Home majestically Russian war coincided with the final exams at the Metropolitan Municipal Pedagogical Institute. Lenin (Moscow State Pedagogical Institute). In connection with this examination process has been accelerated, and July 1 to all graduates, including me, were awarded certificates of graduation. And on July 3, 1941 in Stalin's speech on the radio there was a call to join the Militia. Students and teachers of the Moscow State Pedagogical enthusiastically responded to the call. I remember the atmosphere of general lift and firm conviction that the enemy will be destroyed as soon as possible on his own terrain. Some of us, students, even implied that prazdnichek November 7, we will celebrate already defeated Berlin. After all, newspapers, movies, radio decades assured our people in the invincibility of the Red Army in the fact that under the Communist Party and the leader of our majestic though what the enemy will be defeated in his own land.
The 5th Division of the People's Militia Frunze district of Moscow began to form immediately after the meeting held on 4 July at Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. This was done by the Frunze district committee of the CPSU (b) and the secretaries of party committees, companies and institutions located in the area of our district. Usually, the party workers in the military poorly understood, and the role of the military enlistment office was limited only to the selection of candidates for the post of commander, the lists of which were later approved by the district committee of the CPSU (b). Hence the lack of professionalism in this fundamental fact. Raykom same party, apparently reacted to the formation of the militia as a purely political campaign.
It seems to me to form a people's militia was verbovanie the ranks of the defenders of the homeland of people who, for one reason or another, and it is for health reasons, are not subject to conscription into the armed forces. But in fact, turned out differently. We took all those who wished to become militias. And there was a huge amount. With all of this does not take into account where the volunteer can bring more utility — in production or in the trenches. All were privates or junior commanders. This led to the fact that many commanders and military experts at the supplies were in the militia in the position of ordinary soldiers. Many of them have not been needed.
In ordinary students even wrote down 4 or 5 courses of medical institutions (in the Frunze district there were two). However, later (I think in August) of these students have withdrawn from the militia, and they are within a few months of study were physicians.
Illustrative case with ordinary militias Petrovsky, which before the war was the head of the laboratory at the dilemmas of mercury almost the only time in the country. Besides, he had the rank of a military engineer of the second rank of supplies. Company commander exploration of our division captain Dudkin needed himinstruktor company. The captain asked for the construction of the morning: "Who is familiar with chemistry?" Private Peter said. The captain replied, "So be it, you will now himinstruktorom company." Peter asked if he could put put him in rank insignia, on which he received the agreement. Freshly himinstruktor asked to go on leave and bought in voentorgovskoy shop signs, put him in rank. The next day in the morning he was standing building with 3 sleepers in their buttonholes. Hard to imagine how indignant Doudkin captain, who had only one tie. When it all became clear to the division headquarters, Peter was appointed deputy chief of chemical service throughout our division.
Such incidents are not uncommon. Here is another example. With me in the dugout coexisted ordinary militiaman Shapiro. It was already old in comparison with us man, very modest and discreet fighter. As it turned out, he had the rank of senior battalion commissar supplies. Soon he was appointed commissioner of one of the parts of our division. Haste, forgetting simple requirements of the military account when forming the voluntary portion of the proceeds to the point that, for example, our Frunze military enlistment office did not even figured out the military profession and volunteer their rank in supplies. This was compounded by the same what happened on the formation of militia companies and organizations, which have worked not only the inhabitants of the area. But not all militias have been registered at the place of work in the Frunze district and consisted there in military records.
I think, and the ROK military enlistment of the CPSU (b) the event does not take into account and does not notify the appropriate authorities of the territories of volunteers. Later, this led to the fact that on the agenda of the recruiting office to be inducted into the army people are naturally not responded because it is located at the front or at the time even died in the fighting. They fall into the category of "missing", which very often equated with being in captivity and longed for a languid consequences for their families and loved ones. As revealed in the upcoming, in the Frunze military enlistment office was not even entered the lists in the Militia. Of that I am sure in person in 1957, when asked for help there, confirming the fact of my entry into the militia. By the way, in 1957 there was no such lists and the Frunze Committee of the CPSU, which explained to me that the lists were destroyed in the troubled days of mid-October 1941, when there was a threat of capture by the Nazis flat in Moscow.
