Critical mass: true story
the birth of the atomic bomb
and the advent of the nuclear age
"Those who questioned Heisenberg and other German scientists, reports and read them, open-mouthed, staring at a simple nuclear reactor hidden away in a cave in southern Germany, could not grasp what had gone wrong after all. Germany started the war, owning all imaginable advantages: literate scientists, real resources and knowledge of senior military control. Why did the achievements were so mild? '.
These are the main facts, and the main question that has bedeviled the postwar researchers involved in the problem of the German secret weapons, sounds really, how is it that Germany was not able to make an atomic bomb?
One of the theses is constructive, namely: Germany during the war had made the bomb. Hurry, you need to find an answer to the question why Germany, apparently, did not use the atomic bomb and other available types of her terrible weapon, and if applied, why did not we hear. But, obviously, that uphold similar specific thesis, you first need to prove that Germany was the atomic bomb.
From this it follows that it is necessary to find a rather trivial confirmation. If Germany had the atomic bomb based on uranium, you need to find the subsequent:
1) The method or methods of separation and enrichment of uranium-235 isotope, needed for the creation of the atomic bomb, superior weapons and properties in quantities sufficient for the accumulation of critical mass, and all this in the absence of a functioning nuclear reactor.
2) complex or complexes, where such work was carried out in a significant amount, which in turn requests:
a) the huge electricity consumption;
b) adequate supplies of water and transport development;
c) a huge source of labor;
d) the presence of significant production capacities
In particular, relatively well sheltered from Allied bombing and Russian aviation.
3) The necessary theoretical basis for the development of the atomic bomb.
4) Available in sufficient quantity, the uranium needed for enrichment.
5) Polygon or more polygons, where you can collect and test a nuclear bomb.
Fortunately, in all of these areas, the researcher revealed a wealth of material that is impressively proves at least that in Germany during the war was carried out large and successful example program to enrich uranium and cleaning.
Let's start with the search for the most seemingly malopodhodyaschego place from Nuremberg.
At the postwar trial of military offenders to several senior executives tremendously, incredibly powerful and widely-known German chemical cartel 'I. G. Farben LG "had to sit in the dock. The history of the first global company, its financial support for the Nazi regime, the main role in the military-industrial complex in Germany, the role in the production of poison gas "Zyklon B" for the death camps are described in various writings.
Concern «I. G. Farben "took an active role in the atrocities of Nazism during the war, creating a large factory for the production of synthetic rubber Buna in Auschwitz (the German title of the Polish town of Oswiecim) in the Polish part of Silesia. The prisoners of the concentration camp, which initially worked on the construction of the complex, and then serve it, were unprecedented brutality.
Chemical company IG Farben concern at Auschwitz-Monowitz, the winter of 1944-1945.
For the "Farben" choice of Auschwitz as the site for the construction of a plant for the production of Buna was logical, due to the weight of practical considerations. Concentration camp, located near, provides more complex guaranteed inexhaustible source of slave labor, and that is very comfortable, prisoners emaciated overwork could not wraith "fire." The director of "Farben" Carl Krauch commissioned by leading special synthetic rubber Otto Ambrose explore the scene of the alleged construction of the complex and give their advice. In the end, in a dispute with another likely place in Norway was preferred to Auschwitz — "especially suitable for creating complex," and for one very fundamental reason.
Was located near the coal mine, and three rivers merge to provide an adequate supply of water. In conjunction with these 3-municipal railways rivers and beautiful highways provide good transport links. But not these advantages were decisive in relation to the place in Norway, intended to control the SS repeatedly extend the concentration camp located near Specifically promise inexhaustible source of slave labor was the temptation to stand in front of which was unreal.
After site selection was approved by the Board of the Board of "Farben" Krauch Ambrose wrote quite a secret message:
According to the newcomer order values, arranged by Field Marshal Keitel, this construction is to first plan … At my request (Hering), a few days back sent a special directive to all who have something to do with members of the senior management of the Reich … These directives Reichsmarschall requires all departments to immediately satisfy your requests verbovanie experienced workers and professionals, even to the detriment of other plans and projects that are actually crucial to the war effort.
special concern "I. G. Farben "
on synthetic rubber from Auschwitz.
