The first year of EKR

The first year of EKR

Personnel management and scientific nuances prepyadstviya new kind of troops
December 1, 2011 in accordance with the decision of the Russian Federation President Dmitry Medvedev were formed troops Aerospace Defense (ASD) — a fundamentally new kind of armed forces, created to ensure the safety of in aerospace. How to correct this move and what changes have occurred over the past time in the fight with the means of aerospace attack enemy (SVKN)?

Birth Forces aerospace defense is considered one of the positive outcomes of military reform. Indeed, the creation of this kind of troops was dictated by the need to unite the impartial forces and facilities responsible for the security of in the space of cosmic, with military units belonging to the country’s air defense.

Good intentions

The main motive was the need to create EKR reincarnation of air, missile and attack of cosmic world’s leading countries in a single complex warfare. One of the main causes of this process is the adoption of the most recent service in these countries hypersonic aircraft (GZLA) capable of operating at altitudes of 30-120 km. To counteract one aerospace enemy antiaircraft connect organizational need (defense) and ballistic missile defense (CSC) in the overall system, key elements of which have become complex intelligence and prevention of air and space attack (information security), destruction and oppression, to ensure and management. The troops made a year earlier EKR combining RKO and part of the defense, had to work out methods for their joint implementation.

But this in itself is a positive step for himself until led to accomplish the goals in the concept of ASD «organize combat acts multiservice (heterogeneous) troops (forces) in the general system of warfare under common management, on one plan and plan.» The main reason for the lack of results — the formation of a new kind of troops were ignored advice of military science that prescribes the necessity of creation of strategic management body, having not only the duty, and the law, including the company fighting these groups.

First, the XXI century in the Armed Forces theme aerospace defense became very prestigious for the right to manage the troops EKR a struggle even those structures that were not for all the abundance and complexity of the content of action in this area. Winning is not got nobody, but a compromise was reached without reliance on military science. MoD bureaucrats, as usual, made a decision, and scientists were obliged to prove its correctness. In such a situation traditionally sharpened prepyadstviya available and there are new.

Growing pains

To a greater extent deteriorated governance Forces EKR, Dataware development tools to combat aerospace adversary. In connection with the need to integrate all forces and means into a single system appeared prepyadstviya management automation. In addition, a number of measures to reform the difficulties made with the assistance of anti-aircraft forces and means of aerospace defense among themselves and with fighter aircraft (IA), in the preparation of professionals and some others.

In this series, a special place is occupied by the management question — backbone element that combines personal subsystems into a single unit — aerospace defense. Difficulties in this area appeared before the formation of a new kind of troops. Their essence is that the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation since 1997 was not governing body and officials responsible for the creation and structure of ASD company research in this area. Earlier in the USSR and the Russian Federation was a unified air defense system of the country, which is primarily responsible for the command of the Air Defense Forces — at that time a separate type of aircraft. This same rule RKO troops and organize joint actions with defense to repel strikes aeroballistic missiles. It was the first real elements of ASD.

Combining all air defense forces in the general scheme to ensure strong regulation implementing associations and connections Defense Forces, Army Air Defense, Air Force News Agency and fleet air defense provisions of zones and areas. But the single system was disorganized in the liquidation of the Armed Forces: zones and areas of defense associations turned into terrain, and RKO forces that were included in their composition, RVSN transferred initially, and then of cosmic forces. This transition in the form, and then in the corps, which had very different tasks and principles of management, one hundred percent disagreed strategic defense and pursued a single goal — to keep the stars on their epaulettes individual commanders. Data managers, highly trained in the operation and start-up of missile technology, could not immediately think about it in very different principles of command and control of space-rocket defense. This ultimately led to the elimination of virtually uniform system RKO and complete loss of its connection with the defense.

Structure of missile warning (EOP), control of cosmic space (PAC) and strategic missile defense (BMD) were created in the RKO for its intended purpose as relatively independent. Their union in the overall system provides a single control in the first borders Defense Forces, and then, in combining the ballistic missile defense. Of course, the fear of withdrawal of whole system, not actually related to the puzzles of cosmic forces, led them to the command to eliminate this single complex, and throw in a subsystem independent military units — the main centers of missile warning and intelligence of cosmic situation, also in the division defense. With all this you can imagine that the substitution of values ​​with abbreviations RKO «ballistic missile defense» to «exploration of cosmic environment» was held to bring to neglect the need to introduce these forces and means complex.