In the militia had gone the color of the capital of the intelligentsia. So, for example, known architect Yevgeny Vuchetich and many other distinguished artists of the time were some ordinary militia divisions of our area, which was 35-40% of people with higher and secondary education. As for the composition of the party, the Communists and Komsomol members were there for more than 60% (the table in a meeting Komsomol Division in September 1941).
Joined the Militia gathered at the Institute of Foreign Languages at Metrostroy Street (now Ostozhenka). Militias — the students of Moscow State Pedagogical — were surprised and saddened by the lack of volunteers in the middle of the most active campaigners for joining the Militia — Secretary of the Komsomol Committee of the Institute Alexander Frolov and party organizer history department A. They were. As it turned out, was the first officer of the special department of another military unit, the second — the Commissioner or the army, or the front-line of song and dance (after the war a Balea worked in the Central Committee of the Communist Party).
On Metrostroy formed special units of the division: Engineer Battalion, reconnaissance company, battalion and other infantry regiments were formed in the buildings of several high schools in our district. My friends and I signed up for a reconnaissance company cyclists. Exactly what it is, we do not know, but we were lured title. Later it turned out that it spies on the Great.
8 or 9 July 1941 our division is performed from Moscow to the front on the highway Starokaluzhskoye (then paved with cobblestones). The spectacle was impressive: Stomp, roar of voices, the roar of the artillery of an old standard (in the main howitzers from the arsenals of the times plainclothes war) on a metal track and horse-drawn cloud of dust over the columns militias. At the same ranks were the workers and employees of factories "rubber" and "Electric power", factories them. Sverdlov them. Thalmann, &
quot;Reddish Rose" and others, teachers and students of the 1st and 2nd medical institutions, Moscow State Pedagogical Institute, the Institute of Chemical Technology, narrow. University, several colleges. Age militias ranged from 17 to 55 years. Completely non-military people were going to defend Moscow. They walked in their own civil clothes, with their spoons and mugs. Wondered the same thing: how to assist our hold of the Red Army, to suspend the enemy, to protect the capital. Individuals were brutal and at the same time joyful and nervous. After all, we were going into the unknown.
The first large camp was organized in the village Tolstopaltsevo, about 30-40 km from Moscow. I, the citizen, who went on foot never more than 8-10 km, as well as many other militias, held up a little breather. The feet were worn to blisters.
At a halt and we were given great outfit — shirt and caps gray, almost dark in color, the same color pants breeches, black boots and a coil. It was said that this outfit was kept from the time of the royal army, and then intended to business units. In such form, we looked especially — quite like the Italian Blackshirts (as we used them to represent themselves). Instead we got coats jackets khaki-type jackets, in what later, when we were transferred to the horses, was comfortably sit in the saddle. And to top it off, our company has received the Polish rifle without ammunition. And if you add to this that we have replaced later with the bike on the emaciated horses, you can imagine how ridiculous we looked.
All my life remember how we, the citizens, and often does not come close to the horses, taught riding formidable lieutenant Kovalenko, called out of supplies. First, the training was, usually, without a saddle. Backs malnourished animals reminded the board set on edge. After these sessions our underwear was covered in blood. But Kovalenko was relentless. The complainants, he tied a rope feet under the belly of horses and went everyday "learning." From this suffering rescued only medical unit. Issuance of saddles we accepted as prazdnichek. In the very short term we have learned sit in the saddle. Later, I remembered with gratitude Kovalenko, whose bloodthirsty lessons are very needed at the front: for I have learned to freely sit in the saddle. But it all came later. And then, during a halt at the village Tolstopaltsevo, which lasted a few days, we still have caught like military formation, albeit in an unusual outfit.
