Children are much more adults suffer from colds. This fact is known to many. Since the beginning of the cold season, the majority of parents are faced with a problem — the child is unwell, have a fever, runny nose, cough … The cause of these symptoms may be cold, acute respiratory disease, SARS or influenza, but what's different about these diseases? How to know exactly what your child is sick? How to protect it from viral infections? For clarification, we turned to the pediatrician with 33 years experience, specialist in the treatment of infectious diseases in children, Valentina Ivanovna Rolin.
Differences between colds, acute respiratory disease, SARS and influenza.
One of the first and fundamental differences — these diseases are caused by different viruses (influenza virus, parainfluenza virus infection, adenovirus infection, rhinovirus infection, etc.). There are over two hundred different kinds of viruses. It is important to understand just what exactly your child is sick. Improperly cured dangerous severe flu complications. There are simple complications, bronchitis, ear infections, pneumonia, urinary tract lesion, peunefrity and heavier: neuritis, encephalitis, serous meningitis.
Scientists are three main types of influenza virus — A, B and C. The most fundamental difference between them — is the ability to change. Since influenza virus with substantially stable. Once been ill man nearly all his life has immunity, that is sick with the flu can only be at the first meeting with him. This flu virus is widely spread and usually occurs only in children. In the influenza virus changes, but in moderation. If influenza — a disease exclusively of children, influenza B — mostly children. Influenza A — the most insidious, that it is constantly changing, causing the epidemic.
Another difference — it's a different course of disease. Flu starts suddenly and is accompanied by a sharp increase in temperature. Appears severe intoxication, which has the following symptoms: fever, weakness, myalgia, headache, general aches, dry cough with pain behind the breastbone. Mild catarrhal phenomena. If any other viral infections (ARI, adenovirus infection or a viral infection) is usually dominated by catarrhal symptoms, that is, the child begins runny nose, sore throat, there are upper respiratory catarrh, then lower, bronchitis. And then, against the background of the catarrhal symptoms, a fever.
The main difference between acute respiratory infections from the flu is that at least they manifested temperature, it rarely rises above 38 ° C, and at the forefront catarrhal phenomena: the abundant runny nose, sore throat, cough.
ARI term (acute respiratory infection) denote the ARI (acute respiratory infection) at which proved or, more often, it is assumed etiologic role of respiratory viruses. Usually this group exclude influenza, which is diagnosed only in the presence of characteristic symptoms (especially during epidemics) or laboratory confirmation.
The common cold in adults and children is most often due to exposure to cold, and has similar symptoms to viral infections. In general, acute respiratory infections — a common name for the common cold. But the cold can affect different organs. In this regard, The following types of ARI: laryngitis, rhinitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, nasopharyngitis.
Of all the diseases that affects children, the proportion of influenza and SARS falls 94%. Most often, children are infected with flu from adults because feature is the rapid spread of influenza. This is especially true of children who are in organized groups, such as kindergartens and schools.
Features of treatment and prevention.
For the prevention of viral infections pediatrician advises less be in crowded places. If this is unavoidable, try to always use a special protective mask. In times of epidemics, limit visitation sports clubs, shops, and any other public places. At the slightest sign of disease is better not to send the child to school or daycare.
Must advance to pay special attention to strengthening the child's immune system. Infants and very young children need to ensure proper feeding, nutrition and care. Older children may prescribe vitamin therapy.
The mainstay of treatment of acute respiratory viral infections is the use of symptomatic therapy. It includes the correct drinking regime, taking antipyretics and antihistamines, vitamin C is necessary to drink at least 2 liters of fluid per day. It helps the body cope with the loss of fluid due to severe sweating at high temperature, and also contributes to liquefaction of sputum and its expectoration by coughing. During the illness of the body to lose not only water but also nutrients, so should be used for drinking beverages containing vitamins and minerals. It is best to drink mineral water, juice, berry fruit drinks.
When SARS antipyretic drugs used to reduce fever, and to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic. For children, the most suitable paracetamol. It is well tolerated, practically does not irritate the stomach, does not cause severe allergic reactions and Reye's syndrome in children. Paracetamol is used even for the treatment of children under the age of 3 months.
It is often accompanied by acute respiratory nasal congestion, profuse secretion of mucus from the nasal passages, etc. Usually, in such cases it is recommended to use antihistamines. They are well remove puffiness and help children to easily carry the disease.
How to treat the common cold in children, because they do not like to take medicine? In such a case it is best to treat them suitable complex preparation. But mistakenly believe that the greater part of the components of the drug, the more effective it will be. Composition classical complex drug — that paracetamol, antihistaminic and vitamin C. Of such preparations mentioned"AntiGrippin for children" (Natur Produkt), which has a special "children's formula." It contains the same components as in the preparation for an adult, but to a lesser dosage. Its advantage over other drugs in that it has a water-soluble form, in the form of effervescent tablets with a pleasant taste. It does not damage the gastric mucosa, and also provides a more rapid delivery of active substances, and the effect begins immediately after the reception. Also much easier to persuade a child to drink a tasty medicine.
It is very important when buying the drug to pay attention to a few points.
First, as a medicament. European manufacturers operating under the standard GMP, guarantee the quality and safety of medicines. GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice — Good Manufacturing Practice) — a standard that is used in the production of medicines. Guarantees high quality products, which is achieved by careful control of the production process at all stages from production of components to packaging of the finished product.
Secondly, it is necessary to scrutinize the composition of complex tools. There are medications that contain a lot of ingredients, but it does not guarantee a quick and better treatment. Some components may not be compatible with each other or may not take children. For example, because of the toxicity of rimantadine (part of certain drugs from the flu), the benefits of taking it far less than the possible negative effects. Also, be aware that children should not be given aspirin because it weakens the walls of blood vessels.
Another important rule that you need to know — do not attempt to treat the flu with antibiotics and antiviral drugs without a doctor's prescription. Note that only antibiotics kill bacteria and ineffective against viral infections. Sometimes the doctor prescribes antibiotics and the flu, but only if at the time of illness had complications caused by bacteria (inflammation of the lungs, middle ear or sinuses). And it's important to remember that treatment of colds and flualways has to be right!
By Anna Smith