Positive moment in the development of ASD Forces is the consolidation under the unified command of the air defense missile-division and 3 teams defense. This structure protects from impact air and space attack enemy objects in a very fundamental area of ​​the town of Moscow, which concentrated all the major organs of the municipal and military control, unique military-industrial complex. Specifically, this command as the head portion of the system should join the EBA under common management capabilities and missile defense. But the real action in this direction have not yet managed to do that due to a number of reasons, but first to the lack of corresponding experts.

In the past, after the elimination of the Air Defense Forces 15 years of governing bodies left all the spices, had an idea about the system EKR. Accordingly, there were no such people and the formation of the new command, which for the past year «are the subject of air and space defense.» During this period of time in this area made quite a lot, but it was in the main cognitive process. EKR manager must know the principles of the introduction of forces and means as defense (SMP, RTV, air defense, army air defense, air defense fleet, EW, radio intelligence, automatic control systems) and RKO (EOP, PAC, ABM counterspace). In the Armed Forces, despite repeated offers from the Military Academy of Aerospace Defense (ASD VA) Marshal of the Russian Union GK Zhukov, the training of such personnel to this day has not been arranged. In scientific complex real experts at the Ministry of Defense ASD also absent, the study of problems of air defense and RKO conducted by various organizations. Severe because research in this area after the liquidation of Air Defense Forces had virtually ceased. In 1997 formed in the new Air Force, which was prescribed to solve puzzles defense, even forbidden to utter the term «ASD». Hence came the nuances and scientific personnel management difficulties. Their essence is the lack of experts who can create a scientific basis for the provisions on the joint strategic systems RKO with operational and tactical air defense systems, and professionals who can implement it effectively.

Hitting the Academy EKR

Real research problems ASD in recent years were conducted exclusively in VA EKR, what are experts at defense and RKO. But the academy, which was designed to train military personnel in order to substitution command and staff positions in the defense of all of the Armed Forces, perfectly knowledgeable base implementation of all combat arms and defense capable of organizing air defense forces and facilities of the country, since 1997 alternately destroyed. Initially, operational-tactical air defense training students and EW passed BBA Yuri Gagarin. Since 2009 in VA EKR graduated professionals RKO. Later in Tver completely eliminated training Russian officers now only Academy to study for foreign troops. Two-thirds of the teaching staff reduced. Experts dealing neuvvyazkami aerospace defense, there were units — they are all older people. They were human failure. Disbanding VA EKR actually a couple of years absolutely exclude the possibility of resolving the scientific and management personnel component tasks in this field.

In the current time in the Armed Forces in general no ASD professionals, military personnel for the organization encompassing air defense system does not prepare one, and after elimination of the academy and the narrow special on the use of EA and EW forces for air defense system will sink into oblivion. Overall, therefore, clear and understandable why each subsequent organizational decision in this area is usually worse than the preceding one.

Such work should do the respective specialist. No one comes to the idea of ​​solving problems of the Ground Forces invite sailors and vice versa. At the same time, many military leaders consider themselves spices in the toughest issues in the global confrontation aerospace defense, where even the current situation can not draw on the map. For collecting, processing and displaying disk imaging during operations require special complexes of automation. In the ASD system solutions should be taken within a few minutes or even seconds, and certain control processes are likely only using automated systems. Specifically, these executives have more than 10 times after the Russian war majestically rebuilt under his epaulets «one umbrella», which is to protect the country and its armed forces from the destruction of the aerospace sphere, and not always this restructuring was to benefit.

VA destroys EKR remained one of the 3 academies (BBA them. Yuri Gagarin and VVIA them. N. Zhukovsky successfully eliminated), Educational command structure to fight in the aerospace and conducting research on these issues. Point of no return has not yet been passed. Preservation and restoration of the institution, its faculty partly allowed management difficulties Forces ASD.

Aerospace Command

In the process of military reform in fact at one time with the formation of Troop EKR main command of the armed forces were deprived of operational management functions, namely the Main Command of the Air Force has lost that right in respect of aviation and air defense. As a result, in the Russian army did not become a single control air and space defense in the preparation and in the course of hostilities. The General Staff has no elements of continuous tracking emerging aerospace environment and operational management. Forces Command made EKR also can not solve these puzzles on the status of the management body of troops. Because of this single air defense system of the country and the Armed Forces broke up into five independent parts — four air defense system of military districts and the formation of Troop aerospace defense. In the area of ​​responsibility for the defense forces EKR objects from bumps SVKN enemy should expect a huge number of unmanned cruise missiles and tactical ballistic missiles, remotely piloted aircraft (LA), and in the near term and hypersonic aircraft. These funds will create a very complex and fleeting air missile situation and fight with them will likely only if the total of all automatic control system and air defense missile forces, in other words EKR. But none of that has not yet created.