Often we enfold alarm over the troubles at the front, which we guessed at a very vague summary of the Soviet Information Bureau. But to believe in the worst did not want.
Later, the location of the company scouts became area Tishnevo village under Borovsky. In the company, albeit with interruptions associated with the arrangement of military positions and chores, was so called combat training: disassembly, cleaning and reassembly shutter rifle training appeal to her in battle, etc. (classes on the subject were held in August when the Polish rifles we changed to the Russian with appropriate ammunition). In addition, we have been taught movement and bounds on their bellies, the personal digging, etc. Unfortunately, shooting sessions were only 2 times. It was obvious enough: many of us for the first time in his life took up the battle rifles. I think that it was in all parts of our connection. In addition, the company of men of intelligence is often used as transmitting the delivery of ammunition and a bottle of flammable liquid with a front and army warehouses.
In this regard, recall one funniest thing that happened when we were still wearing the black uniform. In one of his first trips to Moscow for bottles of flammable liquid we first rushed to the bakery, next to the Kursk railway station (in July 1941 ration cards in Moscow has not yet been introduced). The car was left under the supervision of the said ordinary Petrovsky, differing not only the highest growth, and for the extraordinary appearance since then — he had a mustache and a small beard.
When we loaded loaves came out of the bakery, in front of us was a tragicomic picture: Peter was very scattered surrounded by a mass of women, most of them old, who yelled that caught a spy and called the police. From all sides to the mass fleeing police. Our friend, dressed in black uniforms with extraordinary (Polish) rifle, even at his mustache and beard took over the German spy parachutist. With difficulty we recaptured the Petrovsky from the crowd and explained to all our kind of stunned police officers by showing them the documents.
In August, in a village in the Kaluga region. First secretary of the Frunze district party committee Boguslavskiy in a festive atmosphere handed martial division reddish banner. Who arrived in the middle of the occasion was the boss and one woman — the secretary of the Frunze RK VKP (b) Catherine Furtseva — then recognized party leader and Minister of Culture of the USSR. Immediately militia and took the military oath. Pereobmundirovali us in the form of soldiers of the Red Army.
Soon division moved to another area of the Kaluga region., which lasted for combat training, from which we are often torn by all the same chores and travel. In the coming we are often tossed from 1st Reserve area on the front of the other. We were on the Rzhev-Vyazemskoye direction, then through Medyn and Yuhnov we relocated to the area of the village of Bolshaya Bobrovka. It was felt that the situation is aggravated by our troops. Often, we drove past the rear cattle, and later began to appear refugees taschivshie carts laden with household goods uncomplicated. They were in charge of us languishing battles that led our troops in the Smolensk region. In the second half of September and the group appeared exhausted Red Army to break out near Smolensk.
We have beheld his planes in the air is very rare, but at one point witnessed how our fighter shot down a German reconnaissance aircraft dvuhfyuzelyazhny "Focke-Wulf" (we called it "frame"). These "frame" did not give us peace: they were hanging over us, doing, apparently, exploration, and even dropped bombs on the placement of our parts. Roth's intelligence division and other divisions of soldiers after a long search, found the crew of a downed aircraft. German prisoners — an officer and two lance corporal — were the first by the Nazis, whom I met at the front. Then I was struck by one Corporal, past office. He did not realize immediately what was discussed when the interpreter asked him, "How are you, proletarian, went to war against the country of the Soviets — the birthplace of the proletarians of the world?" Lance replied that in their part of the workers and farmers most, and their "fatherland" (home) — not our native country, and Germany. Such a response to the prisoner led us to think about the meaning of the motto "Russian Alliance — homeland of the world proletariat."