As the Wehrmacht was going in the not to distant time in the Russian collapse, the management of "Farben", anticipating big profits, decided to fund the construction of the tremendous set of own funds without attracting funds Nazi regime, and has invested in the project of 900 million Reichsmarks — almost 250 million dollars at the rate of 1945 or above 2-billion dollars in today's prices. This plant is the production of synthetic rubber was to surpass all similar.
But on hearing the Nuremberg trial of war offenders revealed that production complex groynes at Auschwitz is one of the greatest mysteries of the war, because des
pite the personal blessing of Hitler, Himmler, Goering and Keitel, despite the never-ending source of trained civilian personnel as well as slave labor Auschwitz, "works constantly interfered disruptions, delays and sabotage … Seemed to hang over the entire project doom ", while in such an extent that" Farben "for the first time in its long history of business success on the verge of failure. By 1942, most of the members, directors of concern felt the project is not just bad luck, and a complete disaster.
But in spite of that, the construction of the tremendous complex to produce synthetic rubber and gasoline was completed. Through the construction area was above three hundred thousand prisoners of the concentration camp, from May 20 thousands of them died from exhaustion, unable to withstand the arduous labor. The complex came out great. So large that "it consumes more energy than the whole of Berlin."
But during the trial of military offenders investigators victorious powers saddled task is not that long list strshnyh details. They were stumped that, despite such a tremendous investment, material and human lives, "and there has been no 1st kilograms of synthetic rubber." At the same time, as if possessed, insisted directors and managers "Farben", was on the dock. Consume more energy than the whole of Berlin — while the eighth-largest city in the world — so completely did not make? If this is indeed so, is unheard of funds and labor costs and the tremendous power consumption not brought any significant contribution to the German war effort. Certainly, there is something wrong.
In all this did not make sense, and then there is no point at this time, unless, obviously, this complex is not involved in the creation of Buna …
When concern "I. G. Farben "began to build a complex for the production of the groynes at Auschwitz, one of the weird events was the eviction from their homes, more than 10 thousand Poles, whose place was taken moved from Germany, along with their families, scientists, engineers and contract workers. Here a parallel with the "Manhattan Project" is undeniable. Indescribably to the extreme that a company with an impeccable record list in the development of new technologies, attach so much effort in the scientific and technical point of view, has built a complex, consume a terrible amount of power and it never was released.
One of the modern researchers, who also saddled with the task of scam complex for the production of synthetic rubber, is Hidrik P. Carter. He got in touch with Ed Landry, spices in the production of synthetic rubber from Houston, and told him about the complex concern "I. G. Farben ", an unheard-of power consumption and the fact that, according to the control group, Boone complex and did not create. Landry said this: "This plant is not engaged synthetic rubber — can put on it is the last dollar." Landry just do not believe that the main task of this complex was to create synthetic rubber.
If so, how to explain the tremendous power consumption and approval management "Farben" about the fact that the complex had not started the production of synthetic rubber? What other technology can achieve electricity in these sets, the presence of countless skilled engineering and operational staff, and proximity to significant sources of water? At that time there was only one other process, which also required all of the above. Hidrik defines it further as follows:
Similarly, in this picture, something is wrong. From the usual combination of 3 main known facts that were just listed — consumption, the price of building a list of the previous track, "Farben" — it's not that at Auschwitz was built complex for the production of synthetic rubber. But a similar combination allows you to make sketches of the other principal wartime production process, which at that time kept a closely guarded secret. We are talking about the enrichment of uranium.
In that case, why call the factory for the production of complex groin? And why with such fervor investigators assure allies that the plant did not release any kilograms groins? One answer would be that, as the labor force complex is largely provided inmates placed near the concentration camp, under the authority of the SS, the plant fell under the requirements of secrecy SS, as the main task, "Farben" is to create a "legend." For example, in the unlikely event that someone from the prisoners will escape and find out about the range of allies, "plant for the production of synthetic rubber" will be a plausible explanation. Since the isotope separation process was so secretive and expensive, "naturally imagine that the so called" factory for production of synthetic rubber "in reality is nothing more than another, as the cover of a uranium enrichment plant." Indeed, as we shall see, this version of the reinforcing Farm Hall transcripts. "Plant for the production of synthetic rubber" was that "legend", which were covered by slaves from the concentration camp — if they are generally required to explain anything! — Also from civilian employees "Farben" who took advantage of greater freedom.