Coupled with the fact the resolution of problems of management should take into account three main factors.

At the strategic level task forces to combat air and space attack enemy — combined arms, operational — together. She decides Forces EKR, aviation, strike forces of all species and genera country’s armed forces or coalition. In other words, the difficulty of exploration, destruction and oppression SVKN must be overcome together as a defense, and percussion actions under a single centralized management at the strategic and operational levels, by common ideas and plans.

Main objectives to combat aerospace adversary solved Forces aviation and aerospace defense SVKN defeat in aerospace, also on land and at sea. For example, air defense «Dome» missile strikes reflect Israeli Palestinians, and Air Force strike here on identified launchers. In other words, the use of all forces and resources must be managed from the 1st center and organized by common ideas and plans. Unified management improving effective and partly solve complex problem of aviation safety in fire zones own defense.

Allied countries’ commitments — CSTO members to pool their forces and air defense assets into the overall system under a unified command.

Based on these reasons to eliminate the problem of controlling the forces of EKR not need to do the command of the armed forces and strategic management body with the obligations and rights under the management of their application, as aviation, regardless of affiliation to the species or genus Armed Forces. In numerous proposals VA EKR this structure was named aerospace command (WCC). It must be assigned the following main objectives:
monitor the activities of aerospace and analysis of enemy military threats to the state and allies in the aerospace field;
forecasting the likely magnitude and patterns of implementation SVKN against Russia and its allies;
management of operational and strategic research to substantiate the areas of building an aerospace defense, development tools, methods and forms of action of aviation and aerospace defense;
planning operations, air operations and other troops ASD strategic level;
specific command and control during the strategic operations and other activities in the aerospace field;
coordination and action plans for the implementation of defense — the CSTO member states;
control forces on duty EKR and aviation;
conducting operational training with the troops in the aerospace field.

These tasks are not related to the administration, in other words purely operational. Because under the current basic commands now functions of the Armed Forces, consisting in the administration of the troops and their security, more promising option is the creation of an aerospace command authority as strategic management, specifically the slave of the General Staff. In case of return Glavkomat role of operational management tasks WCC can solve the main Air Force command. In any case you rename them purposefully in Aerospace Force (WAC).

Promising structure videoconferencing

In view of the sun — Aerospace forces should go far and combining military transport aircraft, the Air Force and Air Defense Forces also available EKR: and of cosmic-missile air defense command. Given the fact that parts of cosmic trigger and control devices is low (two compounds), they are also purposefully put in videoconferencing. This is justified by the emergence of a perspective of cosmic intelligence systems of air attack, which may be used solely under the common aerospace defense in one form Sun

Management structure of aviation and air defense at the operational level in the vicinity of the military as a whole change is impractical because it is adapted to organize the fight against enemy aircraft in a joint operation. But commanders of military districts (USC) WCC guidance on specific issues of their implementation should do unconditionally.

For greater efficiency targets of poverty SKVN opponents need to remove the two ill-conceived reforms arising from personal prepyadstviya.

First appeared after withdrawal from the defense compounds EKR fighter aircraft that was justified by its conversion into a multi-purpose. But this, together with the elimination of training resulted in a «washout» of government associations and the Air Force and Air Defense compounds professionals who are able to organize the comprehensive system, including with anti-aircraft missile fire element fighter cover, also to the inability to use the agency for the purpose of defense. To resolve this problem purposefully returned to the United defense at least one shelf (base group) fighter aircraft. First, it concerns air units, armed with the MiG-31, which are multipurpose do not plan to. Successfully solve puzzles fight against enemy aircraft can only jointly antiaircraft missile capabilities and fighter aircraft. Finding agency compounds in air defense (ASD) will allow them to fulfill tasks jointly with the SMP implementation. Efficiency solutions strike missions for air operations with all this hurt, because in all variants of development of military operations in the region will need to allocate a multi-purpose forces to meet the challenges of aviation-defense. And when necessary force fighters are in the composition of these compounds would build up a multi-purpose aviation associations Force and Air Defense (SCD).

