiysya over a shirt and speaking of maturity). The young man had the right after the dedication to carry assault weapons and to marry.
So far preserved the phrase "married around birch" quite accurately conveys the meaning of a wedding ceremony Rusich. The wedding took place of worship Lada, Rod and Triglav, after which the magician called them a blessing, and the couple evaded three times around the sacred tree, calling the gods to witness, čors Bereguinias and the place where they were. Wedding necessarily preceded by a conspiracy or kidnapping the bride. Bride general was obliged to go to a new genus, as it were by force, not to inadvertently offend guardian spirits kind ("I do not give out, the power lead"). With this, by the way, are connected many hours crying and sad songs of the bride. At the feast newlyweds forbidden to drink (it was believed to be drunk with love). The first night the couple spent on the stalks of Far Far Away, the laid furs (wishes of wealth and mnogochadiya).
Funerals knew a few Slavs. In the heyday of the most common and paganism was honored burning, followed by sprinkling the mound. After that, on the mound held Trizna in memory of the deceased. The second way to bury the so-called hostage dead — dead suspicious, evil death, or not living the truth. The funeral of the deceased expressed in vyshvyrivanii body go to hell in a swamp or ravine, and then piled it on top of the branches. This was done in order not to pollute the land and water unclean corpse.
Familiar to us in the burial ground became widespread only after the adoption of Christianity.
In year five major holidays — Korochun (beginning of the year, the winter solstice on December 24), Komoeditsy or Shrovetide (the vernal equinox on March 24), Midsummer (summer solstice June 24), Perun's Day (July 21) and Kuzminki (harvest festival holiday Rod rozhanits approx. autumnal equinox, September 24).
Of course, that celebrate all the holidays really a team does not have to. But make a one-two per game celebration — a noble business.