The world on the way to the First World War. Part 4

The ruler of the German Empire and ruler of Prussia, Wilhelm II (June 15, 1888 — November 9, 1918), he found himself on the throne, made a series of mistakes that led to the newcomer a cooling of relations with Russia.

Apparently almost everyone, it was associated with severe injuries he received at birth. Physical defects led to the deformation of the psyche of the future ruler. From youth he noted reticence inflated irritability, outbursts of anger, prone to impulsive decisions, resentment. At the same time, in the struggle with their physical shortcomings, he managed to raise a tremendous force of will and personality was not subject to any authority.

Because Bismarck was not for him untouchable authority to whose views need to listen. He considered it humiliating tutelage. In 1890, arrived in Berlin Shuvalov to extend the "reinsurance treaty", as St. Petersburg was ready to extend it for 6 years, not counting the Russian side gave Berlin to realize that this contract may be the foundation of good oboestoronnego Union. Bismarck was not opposed to that of the union. But William had accused him of superfluous "Russophile policy" and Bismarck sent into retirement.

The world on the way to the First World War.  Part 4

William II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert of Prussia, years of life January 27, 1859, Berlin, Germany — June 4, 1941) — German ruler and lord of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.

"New Deal" Caprivi

Chancellor was appointed by Leo von Caprivi, who started a "new deal". The essence of this course in foreign policy, it is a break alliance with the Russian Empire and the rapprochement with Britain. Count Caprivi believed that cooperation between the Teutons and Slavs "historically inappropriate," because of the German people is the "people's psychological need in the war with Russia."

Therefore, the new chancellor broke "reinsurance treaty" negotiations were broken off with Shuvalov, the Russian diplomat sent home. In St. Petersburg, took the move as a "slap in the face."

An even more complicated situation symbolic gesture Kaiser, so during the visit of the British Prince Edward in Germany the German government said following toast: "The English fleet, together with the German army will ensure world peace." Given the tense affairs Petersburg and London, it was very nekompitentno.

Besides Petersburg has received information on the development of the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy), directed against France and Russia.

The world on the way to the First World War.  Part 4

Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuccoli (1831-1899), Chancellor of the German Empire from 20 March 1890 to 28 October 1894.

Russian-French alliance

Petersburg Union responded with France. In the summer of 1891 was signed the first agreement. Paris gladly seized the proffered hand, since has been in international isolation — open enemies were Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, have been very tense affairs with Great Britain. The German Empire was hanging over France and was ready for war at any time of the alliance with the powerful Russian empire, gave an excellent chance of winning. In St. Petersburg, a look at the alliance from the standpoint of restoring the balance of power in Europe.

Even earlier, began a collaboration in the field of money — Our home was in need of loans for the development of the industry, the construction of railways. The Russian government in 1888 signed a first loan in France, followed in 1889, 1890, 1891 was followed by significant new loans. In 1888, Petersburg is located in France at the ready order 500 thousand rifles for the Russian army. French loans were used for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. In August 1892, entered into a secret military convention. The parties undertook to provide mutual support in the event of an attack the German or Austro-Hungarian empires Russia or Italy and Germany to France. Paris has pledged to mobilize for war with Germany if Berlin would start a war with Russia, 1.3 million fighter Petersburg promised to expose 700-800 thousand people against the Germans, when the German army will knock on the French. So Makar, Germany were forced to fight on two fronts at once. Quite a military convention Petersburg approved in 1893. The contract was for life.

Then Petersburg for an alliance with France and then England chained new loans — in 1894, 1896, 1901, 1904's, etc. If initially Our homeland has been a favorite of the Union (under Alexander III), then later a few billion in debt, in the words of Stalin, "the tsarist government chained to the Anglo-French imperialism."

The world on the way to the First World War.  Part 4

Pont Alexandre III in Paris, was founded by Tsar Nicholas II

Course German for "world politics"

Berlin not long retain business alliance with England, soon enough it became clear that specifically London — it's main rival in the fight for global leadership. During the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902, William supported the Boers held several anti-British demonstrations and even put before the State Council on the adoption of the Boer republics (the Republic of Transvaal and Free State) under German protectorate. But such a step machine led Germany to war with Great Britain, and wage war with the British could only having a powerful navy that could stand up against the British Navy, flip expeditionary forces and protect sea lines of communication. And such fleet in the German Empire was not.

Germany begins to increase its naval forces, as early as March 28, 1898 was adopted by the first maritime law. According to this agreement provides for the construction of a new German Navy superbly designed not only to protect their own banks in the North Sea and the Baltic, and for activities "in the world's oceans." According to his 1903 plan to build seven ships of the line, 2 line cruisers and 17 small cruisers.

Berlin is trying to gain a foothold around the globe. After China's defeat in the war with the Empire of Japan in the war of 1894-1895, Berlin decides to do on the Chinese countryside own stronghold. In 1896, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, arrived in China, selects as a suitable location for the German naval base in the area of Jiaozhou Shandong Peninsula. But the Chinese, to hand over the area shall be removed on a long lease. Then, in 1897, was applied incident Ju, when in Jiaozhou killed two German missionaries. Berlin sent a squadron of the Chinese coast, and under the pretext of defending the Christian population, the Chinese government has put forward an ultimatum to the transfer of this area to rent in Germany for 99 years. The Chinese have been obliged to give up — the city of Qingdao, became the capital of the modern German colony of German and ba
se of the East Asia Squadron.