In this case, all the delays caused by the difficulties encountered by the "Farbep" have also become just explained that complex for the separation of isotopes was an extremely complex engineering structure. With the likes of neuvvyazkami encountered in "Manhattan Project" in the development of a similar huge complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In America, a project from the start, too, interfered with various technical difficulties and shortages of supply, and this despite the fact that the complex in Oak Ridge was in a privileged position as his Nazi counterpart.
So Makar, weird statements control "Farben" at the Nuremberg trial begin to get a sense. Faced with an incipient "legend allies" about the incompetence of Germany in matters of creation of nuclear weapons, directors and managers "Farben" may have tried an indirect method to bring the issue to clean water — without throwing an open challenge to the "legend". Maybe they were trying to throw guidance on the disposition of the German programs from the creation of the atomic bomb and the progress in the process of its results, pay attention to that it was only possible after the time after painstaking research process materials.
Selecting the location — close to the concentration camp at Auschwitz, with its hundreds of thousands of hapless prisoners — that kisho has strategically principled, albeit a terrible sense. Like many of the following dictatorships, 3rd Reich, apparently, the complex is located in the vicinity of a particular concentration camp, knowingly using prisoners as "human shields" to protect against allied bombing. If so, the decision was correct, since no bomb allies and did not fall on Auschwitz. The complex was dismantled in 1944 in connection with the coming of Russian troops.
But for that to assert that "the plant to produce synthetic rubber" is essentially a system for the separation of isotopes, one must first prove that Germany possessed the technical means for the separation of isotopes. In addition, if such technologies are really used to "plant for the production of synthetic rubber," is that in Germany, carried out several projects to build an atomic bomb, well known for "Heisenberg wing" and all related debates. So you need to not only f
ind, if Germany had the technology of isotope separation, and try to regain the overall picture of relationships and connections of various German nuclear projects.
The complex isotope separation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Designating the question as Makar again have to face the post-war "legend allies":
In the official version of the history of the creation of the atomic bomb [manager "Manhattan Project" Gen. Leslie] Groves argues that the example program design plutonium bomb was the only one that was carried out in Germany. The misinformation, half-reclining on feather, he blew up untold dimensions — such large that they absolutely overshadowed by Germany's efforts to enrich uranium. Meanwhile Groves hid from the world that fakg that the Nazis were just 2-of success away from.
Does Germany isotope enrichment technology? And if she could use the technology in sufficient volume to get a significant amount of enriched uranium needed for the creation of the atomic bomb?
Certainly, he Hidrik not prepared to follow through and accept that the Germans managed to test its nuclear bomb before the Americans under the "Manhattan Project" make and test your.
There can be no hesitation in the fact that Germany had sufficient source of uranium ore, for the Sudetenland, annexed after the sadly famous Munich Conference in 1938, is known for its very affluent nezapyatannoy supplies of uranium ore in the world. By coincidence events, this area is also located near the area of "Three Corners" in Thuringia in southern Germany and, as close to Silesia and different factories and complexes that will be carefully considered during the second and third parts of this book. Because management "Farben" maybe had another reason for choosing Auschwitz as the site for the construction of a complex for the enrichment of uranium. Auschwitz was located near not only with water, transport means and source of labor, he was in comfortable proximity to the uranium mines of the Czech Sudetenland, seized by Germany.
All these things allow us to propose another guess. Perfectly clear that the statement of the German chemist Otto nuclear scientist Ghana's discovery of the nuclear fission was made after the Munich Conference and the transfer of the Sudetenland Germany Chamberlain and Daladier. And could it not, in reality the situation was a little different? What if in fact the discovery of nuclear fission phenomena were produced before the conference, but the rulers of the Third Reich kept quiet about it and released it after the fact, as Europe's only source of uranium found in Germany in his hands? Catchy that Adolf Hitler was ready to wage war for the sake of the Sudetenland.