September 12, 1941 our militia-Army division assigned a room and she was named the 113th Infantry Division. Before the war, the division of that number was stationed nearby state border and took the fight in the first days of the same after the German invasion of the Soviet Union. In the course of these battles, retreating from the border to Orsha, it was completely defeated and ceased to exist. So Makar, we militias became the second cast 113th Division (I'll tell that this situation was repeated with the 113th Division twice — first in October 1941 and in January-March 1942).
About languid first battle in Oct
ober 1941, which led not only our division, Emergency and the whole front, who by that time the West, about the tremendous losses of the division and the heroism of soldiers, militia give some idea of the book "Battle for Moscow" collection "Militias on the defense of Moscow. Documents and Materials on the formation and operations of the Moscow militia. 6 July 1941 — January 1942 "and the monograph by J. Kolesnik" Militia hero cities ", released by the publishing house" Capital worker "in the 1970s.
At the beginning of October, when I was transferred from the reconnaissance company in the infantry regiment, we took up positions east of the city of Kirov, Kaluga region. Following a massive artillery shelling and intense bombardment from the air coming in went the enemy tanks and motorized infantry under their protection. Russian aircraft we beheld.
Our parts with large losses still repulsed the first attack. Very has promoted us in this anti-artillery battalion, which seemed in the division shortly before the October fighting. But Hitler's troops, ignoring the part of the Red Army who were in them in the rear, on the night of 3 to 4 October rushed the Warsaw highway to Moscow. The rest is in the surviving soldiers and commanders of our divisions focused in the forest north-east of Kirov. In this group, there were about two thousand people, among them was the division commander, Major-General and the Commissioner of the division Presnyakov Antropov. Presnyakov meeting put on a little puzzle rapidly formed from the remaining units of fighters and get ready to move to the east. With all of this every moment likely had a meeting with the enemy.
First, we had to cross the highway passes near Warsaw. Twilight. At the approach to the highway we were supported by fire several installations "Katyusha" Division of the Guards missile mortars, retreated, apparently from Belarus and caught up in the location of our troops. Personnel, of course, did not know about. After a few volleys to move around on the highway road vehicles and military vehicles were blown up by an enemy installation. Perhaps they ran out of ammunition. We were stunned by this sudden support. More sudden it was, apparently, for the Germans. Driving on the highway at a certain time is over, and we were able to cross it easily.
In the remainder of the night we were able to move to the east by 10-15 km and centered in the woods near the station and the village Chaplyaevka in the north-east of Kirov. After resting there and waiting for darkness, we intended to move further to the east to connect with parts of the Red Army. Along the edge of the forest in which we settled down, dragged on a dirt road. By evening, it appeared on a column of armored personnel carriers, vehicles with infantry and a small group of light tanks. When the lead car approached the edge of the forest, we were surprised to find in it a reddish flag. Later, after looking, considered the center of his circle with a swastika. The appearance of the enemy caught us by surprise. The only shelter were the trunks of trees. Time trying to dig a trench at least personal, was not. General Presnyakov gave the command: "Prepare for battle, but the fire did not open without a team".
When the enemy came close to the forest, many of the soldiers did not survive the chaotic and opened fire. The Germans by surprise braked. In their column, all mixed up, machines and infantry rushed forward, but then, breaking the confusion, the convoy turned around. Tanks and armored personnel carriers moved to the forest, leading to fire the course, including the explosive bullets that are flying over our heads, torn later even from light contact with the foliage of trees. Create a full memory environment. Panic spread, which barely managed to stop. With all of this a lot of fighters, and especially commanders and political workers were killed. During this battle, we have lost the remains of artillery, all the cars and horses.
Against tanks, we were only grenades and bottles of flammable liquid. The knowledge that we are doomed, but by all means have to stand and do not miss the enemy in the heart of the forest, has urged us to resist fiercely. Red Army soldier Misha Vilinov, fighter Company Intelligence, a graduate of Moscow State Pedagogical Institute, Faculty of Geography, close-bottles of flammable liquid burned a tank, but for all that he has died. A group in which I was, headed by the young lieutenant Nikolai Smirnov. We managed to cut off from the tank to follow him and a group of marines to kill her and then grenades and Molotov consistency burn two light tanks.
