Importance of the Arctic for Russia
Arctic — it's part of the world, located north of the Arctic Circle. Its total area of 21 million square kilometers. The Arctic contains the Arctic Ocean and the Sea district, located immediately adjacent islands and part of the land in Europe, Asia and North America. At the current time the Arctic countries listed our homeland, Canada, the U.S., Norway and Denmark, also on the status of this claim, Iceland, Sweden and Finland. According to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982, the Arctic states possess the sovereign right to develop mineral resources within the boundaries of their exclusive economic zones (up to 200 miles wide) and the continental shelf (up to 350 miles wide), although these areas of the Arctic and are not part of their municipal areas.
On the international legal point of view the Arctic as before remains a "no man's land." The issue of the division of the region at the international level is not yet resolved. In 1909, Canada extended its yurispundentsiyu on the sector of the Arctic, concluded between the meridians, starting at exit points of its land border to the Arctic Ocean and converge at the North Pole. Then it only supported our homeland, taking a similar law in 1916. Three other Arctic countries their possessions in the Arctic does not legally made out, with all this and objections RF Canada and no one expressed. In fact, the principle of sectoral division of the Arctic has become generally accepted reality.
In the near future are increasingly calls for the revision of this division, because in the Arctic were discovered large deposits of natural resources. Thus, according to U.S. Geological Survey estimates, in the area of the Arctic Ocean is located to 20% of global supplies of hydrocarbons: potential gas supplies are estimated at 47.3 trillion. m3 of gas condensate in 44 billion. barrels of oil in 90 billion. barrels. A large gas fields are located off the coast of Siberia and Alaska. Later arctic shelf can be very principled or even the main source of hydrocarbons. In addition to hydrocarbons were discovered there large deposits of ores, including deposits of rare earth metals. Vpribavok to that in the Arctic are big aquatic resources of the planet, there's only fish There are more than 150 species, with all this, a number of them are major in world capture fisheries.
RF actually owns half of the coast of the Arctic Ocean, Arctic sector in our display up to 80% of Russian oil supplies and 90% of supplies of gas and coal. Only one Shtokman field, which is jointly developing with Russia multinational companies, has 3 800 billion. m3 of gas (for comparison — it's gas consumption in France for 80 years). At the current time, Russia wants to apply to the UN for an extension of their own Arctic possessions by 1.2 million km2 (three size of Germany). In the South American sector of oil supplies only the Chukchi Sea are estimated at 15 million barrels, while gas is higher than 2000 billion dollars. m3. Large supplies of hydrocarbons located in the Canadian sector.
In addition to the resource Arctic has a fundamental strategic military value. There are comfortable positions for placing parts of the strategic deterrence for the start of ballistic missiles and missile defense arrangement. Due to global warming and the gradual decrease in sea ice naval forces are able to operate in the region for a significant part of the year.
Another fundamental value of the region is a vehicle. The shortest through the Arctic air and sea routes between Eurasia and North America. With a decrease in sea ice extent in the Arctic routes between Europe and the Far East will be reduced by 40%. At the moment, the implementation of these transport routes constrained by the complexities of navigation and overflight in these latitudes, and under-developed transport infrastructure.
Arctic troops will be made in 2015
Last week, February 21 Chief of Land Forces, Colonel-General Alexander Postnikov announced that the first motorized infantry brigade of the Arctic will be created by 2015. "In accordance with the expected arrival of a promising machinery in 2015, a team that will meet all the requirements of the region, must be created in this period," — said the commander in chief.
According to Alexander Postnikov, the new Arctic basic technical teams in the coming term will be armored tractor carrier MT-TWT. In the future, it will be a vehicle of a family of combat and support technology-based articulated armored tracked unified platform. This technique will be able to move through the deep snow and work at air temperatures of about -50 degrees Celsius.
To the military did not freeze to their developed a special version of winter uniforms. According to head of the Department of Management glove resource support of the Ministry of Defense, Colonel Andrew Podoprigorina in such uniformed soldier will be able to spend the night in a snow bank with no impact on your own body. This form is designed to ensure that military personnel who serve in regions with particularly cool climate criteria. During her trial in the Arctic Russian special forces soldier safely asleep 4:00 in the snow with no impact on your own body, said Podoprigorin.
