After the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when the Russian Federation took away the fruits of its victory, St. Petersburg again revised its policy. So when in 1881 a terrorist killed Alexander II, Alexander III, who replaced him began a "national policy." In the framework of their own policies he put the interests of the domestic Russian Empire and its development. Specifically, for which he received the title of "peacemaker." Our homeland seriously cooled off to Berlin, which almost threw Russia did not support her, though came in the "League of the Three Emperors."
In October 1879 Berlin strengthened ties with Vienna, concluding with her so-called. Dual alliance that became the basis of the Triple Alliance. Article 1 of this contract, I said that if our homeland attack on one of the states, the other will come to her aid. Article 2 of the first it was reported that in the event of an attack on one of the contracting powers of any other country, the second party agrees to comply with at least benevolent neutrality. If the attacker country will support Russian empire, entered into force on 1 st article of the contract.
Europe also continued to boil — Germany and Italy sought to get their share of colonial redivision of the world. An old colonial powers were not going to share yourself and continued seizures. For example, in 1881-1883 years, the French have put under his control Tunisia. Italians because of this, they believed that their sphere of influence it, almost went to war with France. Bismarck persuaded them not to start a war, Italy has entered the orbit of influence of Berlin. May 20, 1882 German, Austro-Hungarian Empire and Italy signed a contract for hidden Tripartite Alliance.
They pledged not to engage in alliances directed against one of the three countries agree on issues of political and economic nature. Berlin and Vienna have pledged to assist Italy if she were attacked France. The Italian government had to do the same in the case of an unprovoked attack on France, the German Empire. Austro-Hungarians, given the role of a reserve in case of entry into the war on the French side of. However, the Italians refused to wage war with Britain if it attack Germany and Austria-Hungary, they were afraid of the mighty British fleet. The Triple Alliance was renewed in 1887, 1891 and was automatically extended in 1902, 1912.
Aggravated case of Paris and London, the two powers have deployed majestic race of colonial conquest. The British captured Egypt, Burma, causing irritation of the French, in what were their interests in those lands. The French themselves captured in Madagascar, Tonkin. In this race, Paris, Berlin maintained until it was occupied by the colonial affairs, less remembered lost Alsace and Lorraine.
In the end, that is not the war began, the Europeans decided to divide Africa "civilized" of course without asking the local population. In Berlin Conference was convened, which has been working with the 15 November 1884 to 26 February 1885. In the end, with the filing of Bismarck, the General Act was passed, which not only recognized the legitimacy of colonial conquest has taken place, and for the first time legally secured obligations of the European powers imposed their presence on the impact areas. Namely, proclaimed so-called. "The principle of effective occupation", calling on Western powers to extract natural raw materials in their own colonies and let him into the world revolution. And with the inability of the country to independently develop the natural wealth of the colonies — to allow economic activity in its territory other European powers and their cartels.
This conference has spurred capture the inner regions of sub-Saharan Africa, in the end after a decade in 1895, the only sovereign countries in sub-Saharan Africa were only Liberia and Ethiopia. Berlin snatched the race grips South-West Africa, Togo, Cameroon, East Africa, North For the latest Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.
The rivalry of the European predator was not confined to colonial conquests, it came in trade, money, industrial output. It is interesting that at the time the Germans were in the main invested their own funds in the development industry, the British in their dominions and colonies, the French wherever it will be profitable, even in Germany, its own potential enemy. In Germany, the percentage of profit was higher than France 2 times.
French map of Africa in 1898. Pink — French possessions, yellow — English, dark green — German, gray-blue — Portuguese.
Germany after unification makes great strides in the development of the industry, its industrialization Berlin threw remedies acquired from France indemnity. Promote industrial recovery and reunification of the country. In addition, the arms race continues, supported the development of large-scale industry. The German Empire has evolved so rapidly that by the power of the economy came on the second place, behind only the "workshop of the world" — England, and a number of positions on the first. She led the development of new industries such as chemical, electrical industry.
It should be noted that Our homeland also quite rapidly developed its industry. The rise began even under Alexander II. Exemption of farmers from the bondage it has led to significant social stratification, the poor have to replenish the working class. Alexander III spent much time on the development of the industry empire: the construction of new enterprises, vigorously went railway construction (here then began to build a Trans-Siberian Railway), mastered Central Asia, Siberia, the Far East, to develop new fields of natural resources. Established Peasant Land Bank gave loans to farmers: from 1883 to 1915 it issued loans amounting to more than 1.35 billion. rubles, and this has promoted more than 1 million peasant households to purchase more than 15.9 million acres of land (there's more areas of modern Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, taken together). Life estates labor facilitated a number of events: the abolition of the poll tax in 1886, in 1882, came the restriction of factory work and the young in 1885, the night of the teens and ladies, etc.
During the reign of Alexander III was launched 114 new warships, including 17 battleships and 10 armored cruisers. In the end, the Russian navy, who, after the Crimean War, had not the best of times, took third place in the world after England and France in the number of global fleet — total tonnage of the fleet of the Russian Empire reached 300 thousand tons.