In any case, before you begin to study the issue of technologies possessed by Germany, it is necessary first to find the answer to the question why the Germans, apparently, actually only focused on the dilemma of the creation of a uranium bomb. After all, in the South American "Manhattan Project" studied the problems of creation as uranium and plutonium bomb.
The theoretical possibility of the creation of plutonium-based bombs — "element 94", as it is officially called in German documents of the period — the Nazis were known. And, as it follows from the memorandum of the Office of arms and ammunition, first prepared in 1942, the Germans also knew that this item can only be obtained by synthesis in a nuclear reactor.
So why Germany has focused on the dilemma actually only isotope separation and enrichment of uranium? Once in 1942, Allied commando team killed the plant the heavy water in the Norwegian town of Rjukan, Germans, and were not able to get enough untainted graphite for use as a stabilizer in the reactor, and were available to them without a second stabilizer — the heavy water. So Makar, according to legend, the creation in the foreseeable future operating nuclear reactor for "element 94" in the quantities needed for critical mass, was not feasible.
But let us for a moment imagine that the commando raid allies were not. By this time the Germans had broken off teeth for himself, trying to make the reactor with a stabilizer based on graphite, and they were saying that the way of the creation of the current reactor lie in wait for their significant technological and engineering obstacles. On the other hand, Germany has already had the technology required for the enrichment of weapons-U235 in raw materials. As can be seen, the enrichment of uranium for the Germans was the best, the most direct and practicable on the technical level by the creation of a bomb in the foreseeable future. More carefully about this technology will be discussed just below.
In the meantime, to deal with the next part of the "legends allies." Creation of the American plutonium bomb from the very moment that the Fermi built and successfully tested a nuclear reactor on the sports field of the Chicago Institute, proceeded fairly smoothly, but only up to a point closer to the end of the war, when it was found that to obtain a bomb of a critical mass of plutonium to collect significantly faster than allowed all the available production technology fuses allies. Moreover, the error could not go beyond the very narrow scope, as detonators explosive device had to operate very much in sync. In the end, there were fear that make plutonium bomb did not work.
So makarom emerges quite entertaining picture that seriously contradicts the official history of the creation of the atomic bomb. If the Germans really succeeded in about 1941 — 1944 years to perform a successful large-scale uranium enrichment program from and if they are atomic project focused only on the fact creation uranium bomb, and if at the same time, the Allies realized what difficulties stand in the way of creation of a plutonium bomb, it is the latest measure what the Germans did not lose time and effort to solve more complex puzzles, and specifically for a plutonium bomb. As we will see in the next chapter, this event allows you to seriously doubt how well things were with the "Manhattan Project" in late 1944 — early 1945.
So what is technology isotope separation and enrichment possessed Nazi Germany and how effective and productive, they were compared with similar technologies, which are used in Oak Ridge?
As it is difficult to recognize the essence of the matter lies in the fact that Nazi Germany was carried out "in the latest least 5, but can be severe and seven programs for the separation of isotopes." One of them is a way to "wash isotopes", developed by physicians and Bagte Korsching (with 2 of the scientists imprisoned at Farm Hall), driven by the middle of 1944 to that of the effectiveness of that in just one pass enriched uranium is more than four times compared with a single pass through the gates of gaseous diffusion at Oak Ridge!
Compare this with the difficulties encountered at the end of the war, "The Manhattan Project." Back in March 1945, despite the huge gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge, supplies of uranium, applicable to a chain reaction of fission were damn far from the required critical mass. Several passes through the plant at Oak Ridge enriched uranium concentration from about 0.7% to about 10-12%, as a result, it was decided to use the output of the plant in Oak Ridge as a raw material for a more efficient and effective electric separator beta (beta -calutron) Ernsga O. Lawrence, is a actually a cyclotron with a separator tanks, in which a means of electrical methods of
mass spectrograph enriched and share izotopy1. As can be seen, one can imagine that if a similar performance on a way to "wash isotopes" Bagte Korsching and was used quite extensively, it has led to the accumulation Hassle supplies of enriched uranium. With all of this more efficient German development have allowed the production capacity for the separation of isotopes by far the least-squares.