The training of officers for service in the Arctic brigades will be held at the Far Eastern Higher Military Command School. This was the fall of 2011 said the head of the school, Major-General Vladimir Gryzlov. According to Gryzlov, the currently developed proposals Command of the Army's training school in the platoon of cadets specialization "The use of mechanized infantry units in the Arctic." Term training programs from 4 years.
The first time the need for military build-up in the Northern Sea Route Ministry of Defence announced in March 2011. New connections to act in the Arctic criteria ha
d to be formed on the basis of the 200th Motorised Brigade, which is deployed in Pechenga. Several months later, Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov said that to protect Russian interests in the Arctic will be created not one but two army brigades Arctic. Probable sites of their disposition he called Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. Defense Minister highlighted that the development of new military units will consider the experience of the armed forces of Norway, Finland and Sweden.
Deployment of the new Arctic Defense Brigades will be held in the framework of the Russian Security Council adopted "Principles of State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic up to 2020 and the subsequent term." As part of the document in the coming years in the northern parts of the country will be made by groups of forces that will be able to ensure the military security of the Arctic region at different variants of the military-political situation.
Previous inspector general of the Defense Ministry Admiral Ivan Kapitanets believes that the Arctic should be considered as a possible theater of war, because of the Russian Federation just need to increase its military presence in the region. In his view, the existing military-industrial complex will allow the Russian Federation to build a powerful naval combat capability in the north, and north direction and North fleet should be strengthened submarine fourth-generation Project 955 "Borey".
A special technique
To act in the Arctic criteria should be used a special technique. Russian army is currently a technology standards, which successfully operates in the criteria of the Last of the north. Examples of such machines are the MT-TWT and DT-30PM "The Knight". MT TWT is a modification of the cross-country armored army truck.
This modification has a wider track and a lower ground pressure (at the level of 0.27 kg/cm2), which is actually equal to the pressure on the bottom of the average man. Weighing in at 11 tons machine is a very good indicator. MT-TWT designed for use in arctic regions. Upon customer request the machine can be equipped with the basic tracks or snegobolotohodnogo run as supplementary heating body, which uses the heat from the engine cooling system. The highest throughput and decency speed — up to 60 km / h makes the machine an indispensable in military units stationed in the languid weather and natural conditions.
All-metal two-door teploshumoizolirovannaya cabin for 2 seats, equipped with extra seat and overhead hatches created an emergency escape truck. Machine has a good review by the driver while driving and of days, and the NIGHT MODE. At night the driver can be used for certain traffic lights and headlamp 2-seeker. Indoor heated body MT TWT has a volume of 7.3 m3 and is designed for 10 seats. The presence of the auxiliary heater, which can work in combination with the introduction of heat that is removed from the engine cooling system, creating comfortable conditions for the crew and passengers of the MT-TWT. The total capacity of the machine is 12 people (1 +11).
Even more perfect machine to act in the Arctic is a tracked armored vehicle "Knight" DT-30PM, representing a military version of a civilian all-terrain vehicle having code "ubiquitous." Thanks to the design flexibility terrain vehicle "Knight" can successfully be used as a chassis for weapons systems, material handling, earthmoving, lifting and other equipment for various purposes.
The highest performance track mover that blend with the overcoming of aqua-bottlenecking and confident in maneuvering all the natural conditions, allow us to consider two-tier ATVs "Knight" snegobolotohodnymi unique machines that are able to without the technical equipment and the route of the preparatory intelligence to overcome long distances, difficult for other mc.
The primary purpose of all-terrain vehicle in the army is the transport of arms, military equipment and personnel of the armed forces in a particularly languid weather criteria. With a mass of 30 tons, such as all-terrain vehicle has a carrying capacity and can carry up to 19 people (2 crew + 17 paratroopers). The highest speed of the car on land — 45 km / h, afloat — 6 km / h In store down the highway — 700 km.
The combination of one ton of properties such as flexibility and the highest throughput, highest speed and progress in store, buoyancy and lift capacity, the ability to overcome various obstacles and aqua-bottlenecking at full capacity and versatility suggest DT-30PM "Knight" machine, which has no analogues in the world .