Through the efforts of 2-Ministers of money — NH Bunge and I. Vyshnegradskiy was stabilized the financial system. The rapidly developing science, culture and education.
The ruler of producing policy which he expressed in the famous expression that has been said for a day before his death, his son, the heir to the throne: "I have no friend
s of the Russian Federation. They fear our vastness. We only have two reliable friend: Russian army and the Russian navy! ". Alexander did not allow myself to sleep for more than 4 hours per day, a large chunk of his time giving imperial affairs. The ruler was a man velikanskoy, heroic strength. He just tore the card deck, breaking open a horseshoe. At one point, when the Russian Federation has escalated the case with Austria-Hungary, its salting, at a dinner at the palace of Alexander III, threatened that if our home does not comply with certain requirements of Vienna, the Austrian government will be forced to put some of their own against Russia army corps. Emperor Alexander III took the dining table nickel silver fork, tied her knot and throwing it on the plate of the Austrian ambassador, said with disdain: "That's what I'll do with your bodies!".
The power of the Russian Federation since then indicates yet another case of the days when foreign ambassadors arrived, Alexander at that time was fishing and said that when "Russian fishing sir, Europe can wait."
Alexander III Alexandrovich.
Affairs of the Russian Federation and Germany
Despite the fact that in Berlin have developed a plan for the war with Russia and France, Bismarck, which very well know Russian, but Moltke the Elder, understood that Russia can not be overcome in the war. Bismarck pointed out that the main strength of the Russian Federation is not in the size of the terrain and the power of the army, and in the unity of the people, their co-operation. Moltke preparing a plan for war with Russia, in what was said about the invasion deep into its territory. He believed that only in Poland from Russia will have to fight a war for 7 years. And after a "Pyrrhic victory", to live in expectation of attack from Russia, which at some point will want revenge.
Because Bismarck was that wage war with Russia can not, under any circumstances. You can intrigue against Petersburg, Russia collide with other countries, but Germany is waging war with Russia should not be.
Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke (Moltke the Elder), German Field Marshal (1871), the Russian field marshal (1872), military theorist. Together with Bismarck and Roon is considered one of the founders of the German Empire.
In the Balkans, Berlin oborontelny concluded an alliance with Romania. In 1885, Germany did not prevent the reunification of Bulgaria, and the United Kingdom did not mind, because now Bulgaria did not fall under the influence of. Turks were forced to accept the loss. Serbs, who pushed Vienna, opposed the unification of Bulgaria, but lost the war (the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885-1886). After that defeat enemies Serbs were Bulgarians.
On the throne of Bulgaria Westerners built his own protege — Ferdinand I (from the German Saxe-Coburg-Gotha dynasty). With the support of Berlin, Bulgaria became a policy aimed at the merits of the hegemony of the Bulgarians in the Balkans. That's why Bulgaria, a country that gained independence thanks to the Russian Federation in the First World War waged war on Germany's side.
Petersburg Berlin said that excessive tax imposed on foreign owners of real estate, it knocked at the Prussian nobles who possessed estates in Russia. Bismarck got angry and made a serious mistake. He forbade the sale of Russian securities in Berlin and Bremen monetary exchanges. And our homeland at the time was in dire need of investment for the development of the industry. Petersburg turned to France. Paris immediately went to meet: in-1's, it was profitable from a monetary point of view, in-2, to establish relations with Russia, with which there were tense affairs after 1878. After all, if France was virtually surrounded by enemies: the unfriendly Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the British, which almost started a war for the colony.
Bismarck realized that he had gone too far, because our home is not a major competitor in Germany, its main enemy — this is England, which prevents future development of German civilization. He invited the Russian Ambassador Paul A. Shuvalov, and read him a contract in Germany with Austria-Hungary. After lurking proposed a contract of peace and friendship with Russia.
In St. Petersburg, agreed: 6 (18) June 1887 German Chancellor Bismarck and the Russian ambassador PA Shuvalov in Berlin was signed so-called. reinsurance contract. Under the agreement, the two powers were to remain neutral during the war with at least one of which a third majestic power, except in cases of assault on France, the German Empire or the Russian Empire of Austria-Hungary. By the Russo-German agreement annexed special report on it Berlin pledged to provide assistance to a diplomatic Petersburg if the Russian government finds it necessary to "take up the defense of the entrance to the Black Sea" in order to "save the key to his own empire."
Unfortunately, begins to take shape the alliance of Germany and the Russian Federation did not take place: In 1888, the German government Wilhelm died, his successor, Frederick III was seriously ill because of the rules for a few months, took the throne Wilhelm II. In 1890 he sent Bismarck opponent of the war with Russia, to resign. The new Chancellor, General Leo von Caprivi broke the alliance with Russia and began a rapprochement with England.
Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (1830 — 1908) — Russian municipal and military leader and diplomat.