Berlin more inclined to war for spheres of influence in the world, appointed in 1897 by the Minister of Foreign Affairs Bernard von Bülow (who in 1900 will become Reich Chancellor) said in Parliament followed: "The time when the Germans left the German Empire, leaving in adjacent countries , and left in their own supplies only the sky above, over … We're not going to keep anyone in the shade, and do require a place under the sun. "

The world on the way to the First World War.  Part 4

"Armenian Question" and the rise of Germany in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians were at that time a large part of the population of the Ottoman Empire, settling areas of modern Armenia to Syria. Istanbul is not made reforms that are promised by the Congress of Berlin in 1878. Invariable complaints Armenians, their appeal to the stately European powers who were the guarantors of configurations, irritated Porto. In Istanbul, believed that the "Armenian question" can be used to collapse the rest of the empire. As previously used the "Greek", "bell", "Serbian" questions.

In 1894, the massacre of Armenians in Sasun (a mountainous region of southern Turkey in the Armenian Taurus). Our homeland, France and the UK was cooperative diplomatic protest. Sultan decided that the interference in the internal affairs of the empire and said tightening policies against the Armenians. Istanbul Armenians to play off the Kurds, pursued a policy of kurdizatsii Armenian lands. Against the Armenians put troops Hamidie (Hamidi), it was well armed Kurdish irregular cavalry unit that operated in the eastern regions of the Ottoman Empire. They were named in honor of the Sultan, which they did in 1890 — Abdul-Hamid II (ruled 1876-1909 years). In etnogenotside assumed the role of permanent and Turkish troops, militia, fanatical softs (young people 12-25 years old, who intended to spiritual formation). In total, the massacre of the Armenians and other Christians of the Ottoman Empire were killed, according to various estimates, from 80 thousand to 300 thousand people. Another 100 thousand people have fled to Russia, Bulgaria, Egypt.

According to the memoirs of witnesses Armenians slaughtered like sheep, hung upside down, took off the skin, cut into pieces and set fire to the houses, or having poured kerosene, buried alive, shot tied in groups of 50 people. Spared neither pregnant ladies or kids, it was a real genocide on ethnic and religious grounds.

Our homeland refrained from interfering in the one-sided manner, the wound in 1878 was still the freshest in the memory. Along with Paris and London, diplomatic pressure on Istanbul, were able to stop the slaughter. For the first time in the history of the world was formed international commission to investigate the crimes of the representatives of Britain, France, Italy and Russia (St. Petersburg represented the prominent Russian lawyer Martens). Martens suggested on the basis of the material studied to make a legal basis for international legal assessment of similar atrocities. But Western countries refused to go on a similar move to Istanbul and to impose sanctions.

Germany at that time took the unusual position. Berlin has not joined the diplomatic protests, acting as the "only one" of the Sultan. Abdul-Hamid thanked the Germans — was adopted by the construction of the railroad, which was connected to Berlin, Vienna, Istanbul and Baghdad. This project has riveted Turkey to Germany and gave the Germans a huge economic benefits.

In 1899, after a visit to William II of the Ottoman Empire, the head of Siemens AG, Deutsche Bank, signed the agreement on the preparatory concession to build and operate the main highway Baghdad steel road — from Konya through Baghdad to the Persian Gulf. In 1903, the concession was completely framed. By 1906, the German construction workers built a line of Izmit — Eskisehir — Konya — Eregli (about 900 km), with a branch Eskisehir — Turkey (263 km). This project has caused great concern of — in the case of the northern variant, the Turks could by rail flip troops to the border with the Caucasus Russian Empire. And the UK — a danger to its sphere of influence in Egypt, Persia and India.

William declared himself the "friend and protector of all Muslims." It also irked Britain, France and Russia. The Ottoman Empire eventually became a "friend" of Berlin in World War acted on the side of the German Empire.

Peacekeeping policy Petersburg

At the current time, the international community firmly enough forgotten the fact that our home at the time of the first tried to organize a general "disarmament". In May and July 1899 at the initiative of St. Petersburg was called the Hague Conference. It has taken the role of the 26 States. Its chairman was a prominent Russian diplomat and a municipal worker Baron Yegor Ye Staal.

Our homeland is proposed to reduce armaments and develop mechanisms for international arbitration and the peaceful settlement of conflicts. The then "predators" considered such proposals delirium. Russia and Nicholas II just picked up on laughter. In the end, it came down to the formal words in support of "peace." Adopted three conventions: On the peaceful resolution of international conflicts; Laws and Customs of War on Land, on application to the naval war principles of the Geneva Conventions August 10, 1864. 5 years were forbidden bombing balloons and similar new methods; rebuked explosive bullets and shells with chemical weapon.

The world on the way to the First World War.  Part 4

Baghdad the railroad track.

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