The world on the way to the second world war

The world on the way to World War II
2nd Global war broke out in the capitalist world, its main causes are rooted in the very nature of capitalism and imperialism. The capitalist system leads to no small controversy between countries, the economic crisis, which can be overcome only by the Great War. It is a system where the stronger countries are parasitic on feeble states.

The main bundle of contradictions was tied at the end of the First World War, the Versailles system gave all the advantages of the United States, Britain, France, in part. Our homeland and Germany have been humiliated, dismembered, Italy and Japan were dissatisfied with the fruits, wanted more. Made entirely artificial countries — Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, Poland. Made such boundaries, which constantly led to territorial disputes. Already in the 20's in Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and Portugal were established authoritarian and fascist and Nazi regimes — it was an attempt to survive in the criteria of severe crisis in the 30 years they were joined by several similar modes — in Spain , Germany and Finland.

The world was divided into three groups: in the capitalist camp stood the "axis" Tokyo-Berlin-Tokyo (later joined by several other states), the "democratic" countries — France and the United Kingdom, with the prospect of accession to the United States. And both units were anti-Soviet and anti-Communist, to the Soviet Union was their enemy.

Japan has for decades nurtured plan "Great Japan" and made in that direction real steps: in the late 19th century war with China and the capture of a number of territories, including Formosa, Taiwan, in 1904-1905. War on Russian Empire, capturing her Kuril Islands, southern Sakhalin, getting under their own protectorate Korean Peninsula in 1931, the seizure of Manchuria, the creation of dependent country of Manchukuo, a springboard for the upcoming expansion against China and the attack on the USSR in 1933, came out of the League of Nations in 1937, an attack on China, capturing tremendous areas of China.

Hitler was already a few days after coming to power, said: "The aim of all policies in one: again seize political power. To this must be at the public administration (all bodies!). Construction of the Wehrmacht — an important prerequisite for the purpose of Merit — the conquest of political power. " All in the 3rd Reich — the economy, ideology, propaganda, political life and even magical quest — was focused on preparations for external expansion, wars of conquest. In October 1933 Germany withdrew from the League of Nations, in March 1935, in violation of Versailles obligations imposed conscription, and started to create half a million strong army (there were 100 thousand). Hitler in August 1936 issued a memorandum on economic preparation for war, it was pointed out that in four years the economy of the country should be prepared for war. Hitler planned to crush France, Germany, adding to the north of France, Holland, Denmark and Sweden. In the East, going to grab the actual place, having spent the occupied territories "ruthless Germanization."

The German military has since 1935 developed the plans for the war against France (the plan "Roth"), against Austria ("Otto"), against Czechoslovakia (the plan "Grim"). In the spring of 1936 the German armed forces have occupied the demilitarized Rhineland, in the summer of 1936, together with the Italian armed forces, supported the rebels in Spain. On the side of the rebels led war to 150 thousand Italians and 50 thousand Germans.

Preparing for the expansion of Italy: in 1934 adopted a law "On the militarization of the Italian nation", to create a plan to transform the Mediterranean into an "Italian Lake", plans submission to the will of the Balkan Peninsula, Rome. In 1935, the Italian army captures Ethiopia, strengthening the position of Rome in Africa and once on a strategic path Mediterranean Sea — Reddish Sea — Indian Ocean. In 1937, Italy withdrew from the League of Nations.

France and Britain were cleverly-wise policy of "appeasement" of the aggressors, planning to push Germany and its allies with the Soviet Union and later to finish off the weakened favorite or agree with him about the "prey." Financial and industrial circles in the U.S., the UK, France, the so-called "financial International", provided financial, economic, technological assistance to Germany, directing her anger to the East, making Germany the favorite "crusade" Europe against "Bolshevism".

First military alliance was created in October 1936 — "Berlin-Rome axis", Berlin admitted capture Rome Ethiopia, outlined plans for aid to the rebels in Spain, demarcated "spheres of influence" in the Balkans and in the Danube basin. In the same year signed the "Anti-Comintern pact" between Tokyo and Berlin, in 1937, he was joined by Rome. This was anti-Soviet alliance, the parties agreed that if one of the states will attack USSR, others have pledged not to assist Russian Union.

In March 1938, the 3rd Reich annexed the Republic of Austria, the world without encountering any resistance. In Berlin, made no secret of their plans for Austria, but the sample Austrian government in 1937 to get support in France and the United Kingdom failed. During the day before the invasion of the Wehrmacht Austrian authorities turned again to Paris and London for help, but in Paris, said that nothing can not assist, London said he did not give any guarantee or even advice. At the end of September 1938 the 'democratic' powers surrendered his protege — Czechoslovakia. Even Hitler did not expect such ease, saying that it happens only once in history. He believed that Britain and France would not fight a war for Czechoslovakia, but will have to subordinate itself Czechoslovakia by military means.

In autumn 1938 began "Danzig crisis" to the diplomatic pressure on Warsaw, the German media launched a campaign under the motto: "Danzig must be German"; military government of the Reich is developing a plan to capture the town. In the future, the Berlin reclaims return of Danzig to Germany and to allow the highway to East Prussia and metal road through so called "Polish Corridor".

In March 1939, the Wehrmacht conquered Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic became part of the German Empire, Slovakia turned into a vassal government, was captured Memel (Klaipeda). In April of that year, Italy invaded Albania.

Western governments continued the policy of "appeasement", but that does not alienate allies — 31 March London said that "guarantees" the independence of Poland, and later in Greece, Romania and Turkey. These "guarantees" and gave France. Once conducted secret negotiations with Berlin, agreements were signed a non-aggression. Because Hitler was aware that "guarantees" in Paris and London — it's a bluff, deception. With the Russian Union was negotiated, but for a "blind" and not to look for a real military alliance.

April 3, 1939 Chief of Staff of the Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht (OKW) Keitel sent a commander of land, air, naval forces preparatory plan for war with Poland, the plan "Weiss" — "White plan. " April 28, 1939 in Berlin terminated the Polish-German non-aggression pact and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.

Union waged an uphill battle aimed at something that would save Europe from sliding into World War II, a lot of effort izderzhal to create a system of "collective security." Offered military aid to Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, they rejected it. Offered to make a military alliance with France and Britain, forcing it to stop Hitler's anger. Only when the Kremlin realized that the war did not stop, have begun to implement policies aimed at postponing the entry of the USSR into the war, the expansion of "perimeter security" by pushing the boundary to the west, away from Minsk, Kiev, Leningrad and Moscow. Moscow and take into account the danger from the East — in 1938 there were fights at Hassan in August 1939 was a real war on the borders of Mongolia. The contract with Berlin inflicted of strongest blow to the Tokyo, in the Land of the Rising Sun was a change of government. Tokyo has become more and more inclined to believe that it is necessary to develop the expansion in the South, not the North. The USSR won a strategic victory, causing the cooling in relations Berlin's and Tokyo. And dealt a blow to the plan of Paris to London — "pacify" Germany at the expense of Russian Union.

Berlin was also not against the non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, initially planning to resolve the issue with the Western Front, and only later hit on the Union. In addition, to prevent the union of Paris and London to Moscow, which would have wiped out many of the plans.

The history of diplomacy. Volumes 3-4. M., 1959-1979.
Criminal purpose of Nazi Germany in the war against the Russian Union. Documents and materials. Moscow, 1987.
Japanese militarism. Military-historical research. Moscow, 1972.

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