But no matter how good was the way to "wash isotopes", he was not more effective and technologically advanced way to those in the middle, which is located in Germany. This method yielded a centrifuge and its derivative, developed special on nuclear chemistry Paul Harteck — sverhtsentrifuga. Obviously, the South American engineers was clear about this method, but they had to face severe flaw in a very active gaseous uranium compound is rapidly destroying the material of which was manufactured centrifuge, and, as it should, this method remains impossible in practical terms. But the Germans managed to solve this dilemma. Special alloy was developed under the title "Bondur", only for the introduction of centrifuges. But still not even centrifuge was the best method among those that possessed Germany.
This development has been captured by the Russian Union and then applied it to his program there in the creation of the atomic bomb. In post-war Germany produced similar sverhtsentrifugi "Siemens" and other companies, and distributed e South Africa, where the work was carried out to establish its own atomic bomb (see Rogers and Cervenka, "The nuclear axis: West Germany and South Africa", page 299-310 ). In other words, this development was not born in Germany, but it is quite perfect to be used in our time. It should take revenge, even in the middle of the 1970s, among those who participated in the development of enrichment centrifuges in West Germany, were experts at associated with the project of creation of the atomic bomb in the 3rd Reich, namely Dr. Karl Vinnaker, past board member of the group, "And . G. Farben. "
Baron Manfred von Ardenne, an eccentric rich man, an inventor and a nuclear physicist with no education and his fellow physicist Fritz Hautermans in 1941 correctly calculated the critical mass of the atomic bomb on the basis of U235 and the means of the doctor-engineer Ohnesorg, reyhspochty manager, built on the family estate Baron Lichterfelde in the eastern outskirts of Berlin, a giant underground laboratory. Namely, in this laboratory have been electrostatic generator voltage of 2 million volts and one of the 2-cyclotrons that existed in the 3rd Reich — the second was in the cyclotron laboratory Curie in France. The existence of this cyclotron recognizes the post-war "legend allies."
At this point, hold to take a closer look at the German nuclear program there, because now we already have very little evidence for the existence of 3 different and apparently unrelated technologies together:
1) The program Heisenberg and the army, centered around the very Heisenberg and his colleagues in the Institute stitugah Kaiser Wilhelm and the Max Planck chisgo laboratory efforts, limited fuss in the development of the reactor. Specifically, this program there focuses "legend allies," it specifically comes to mind for most people at the mention of the German nuclear program there. This program is specifically included in the "legend" as evidence of stupidity and incompetence of German scientists.
2) Plant for the production of synthetic rubber concern "I. G. Farben "at Auschwitz, whose relationship with other applets and with the SS is not clear to the end.
3) Circle Bagge, Korsching and von Ardenne, who developed a range of advanced methods of isotope separation, and through the von Ardenne, somehow related — reflect only! — The German postal service.
But what has reyhspochta? Let's start with the fact that it can provide effective cover for a nuclear program that, like his South American analogue, was distributed between several municipal departments, many of whom did not have any work to the stunning work on the creation of hidden weapons. In-2, and it is even more important, reyhspochta just bathed in money and, as it should, could provide at least partial funding for the project, in every sense of the "black hole" in the budget. And, in the end, led by the German postal service, perhaps by chance, an engineer, a doctor, an engineer Ohnesorg. From the perspective of the Germans it was a very logical choice. Even the name of the manager, Ohnesorg, which translated means "does not understand remorse and regret," could not be more out of place.
So which method of isotope separation and enrichment developed von Ardenne and Hautermans? Very common: it was the cyclotron itself. Von Ardenne added to the cyclotron improvement of his own invention — the electric division of tanks, very similar to beta-ka-lyutron Ernest O. Lawrence in the United States. It must be emphasized, but that improvements von Ardenne were ready in April 1942, while managing "Manhattan Project" General Groves got the beta calutron Lawrence for use in Oak Ridge just 18 months after that! 1 should also add, that the plasma ion source for sublimation of uranium-containing raw material, designed for self-Hardenne isotope separator, significantly superior to the one that was used in calutron. Moreover, it proved so effective that the radiation source of charged particles, invented by von Ardenne, and so far is known as the "source of Ardennes."