Second problem appeared during the withdrawal from the territorial principle of building air defense system, which was implemented the provisions of the zones and areas. These provisions were instructed centralized management team Fri associations and connections all army air defense units and air defense forces of the fleet, which when executed by their own problems themselves in their area of ​​responsibility. Failure to observe this principle leads to increased fuel anti-aircraft missiles, also drastically reduces the safety of their aircraft. To resolve this issue you need to go back to the provisions of the zones and areas of defense in the wording of official documents of the Russian Armed Forces in 1993, which implemented the principle of the territorial defense system. Really at all variants of development of military operations capabilities EKR videoconferencing Defense Forces Land Forces and Air Defense Forces Navy will conduct combat actions in the common borders, in what should be cooperated centralized management.

Creating strategic aerospace command partly solve the problem of information and the issue of lack of general management development funds EKR.


Missing information support system of aerospace defense justified the subsequent factors: lack of strategic management body, which has to collect information from different types of intelligence on the composition, status and activities of all kinds SVKN possible enemies to forecast their development prospects, form and methods, reliably established facts preparation and beginning of aerospace attack, warning them of the municipal and military administration; inability of hardware in the system intelligence and prevention of air and space attack (Information Management System) to receive, store, process and display all kinds of situation SVKN and provide the necessary data management bodies, forces and means of destruction and oppression; our significant backlog from a number of possible enemies in the development of systems and means of communication, intelligence, information support of decision-making and action planning in the aerospace field.

First nuance information problem solved in the development and organization of the WCC in its tracking and analysis (monitoring) aerospace enemy. Its introduction will allow to get a new quality by pooling the data from all the forces and means of intelligence, also doing constant analytical work to determine the composition, condition, activity, forecast prospects for the development of forces and means of aerospace attack potential enemies. Specifically constant analytical work can afford to build realistic forecasts of likely targets, task forces and action methods of aerospace attack the enemy. All it asks very highest training of officials who would be obliged to carry it out. They equally should know and be able to predict how the act of cosmic and missile and aircraft, and hypersonic.

Second and third nuances information prepyadstviya resolved adoption special organizational and technical measures to enhance the capacity of obtaining the required data on all types of SVKN, ensuring its correct automatic processing, display and delivery to consumers in the right amount.

The lack of overall management of development funds EKR first part of that same air defense system have and Air Force and Air Defense Forces. Of course, the uniform requirements for their development and modernization can nominate only one control — WCC.
Management Automation

The problem of improving managerial processes EKR is actually the need to develop guidelines and automate various parts of the difficulty of combining in a single loop automatic and automatic systems and anti-ballistic missile defense.

Studies have shown that when you automate command and control base in ASD develop methods of their actions must be put to alternate approach of forming strategic, operational methods based on optimization rassredotachivaniya forces and resources on many fronts and areas defined timeframe. At the tactical level should switch completely to automatic control in the overall system that combines air defense and RKO.

To ensure the desired automatic information processing complexes in control of troops SAI should establish functional modeling systems that will solve puzzles, such as those facing the planning of air operations centers of U.S. and NATO. Modeling systems that support decision-making and planning of combat operations can be done on the basis of technology developed at JSC «Scientific and Production Association» Russian basic information technology. » Namely, in the framework of information-modeling environment built on a Sun RF simulation and analytical models of forces and means of warfare and geophysical criteria using object aimed approach to complex systems, also built an information database. There is already a significant backlog for modeling actions of forces and means ASD. He has permitted to prove many of the provisions on the organization of the use of force and the aerospace defense of the including in this article.

Last year to command troops EKR was not in vain. Manage new genus Sun, enforced solve puzzles on the application and development of anti-missile and space defense, their association in the overall system, the organization of combat duty in the Armed Forces for defense, first faced with scarcity of rights, the lack of systematic scientific positions and professionals for this purpose. On the Elimination of defects identified and should focus its efforts on the future development of the system of aerospace defense of the country.

And the last. The political situation in the Armed Forces now has changed dramatically. In the depths of the General Staff there are new options to combat structures SVKN opponent. Appointed a working group to prepare proposals development Troops EKR. What solutions can we expect? This will show the last time.

Vladimir Barvinenko, Honored Worker of Science, Doctor of Military Sciences, Dr.
Yuri Anoshko, Doctor of Military Sciences, Dr.

Published in issue number 1 (469) for January 8, 2013

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