Not far from the place where I was held back a group of Nazi head of the Red Army, in the midst of which I vyznat graduate student of Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow State Pedagogical Levitan and young PhD K. Vinogradov, my countryman of Donbass. Levitan threw a grenade under the tank, receiving all of the severely wounded. Other men also threw grenades at tanks and armored personnel carriers and Molotov consistency. We managed to kill a large part of tanks, armored personnel carriers, infantry, wedged into the forest, and to capture a group of Germans. With the coming of darkness the Germans finished sample to crush our defense. We survived. Levitan and Vinogradov were killed in that battle.
Hard to find our loss. They were huge. About two thousand people were less able to move around 300-350. As it turned out, after the war, General Commissioner Presnyakov and Antropov were seriously wounded and taken prisoner, where well-behaved. There they were killed.
I had to decide what to do with captured Germans. There were about 8-10 people. Take them with you was impossible, and release it — meant to substitute themselves for a mortal blow, much less that the driven snow right imprinted our footprints. The desperate situation has forced us to the Nazis is not to take.
I remember what kind of trouble we caused the fate of seriously wounded. All signs of life we have with them, carried them on makeshift stretchers, and then left the villages in the care of local residents. There was no alternative. Many of the seriously wounded survivors. In the villages, they hid and nursed. With the fear I think of the fate of those who are in that battle was seriously injured or wounded and was in deep shock. Then all we seemed dead. You can imagine for yourself what happened when the Nazis for the next day occupied these places.
Most of the militia, was surrounded, tried, as our group to get through to her. Many of them were killed in clashes with the Nazis and local policemen. Separate "encirclement", dressed in civilian clothes, were in the villages. These were called "Priymak." Some militias have moved to relatives in their homes, if by that time they had not yet been captured by the Nazis.
Our group after the battle at Chaplyaevki led the regimental commissar Klobukov. Through the back trails, mostly at night we moved to the east. Had to rely on the advice of local residents a more comfortable and non-hazardous route to Moscow. In a few clicks night we went out to the south of the Ugra River Yukhnov. There we encountered a unit of German fighter. Fight, we were not able to because we did not even have bullets. The Germans took us into the ring and drove the Warsaw highway in Yuhnov. So Makar, the remains of the central parts of our 113th Division ceased to exist as a military unit.
In Yukhnov on a large farmyard at the slaughterhouse, surrounded by rows of Stitching wire, us, the prisoners, was from 12 to 15 thousand people. A day la
ter we batches of 1.5-2 thousand people began to build a tower, that chase the Warsaw highway to the west. When you exit from the barnyard to me sent a note a German soldier shouted, "Du Bist Jude?" ("Are you a Jew?" — It.) In surprise at one point I was speechless, but marching next to the guys with whom I had become friends, suddenly shouted: "Caucasus!" The shot was not followed, and after a couple of minutes our rank jumped the gate.
In coming to me, along with Lieutenant ND Smirnov managed to escape. At one of the rest stops we were buried in a large haystack, lay there for several hours, and at dawn drove to the east. December 16th we met part of the Red Army. Then the special department of the "Smersh" sent us a man 20-25 "encircled" by checking in Moscow, after which I returned to the front. But that's another story that goes beyond the real part of the memoirs. As for Nikolai Smirnov, his, as I later vyznat, sent to a hard test in Mordovia camp, where he fell ill with tuberculosis fleeting and soon died. Such cases were not uncommon, especially in the first period of the war.
In conclusion, I would like to say that Capital has brought the militia own contribution to the defense of the capital. His fighters showed the highest patriotism and resistance. Untrained, poorly armed militia were actually condemned to death, but they honestly fulfilled its own duty to the homeland. Let us bow our heads to a cherished memory of the victims.