In any case, the work of von Ardenne, as the work of the other German scientists involved neuvvyazkami enrichment and separation of isotopes — Bagge, Korsching, Har-tech and Haugermansa — indicate the subsequent: made during the war, the Allies evaluation on the progress of work on the creation of the atomic bomb in Nazi Germany were quite reasonable, since the middle of 1942, the Germans were significantly ahead of the "Manhattan Project" and not hopelessly behind, as we are convinced born after the war, a legend.
At one time considered the role of Samuel in Gudsmita insurgent group, whose task it was just theft or removal of Heisenberg.
Because what looks more possible scenario taking into account all of t
hese facts? And what are the lessons?
1) In Germany, there are several programs for uranium enrichment and the creation of the atomic bomb, broken safety of judgments between different departments, which can be coordinated by a single body, whose existence was hitherto unclear. In any case, apparently, is one such example program in the latest grim least nominally headed by the German postal service and its head doctor-engineer Wilhelm Ohnesorg.
2) The most important projects of enrichment and separation of isotopes is not headed by Heisenberg and his circle, they did not participate in one of the most prominent German scientists, except Harteck and Diebner. This allows you to imagine that perhaps the most eminent scientists have used as a cover of secrecy judgments without attracting more severe and at the technical level works perfect. If they participated in such works and their allies would have stolen or removed — and a similar idea certainly came to mind German management — then programm creation of the atomic bomb would become known as the Allies or she would suffer a palpable hit.
3) At least the last three were before the German technology was supposedly more effective and at the technical level sophisticated than similar technologies Yankees:
a) the method of "washing isotopes Bagge and Korsching;
b) centrifuges and sverhtsentrifugi Harteck;
c) advanced cyclotron von Ardenne,
"Source of Ardennes."
4) At least one of the last recognizable complexes — a plant for the production of synthetic rubber concern "I. G. Farben "at Auschwitz — was quite huge in size occupied areas, use the labor force and the use of electricity, so be factory complex for the separation of isotopes. A similar statement looks completely justified because:
a) despite the fact that in the complex worked thousands of scientists and engineers and 10's of thousands of civilian workers and concentration camp prisoners, and there has been no 1st kilograms groins;
b) complex located in the Polish Silesia, was located near the uranium mines, the Czech and the German Sudetenland;
c) The complex was located near important sources of water, which is also needed for the enrichment of isotopes;
g) were near the railway line and cars;
e) there was a close an almost unlimited source of labor;
e) and, in the end, although this point is not yet open a discussion, the complex was not far from the centers of several large underground development and production of a secret weapon, located in Lower Silesia, and in the vicinity of the 1st of 2-polygons, where in the course of the war Tipo tests were made of German atomic bomb.
5) Everything has a reason to believe that other than "plant to produce synthetic rubber," the Germans have built in an area of a few less big plants for the separation and enrichment of isotopes, using as raw materials for their production complex at Auschwitz.
Powers also mentions about another dilemma related to the thermal diffusion method Clusius — Dickel with which we meet in Chapter 7: "One pound of U-235 — it is not so unattainable figure and Frisch calculated that by the 1st Clusius million tubes — Dickel for thermal diffusion of uranium isotopes that amount will be available in a few weeks. Obviously, the creation of such a facility is expensive, but Frisch led the subsequent result: "Even if one plant will cost as much as a battleship is, it is better to have."
To complete the picture, we should mention also has a 2-very curious facts.
The specialty of the close associate and theoretical mentor Dr. Fritz von Ardenne was Hautermansa nuclear fusion. Indeed, as an astrophysicist, he made a name for himself in science, describing the nuclear processes in stars. Interestingly enough, there is a patent issued in Austria in 1938, the unit entitled "Molecular bomb, "Which on closer inspection turns out to be nothing more than another, as the layout of a thermonuclear bomb. Obviously, in order to force the hydrogen atoms collide and allocate significantly more gigantic and terrible energy of the hydrogen fusion bomb, we need heat and pressure, which can be obtained only in the explosion of an ordinary bomb.
In-2, and soon it will become clear why this event is so important, of all the German scientists who worked on the atomic bomb, specifically Manfred von Ardenne was the one who personally visited more frequently by Adolf Hitler.
