"We know a lot about the era of the Nuraghe, but almost nothing is known about the actual nuragiytsah. Ancient people had been and still is one of the most mysterious inhabitants of the planet Earth. " These words are well-known researcher Francesco Sazula could not be more accurately reflect the essence of the problem of the long-vanished civilization builders mysterious Nuraghe that existed on the island of Sardinia in the II millennium BC. e.
According to one version, the Nuraghe initially built for military and defense purposes, and then turned into a ritual center
Generally in Sardinia there are many settlements with the name root "nur". According to some researchers, the root of the word "Nuraghe" — Nur, is a very primitive and very ancient and most likely represents a high tower, consisting of large stone blocks. In the pre-Indo-time on the Mediterranean coast called Nuraghe sites.
Nuraghe lost civilization in Sardinia — it's megalithic towers, cone-shaped, with a truncated apex. The height of the towers could be up to 20 meters. Nuraghe were composed of large stone blocks that are stacked around and around, without using any binder solutions. All of these multi-ton structure held down only by its own weight. The main secret of the fortress was so dubious connections using different hardness and strength of rocks and a special type of masonry, where each subsequent row of slightly shifted toward the center.
Currently, there are up to Sardinia 8000 these mysterious structures, but in ancient times there were a lot more. Some of the researchers put the figure between 20 and 30 thousand. And perhaps they are right, because a lot of the Nuraghe now irrevocably shattered, and yet a certain number of hidden underground in the hills. Sometimes new Nuraghe "hatch" literally overnight, as happened with the famous nuralogicheskim complex near the village of Barumini in 1949. There's a terrible flood completely washed away one of the hills, and the light of day nuralogicheskaya whole village seemed to be hiding in the ground for nearly 25 centuries.
Sami Nuraghe now well studied. Their upper part is a kind of terrace parapet, which climbed the spiral staircase. Light to illuminate fell through the narrow little window in the thick walls. Upstairs, at a height of 6 meters, was … going out. Archaeologists suggest that the way out was a substitute and contact with the outside world is carried out by means of rope ladders or lift bridges.
The lower entrance to the tower is almost always located on the south side. This was followed by a wide corridor, which led to a circular room with a vaulted ceiling. Sometimes the rooms in the Nuraghe were several.
There were whole nuralogicheskie complexes when the structure was being built around a central set of towers of different heights itself connected by a rampart, as well as built "pinnetty" — round stone huts set so close together that the "streets" between them were sometimes less than a meter.
When the scientists on the basis of excavations restored the original appearance nuragiyskoy fortress, it became clear that such a structure, in fact, is the prototype of … medieval feudal castle built, however, in the Bronze Age.
However, it should be said that with the dating of the Nuraghe, there are big problems. In Sardinia there were many stone structures still in the "donuragichesky" period. It is assumed that the earliest, so to speak, "protonuragi", date back to around the year 3500 BC. e., but most of them constructed in the Bronze Age — in XVIII-XV centuries BC. e. or even later. Such a controversial dating of the Nuraghe prevents plot the exact chronology of the ancient history of Sardinia.
And the question of who built castles in Sardinia during the Bronze Age, also remains unresolved.
"DARK" THE PEOPLE
About nuragiytsah (or nuradzhitah) there are only very scanty information. Their origin and ethnicity vague. The only thing that is safe to say the researchers, nuragiytsy were not Indo-Europeans.
The first people appeared in Sardinia nearly 10,000 years ago, possibly with Corsica, since at that time the two islands were one land. Some scientists believe that in the late Paleolithic existed at a bridge Africa — Tuscany — Corsica — Europe, and immigrants could come from anywhere.
The second wave of immigrants came in the Neolithic period, around 4-5 thousand years ago. According to the eminent Russian scientist AI Nemirovsky, Sardinia in the era of the construction of the Nuraghe was intermediate point Etruscan ancestors migration from Asia Minor to Italy. Indeed, the art products nuragicheskoy culture exhibit certain similarities to Etruscan art as well as with the products of the eastern Mediterranean. However, according to Etruscology Massimo Pallottino, architecture nuragicheskoy culture was at one time the most progressive of all the civilizations of the western Mediterranean, even in comparison with the region of the Great of Greece in the south of Italy.
It turns out that nuragiytsy — not the Etruscans, not the peoples of the sea, not the indigenous inhabitants of Sardinia, not Iberians and North African nations that have organized in that period of time on the island self-settlement … Then who are they? The symbiosis of several cultures or culture of their own? There is no answer yet.
WHY THEY BUILT?
There is also no answer to the question of functional accessories Nuraghe. Some towers were built on the slopes, others — on the mountains, and others — on the tops of hills. The surviving fragments indicate a well thought-out and perfectly executed design. In the "complex" were the main tower, Nuraghe, underground water well, rocks with solar signs and altars for sacrifices. In many places around the Nuraghe village flourished.
Now, most scientists think the multifunctionality of Nuraghe. Simple Nuraghe on hilltops could serve as observation towers, and numerous buildings on the coast can be considered towers to monitor the sea, as well as temporary housing for entering the port merchants.
Nuraghe is a more complex structure built at community centers, could be for meetings, or to be a temple, the seat of the rulers, or combine all of these functions at once. According to another version, the Nuraghe initially built for military and defense purposes, and then turned into a ritual center.
The question remains open, although, of course, the tower had a symbolic meaning. By the way, almost all the investigated Nuraghe archaeologists found a deer antler. They were buried in special cavities beneath the walls. So the conclusion is that the deer was sacred to nuragiytsev sacred animal. Perhaps the guardian spirit of the Nuraghe.
Sunset nuragicheskoy culture began with the arrival of the Phoenicians. Sardinia is embroiled in a war for "a place in the sun", and then, near the II century BC. e., was subordinate to Rome. During Roman times nuragiyskaya culture is slowly disappearing. Disappeared and Nuraghe. Some researchers believe that their fortresses … nuragiytsy buried. In the literal sense of the word.
This hypothesis was born out of the fact that all the Nuraghe in Sardinia have been found in the mounds of the same shape. It turns out that before you ever leave the Nuraghe, its inhabitants walled up all the entrances with stone slabs, and then covered with earth fortress. However, it was not near the Nuraghe of trenches, where the land could draw on a charge. So it was brought? But where and how?
CERTIFICATE IN BRONZE
Nuragiyskaya culture has not gone unnoticed. In addition to the Nuraghe, from her still preserved bronze ware, mostly figurines, known as "bronzetto." It is these bronzetto and shed light on the life of a drop nuragiytsev and provide an indication of their social life and complex religious cult, as well as the high level of development of the industry. Most often, bronze statues depicting the leaders, hunters, animals and much less often — women, except for a female deity, probably Tanit. Hence the conclusion that among the distinguished representatives nuragiytsev primarily military and civilian population. Among the soldiers, probably, there was a lot of archers, which served as a defensive weapon shields.
In addition to the Nuraghe, still preserved bronze ware, mostly figurines, known as "bronzetto"
There are among bronzetto and poignant scenes, a kind of nuragicheskie "Pieta", received in the literature as "the victim's mother."
Acquired on the basis of the analysis of data bronzetto allowed some scientists to express the idea that nuragiytsy — it's the people, among the few who stood at the origins of European civilization.