Solved the mystery of the lost civilization professor of Moscow Nikolay Koronovskii
For several millennia, mankind is haunted by the mystery of Atlantis — the mysterious state, disappeared in the depths of the sea. Attempts to find her have been many times, but none of them was successful. But Moscow professor, head of the Moscow State University of dynamic geology Nicholas Koronovskii convinced that he was able to not only solve the mystery of Atlantis, but even on her visit. In his lectures, he says in the most detailed manner the geological history of Atlantis and analyzes the reasons for its demise.
— Nikolai Vladimirovich, where did your passion for Atlantis?
— Like so many others, with Plato, who wrote in his "analogy" that there was once a great state — Atlantis, inhabited by warlike people of Atlanta. They lived on several islands, the largest of which was the capital of Atlantis. This island has an almost perfect circular shape, the length and breadth was cut by channels. At its center was a high mountain, the slopes of which hit numerous hot springs. At first glance it's fantastic. However, I drew attention to the fact that Plato's Atlantis is the best fit the description of the island of volcanic origin, having the shape of a round bowl — the caldera, which in Spanish means "pot". It remained only to find him.
— Plato wrote that Atlantis was located somewhere west of the Pillars of Hercules, ie the Strait of Gibraltar, but no trace of the Atlantic to discover it was not possible.
— So say unnamed Egyptian priests, telling the story of Plato's Atlantis. But in the same book it in passing, as if the hearsay mentions that shortly before the destruction of Atlantis its army attacked Hellas, but suffered a crushing defeat. The Athenians pursued the Atlanteans to the gates of their capital, where he died suddenly when Atlantis sank into the depths of the sea. It seems unlikely that the ancient Greeks, at the dawn of its history, owned the only coastal trade, suddenly, for no reason at all rushed to the retreating enemy as far as the Atlantic Ocean. This option is possible only if we assume that Atlantis was located in close proximity to the mainland of Greece, that is, in the Aegean Sea.
— Which of the many islands of the Cycladic arc can claim the role of Atlantis?
— As a geologist, I definitely do bet on Santorini — a rather large island, located 120 km north of the famous Crete. With the Greek word "Santorini" is translated as "island of St. Irene," but that the later name. In ancient times it was called differently — Strong, which translates as "round." This in itself is strange. The fact that no islands in place Santorina not. In
Currently, it consists of several small semi-circular islands, the largest of which is called Tyre, surrounded by vast, with a diameter of 10-12 km, sea rounded cavity. At its center are two small islands — Palea Kameni and Nea Kameni. The main feature of all the islands that make up Santorini, is a thick, 5-10 to 100-140 meters of pumice layer overlying the more ancient deposits. A layer of this thickness can be formed only during a very violent eruption of the volcano. Obviously, after the Santorini and ceased to exist as whole island.
— However, this is still no evidence that it was the center of Santorini civilization of Atlantis?
— There is other evidence. Suffice it to recall the excavation Spyridon Marinatos. In the late 60-ies of XX century on the southern tip of the island of Tyre, near the village of Akrotiri, a layer of light-gray volcanic pumice he had found the whole city. And what! Along the wide paved streets were two-and three-story stone house, equipped with running water and sanitation. The rooms were decorated with gorgeous colored frescoes, now stored at the Athens Historical Museum. No less a historical value had pithoi or clay vessels with a sharp bottom, used to keep the fish, grains, olive oil. Were found and numerous craft shops. Lived in the city, according to conservative estimates, a few thousand people. But the surprising thing is that — unlike Pompeii, no trace of human remains at Akrotiri could not be found. On closer inspection it turned out that the houses are no jewelry and other valuables. Apparently, the population left the city in advance.
— But how the Atlanteans, if it was they learned of the impending disaster?
— They saved the case. Eruption was preceded by a massive earthquake, as indicated by the pattern of injuries excavated buildings. Atlanta centuries lived on the slopes of the volcano and well presented, that is likely to follow. Apparently, their civilization was highly enough, in a short time to hold a mass evacuation. I do not know whether they are aware of the scale of the impending disaster, to understand that there is no place to return to. Maybe just need to find a new land suitable for living, and has led to a sudden attack of Atlantis on the Athenians. Anyway, they left the island. Find out how fate survivors — a task of historians. I can only reconstruct the geological history of Santorini.
— By what scenario unfolding disaster?
— In the magma chamber, the magma reservoir, is located at a depth of 5-10 km beneath the cone of the volcano began to increase the pressure of gases. When it became very high, cone-shaped peak of the volcano could not stand the pressure and was destroyed by the explosion. Magma was able to escape. Entering into a region of lower pressure, the acid magma began to swell and turn into the well-known pumice. The debris ejected from its crater of the volcano, as if it were a giant gun barrel. How long did this "bombing" is hard to say, maybe a few days. Pumice layer thickness of several tens of meters covered the whole island, burying Akrotiri and other cities of Atlantis, unknown to us. When most of the lava spilled out into the magma chamber there was a shortage of mass, and the volcano collapsed inward, forming a huge bowl — the caldera, a depth of over 500 meters Almost immediately it filled with water, blowing on the bottom of the sea brilliant civilization of Atlantis.
The remains of a collapsed volcano on the island of Santorini.
— The capital of Atlantis was lost, but there were other islands?
— They also did not pass a disaster. Atlanta sailors were unsurpassed. It is no accident, according to legend, the first king of this nation was the son of Poseidon, god of the sea — Atlanta. The civilization of Atlantis has been firmly linked to the sea, or rather, the Mediterranean trade. At the time, the underwater expedition of Jacques Cousteau discovered off the northern coast of Crete large number of shipwrecks loaded with amphorae. Date of death — about 1550 BC — strikingly coincides with the eruption of a volcano on the island of Santorini. Most likely, the cause of their deaths were a tsunami, a giant wave as tall as a ten-storied house, caused by the explosion. Overnight, the Atlanteans have lost much of its fleet. Affected and coastal cities. Obviously, it was then destroyed by the famous palace of King Minos of Knossos on Crete's north and in the south of Fez. The disaster also affected other parts of the known world. The volcano exploded with such tremendous force that pumice covered all the Cycladic island arc. A huge cloud of volcanic ash rose into the air to a height of 15-30 km. The Eastern Mediterranean region was plunged into darkness. There was a real "nuclear winter", accompanied by pestilence and strokes. Climate, flora and fauna of the Mediterranean have changed. On Santorini, for example, ceased to grow olive trees, although the disaster they have met in these parts all over the place. The civilization of Atlantis was not able to survive a natural disaster of this scale and sunk into oblivion.
— Is a repeat disaster?
— Unfortunately, yes. Volcanic activity in the area of Santorini has not stopped. Over 3.5 thousand years since the destruction of Atlantis, the caldera rose new volcanic cone that rose above the sea surface in the form of islands of Palea and Nea Kameni. At the last fresh craters are clearly visible, the black blocky lava flows from fissures is sulfur dioxide. Volcano, ruined civilization of Atlantis continues to operate, as evidenced by the eruption of 1957. So, the nightmare can happen again.