Declared the best Russian scientists in 2012

Their names are traditionally called the day before February 8, Day of Science. Laureates represent different areas of expertise. This biologist Dmitry Eccentrics, historian Andrey Usachev, Physics Fedor Ignatov and Cornelius Todyshev, chemist Hope Bokach. Among the winners — well-known in the world of science scholars with high citation indexes and Hirsch. The size of each prize is 2.5 million rubles.

Doctor of Biological Sciences Dmitry Eccentrics — one of the world's leading experts in their field. His articles have been published in prestigious international journals, including more than 10 papers in journals of Nature. He — one of the most quoted of young Russian scientists: his citation index — 2300, h-index — 23.

The work is dedicated to Dmitry Chudakov already famous today fluorescent proteins.

For example, on television repeatedly showed animals that are integrated genes of proteins: cats, chickens, pigs, mice, becoming green, yellow or red when illuminated in blue. In 2008, Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsen won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of fluorescent proteins. Today we have a lot of different fluorescent proteins, without them it is impossible to imagine modern biomedicine and molecular cell biology. They are used in the development of drugs, biomedical research, pre-clinical drug trials in neuroscience, immunology, cancer, etc. By using such proteins can be seen as a growing tumor. Or watch the fish thinks.

— In the leading countries in hundreds of laboratories working on a variety of fluorescent proteins and tools based on them — told "RG" Dmitry Eccentrics. — In particular, under the leadership of Nobel laureate Roger Tsena. Competition is strong. Yet in a number of ways we regularly managed to get ahead of its main competitors — the U.S. and Japan. An example is the far-red protein "Katyusha", intended for the visualization of cells in the interior tissues of animals.

Scientists have solved the problem of how to see what's going on inside, say, a live mouse, without dissecting an animal? Known to 2007 fluorescent protein — green, blue, orange — could effectively solve the problem. The fact that their light is absorbed by the tissues. In theory, the hope of giving the farthest in a light red color range — in the region of 630-650 nm. Unfortunately, fluorescent proteins with a range of wildlife to be found. A number of laboratories have been trying to get the bright far-red versions, but it was the Russians managed to make a breakthrough.

— I will not go into technology, I can only say that, in fact, we were engaged in combinatorics, the selection of the required libraries from a variety of possible options, — says Dmitry. — Moreover, only one correction original DNA sequence that leads to a single amino acid replacement, often pulled to a whole set of biochemical changes loop and spectral properties of the protein. Through all the possible options in theory, life is not enough. Of course, we did some calculations and estimations, but to a large extent have to rely on intuition, gradually accumulated experience and luck, combined with the stubbornness.

At present, "Katyusha" — the best of the existing genetically encoded markers for visualization of objects in the interior of the living tissues. It is widely used around the world in the study of various processes in animal models, including the development of anticancer drugs. Dmitry Eccentrics head of the laboratory of genomics adaptive immunity at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the academicians MM Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute.

Professor, Russian State University for the Humanities Andrey Usachev awarded the "Contribution to the study of ancient book-XVI century." His work is devoted to Russian history of the XVI century, the study of representations of the ideologues of the time of the formation of the Russian state, Russian historiography. They studied the monuments of Old Russian literature and the activities of writers of this era.

— In particular, I review the traditional concept of "Moscow — the Third Rome", — said Andrey Usachev correspondent "RG". — I believe that it was not as influential in the Middle Ages, as it often appeared in historical, political and philosophical literature of the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries.

Also in the works studied Usachova era Metropolitan Macarius, which formed the young Ivan the Terrible. Then a group of educated people (Metropolitan Macarius, the royal confessor Andrew, St. Athanasius and others) surrounding the emperor, tried to attach a certain set of ideas, influencing the character of positive examples from the past. For example, for the young king reached the degree of the book is a biography of his 17 predecessors. It was actually perfect portraits — the creators hinted Aesopian language Russian autocrat, how he should be king. Role models have been embodied in the images of the rulers of ancient Russia, which was seen as the ideal period of Russian history.

Special attention is paid writers of the time Macarius at a time when the once-powerful rulers of Ancient Russian power even charged with a proud tribute to Constantinople. It is significant that these works were written on the eve of oprichniny, being, in effect, an attempt intellectuals of the time of the last examples of moral prevent the fateful turn of events. As you know, John went on his way.

Also Andrey Usachev studied lists a number of lesser-known works of literature, published and put into a scientific revolution has never published the most important monuments of ancient literacy. The results of scientific research are presented in the form of a monograph and more than 130 publications.

Employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Budker SB RAS Fedor Ignatov and Cornelius Todyshev awarded the prize for his work in the field of elementary particles. It is, perhaps, the most important secret of the universe: how to construct the universe. Today, at the basis of it lies on the so-called Standard Model, which is considered one of the greatest scientific achievements of the XX century. It was her check today at the famous Large Hadron Collider, trying to finally make sure that the Divine Higgs boson, responsible for the masses of elementary particles, yet caught. To do this, Cyclopean accelerator particles are accelerated to near light speeds and collisions fall into billions of new particles. Among them are caught and the Higgs boson.

— But there is a fundamentally different approach — told "RG" Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Vladimir Blinov. — When new particles are born, too, but not real in the LHC. In fact, they are virtual, there and almost immediately disappear. In fact, this kind of reflections of real particles. To fix them, you need the highest accuracy, and then we can do without a powerful accelerators low enough energies.

Fedor Ignatov and Cornelius Todyshev managed, according to Vladimir Blinov, with a precision that is not yet available to anyone in the world to fix a high probability of the birth of new heavy particles. In addition, they have the most accurate measurements on "Charmed" mesons. This work will ultimately build a more accurate picture of the universe.

Fedor Ignatov author and co-author of over 50 scientific papers. He worked in the U.S., a team of international project on the measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Who takes part in an experiment to search for rare decays of the muon (Switzerland). Cornelius Todyshev published co-authored more than 300 scientific papers. Participates in international collaboration to study the physics of B-mesons (USA).

Doctor of Chemical Sciences Hope Bokach awarded for major contributions to the methods of organic synthesis with platinum and palladium. These metals — one of the most important natural resources of Russia, and their chemistry has always been a priority of national science. In papers Bokach shown first in the world that can hold a number of novel chemical reactions, in particular, platinum with organic substances. The result is a material that previously did not exist.

— I want to emphasize that the first thing we do fundamental research — explains Hope Bokach. — The fact that platinum can activate those organic substances with which it is connected and the "run", such reactions are possible without platinum. Some of the new compounds obtained by us can be used in various fields. For example, in medicine to create new drugs, with a much more powerful therapeutic effect. Find a use new materials in the chemical industry, primarily as catalysts for silaksanovoy rubber. She's now a lot of applications, in particular, thermal and electrical insulators, protective coatings, biocompatible polymers for implants, etc.

Doctor of Chemical Sciences Bokach Hope is an assistant professor of St. Petersburg State University, winner of the European Academy, as well as awards for outstanding L'OREAL Women in Science. She is the most quoted of a young scientist at the University. He has published over 60 articles and reviews in 5 of prestigious national and international journals. Her citation index — about 1000, and h-index -17.

CAUTION: Online TV channel "Culture" is a great video footage of these scientists (photo screenshots taken from there), but when you try to insert the code they propose here a video or even just a link to a page of their site for some reason killed the whole record. So that those who want to see this video but find themselves.

If anyone figure out what the mystery — tell me! :-)

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