Our homeland is the greatest country in the world with an area of 17,098,246 square meters. km, which is 11.46% (~ ninth part) of the total land area of the Earth, or 12.65% (~ 1/8 part) inhabited by a population of the land of sushi. It is almost two times more than that which occupies the second place in Canada
Our homeland has taken the first place among the countries whose resources are estimated at 10 trillion dollars-ki. Rating based web portal 24/7 Wall St.
The total price of natural resources exceeds the Russian Federation $ 75.5 trillion. Followed in the ranking of experts led the U.S. with supplies in $ 45 trillion, and Saudi Arabia, with almost $ 34.5 trillion. In the top 10 were: Canada, Iran, China, Brazil, Australia, Iraq and Venezuela.
Our homeland is in 1st place in the world confirmed the supplies of natural gas. For 2011, they are estimated at 44.8 trillion cubic meters. Iran — 29610, Qatar — 25370, Saudi Arabia — 7807, USA — 7616; Turkmeistan — 7504, United Arab Emirates — 6453, Nigeria — 5292, Venezuela — 5065, Algeria — 4502.
Russian budget for 2012:
Income — 9503469245, 0 thousand.
Expenses — 11,237,919 245.0 thousand rubles.
including 1655700000, 0 thousand thrifty spending on Defense
The expected budget deficit over 1,731,450 000.00 thousand rubles (about $ 1.73 trillion
The highest oil prices (based on $ 100/barel) and the gas is not posodeystvuyut close the budget deficit.
The Ministry of Finance, delivered a preparatory proposals to replenish the treasury due to the rapid growth of the excise tax on liquor, tobacco, and increasing the severance tax on gas.
The revenue side of the budget of the Russian Federation: More than 40% of the revenue side of the budget of the Russian Federation is formed by the oil and gas revenues / Putin.
A few of days before acting Minister of Finance Minister Anton Siluanov said that the cost of oil at $ 117 a barrel. RF provides sufficient budget. "Balancing our budget is reached at the cost of oil at $ 117 per barrel., "- He said.
The problem ON "THE HORIZON":
Briefly about the technology:
Oil shale belong to a group of other energy sources.
Explored supplies of organic carbon are: in the oil — 10 raising (11) t, coal — 10 raising (13) ton, oil shales — 10 raising (17) t.
"Homeland" shale gas is the United States. Here in 1821. William Hart drilled the first commercial gas well in shale formations. His development as revolutionary new type of fuel should tenacity of 1 person, George Mitchell, burivshego seams on the field Barnett 18 years old, have not been able to get in 1999. First commercial gas inflow. The discovery was a breakthrough so that as early as 2001. He sold the company profitably Mitchell Energy & Development for 3.5 billion U.S. dollars Devon Energy.
In short, the essence of the new South American method of extraction of gas from shale rock is learned that there is great to use horizontal drilling, coupled with the creation of the effect of water hammer due to the injection of water, sand and some chemical products. Specifically, it allows you to "collect" gas enveloping shale formations proburivaya not a huge amount of expensive wells.
Base for industrial development of gas production from shale formations has given scientific work of German special on energy economics, Hans-Holger. He submitted that the supplies of shale gas in the world more than usual.Scientists estimate them at 456 trillion cubic meters. m
Slap growth in shale gas production in the U.S. during the second half of the 2000s, has permitted the Yankees reach the gas self-sufficiency economy. As a result of America naikrupneyshgo importer in the world turned into fuel exporter.
In 2009, the United States ahead of Russia in gas production, and from that time delay leadership in this market.
On the horizon looms the global "shale revolution" that is about to sweep away the existing energy market and will build on its ruins a new "
It should be added that the U.S. has the world's largest fleet of drilling equipment, about 2 thousand for comparison, in Europe these only about 50. With all of this significant part of American plants stand idle.
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U.S. Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy Richard Morningstar has recently made a visit to Bulgaria, so that, apart from everything else, to force local authorities to review the national policy on shale gas (Republic imposed a moratorium on shale gas).
In April 2012. price for gas in the U.S. has dropped to $ 70 per 1 thousand cubic meters. m
Unexpected increases in shale gas production in the U.S., a drop in demand for gas due to the global financial crisis, which caused lower prices for South American spot market, has created the participants of the project — "Gazprom», Total and Statoil have questioned the need for a frisky start Stockman, the gas is expected to deliver a unified system of gas supply, and the remaining volume — send to the South American and European markets in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).
As a result, the start of gas production from the Shtokman project was postponed and the issue of the need for LNG production in general put under oscillation. "The implementation of the project involving the production capacity of LNG does not allow us to achieve shareholder requirements," — said the head of Shtokman Development AG Yury Komarov. He explained that at the moment the price of LNG and more than two times lower than the prices of contracts for pipeline gas in Europe.
Retrieved from "Gazpr
om" explained OGE that "Gazprom" is considering the possibility of acquiring company producing shale gas in the U.S. in order to study the technology of its extraction and use in other areas.
Blow "shale revolution" is already being felt. As a result, the U.S. shale gas fever States has refused to Qatari liquefied gas. Discouraged by the Arabs immediately redirected his domain in Europe undermining this world politics prices in the gas sector. In the end, the cost of "blue fuel" on the spot market fell by half, it is "hooked" with all this, and the interests of the Russian "Gazprom"
But there are significant challenges as environmental temper:
— inability to provide good-quality 100% clean of all volumes used for this technology and water as a result of infection of groundwater;
-with the gas can rise to the surface of benzene, arsenic, and radioactive materials;
and technological temper:
-drilling horizontal wells
-rapid depletion of the "shale" wells
as well as the cost of:
— shale well is much more expensive. The price difference is compensated more than the highest rate of shale wells. But in order to maintain production at the same level, you need to drill more and more skvazhiny.Debity shale wells in the initial stage up to 500 thousand m ³ of gas per day, within a year they drop by 70% and then slowly fall to 9-15%, and the cycle of the well-to-date price of $ 3.10 million is 8-12 years.
Favorites of European (and not only) of tirelessly repeat what they actually need to get rid of the "dependency" on imports of Russian gas. And in this struggle, the West does not miss the 1st chance to get off Russian gas needle.
"Poland in advance of future gas dubbed the breadbasket of the whole of Europe. EIA estimated the Polish shale gas supplies to 5.3 trillion cubic meters. For a long time the Polish administration strongly emphasized the future of shale greatness of their country and promised to start production if not today, then tomorrow. Time passed. exploration began. And here went nasty surprises. Thus, the company ExxonMobil on the results of exploration activities has announced that commercial production of shale in Europe can be expected to produce more than 5 years, and faster in Germany and Poland are not, hinting that the prospects for Poland's actually remains.
But the fact remains:
When the structure of the existing Russian economy, and if successful, the march "shale revolution" on planet, the possibility of a deficit budget in excess of the Russian Federation is very high, which automatically leads to a reduction in defense spending, the disruption of many gos.oboron orders, and as a result: a substantial reduction in the defense of our country .
What will it mean for Russia this situation — certainly do not need to explain every schoolboy.
A lot of looking around 2razinut rotok the opponent's back "
Some "responsible" municipal affairs "our partners" have openly stated:
"None of what global justice is not out of the question until such territory as Siberia, has a single country. Now, if it was another country, then — another thing! .." / The last U.S. Secretary of State Albright.
Sources disk imaging:
"Chemistry and Life" № March 1981