In any case, all the evidence points to the fact that in Nazi Germany during World War II was carried out significant, very well funded a completely hidden programm isotope enrichment, the program, which in the course of the war managed to successfully hide the Germans, and after the war it closed the "legend allies." But there are new questions. How close was this programm to the accumulation of weapons-grade uranium, enough for a bomb (or bombs)? And, in-2-why, after the war, the Allies izderzhali so hard to keep it a secret?
The finale of this chapter and the breathtaking indication of other secret, which will be explored further in this book to be a report, the State Security Agency declassified only in 1978. In the report of the ego, apparently, is deciphering intercepted messages sent from the Japanese embassy in Stockholm to Tokyo. It is entitled "Report of the bomb on the basis of the splitting of the atom." It is best to bring this amazing document in its entirety, with the passes that came with an unusual decrypting messages.
National Security Agency (NSA) — agency within the U.S. Department of Defense is engaged in the protection of the government and military communications and computer systems, and electrical supervision.
This bomb, a revolutionary impact on their own, it will turn all the ingrained concept of doing an ordinary war. I submit to you gathered together all of the reports that referred to a bomb on the basis of the splitting of the atom:
Part 2. The following material is taken from the testimony of Lieutenant Colonel Ue (?) Kenji, adviser attaché in Hungary and in the past (worked?) In this country, which is the case saw the consequences of what happened exactly after it happened:
"All men and horses (? Around?) Explosion of shells were charred to black, and even sdetoiirovali all the ammunition."
Moreover, reliably understood that the same type of weapon was tested also in the Crimea. Then the Russian Germans accused in the use of poison gas, and threatened that if it happens again, they will apply also in response to chemical warfare vesh / ETS.
Part 3 — It is also necessary to take into account the fact that soon in London — and the period between
the beginning of October and November 15 — Fire of unknown origin have become a prerequisite of human casualties and enormous damage harsh industrial buildings. If we take into account also the article about the brand new weapons of this type, which is not so long ago began to appear from time to time in the British and American magazines, it becomes evident that even our enemy has already started to deal with them.
Will summarize the essence of all these reports, I am convinced that the most important breakthrough in the true embodiment of the project will be the war of bombs on the basis of the splitting of the atom. As can be seen, the authorities of all states seek to accelerate research, so as you can get faster the practical implementation of this tool. For its part, I am convinced of the need to make the most decisive steps in this direction.
Part 4. Next is the fact that I was able to learn about the technical features:
Not so long ago, the British government has warned people about the likely impacts of German bombs based distribution schepieniya atom. South American military government also warned that the east coast of the United States may be selected as a target for Indiscriminate attacks some of the German flying bombs. They were called "V-3". If more precisely, the device is based on the principle of the explosion of the atomic nuclei of hydrogen languid, poluchetyugo of the heavy water. (Germany has a huge plant (producing it?) In the districts of the Norwegian town of Ryu-kan, which sometimes bombards British aircraft.) course, has long been a fairly successful attempts to split the examples of individual atoms. But
with regard to the practical results, yet no one seems to have been able to split the time a huge number of atoms. In other words, for every atom rasscheppeniya requires strength, breaking the orbit of the electron.
On the other hand, the substance that is consumed Germans, apparently, has a very great specific gravity values of chigelyyu superior PSE that was used up to now
long. Reference was made to Sirius and the stars of the "white dwarf." Their specific gravity is (6?) 1 a thousand, and only one cubic inch weighs a ton.
In normal conditions the atoms impossible to compress the density of nuclei. But the tremendous pressure and indescribably highest temperature in the body of the "white dwarf" bring an explosive destruction of atoms, and
Moreover, out of these stars is based on radiation consisting of what remains of the atoms, in other words, only one core is very small in volume.
According to an article in a British newspaper, the German unit of splitting atoms is the separator NEUMANN. Large energy is directed into a central portion of an atom forming a pressure of several thousand tons tons (sic. -D.F.) Per square inch. This device is able to cleave the relatively unstable atoms of such parts as uranium. Moreover, it may serve as a source of nuclear energy explosive
A Gens Hakala DAN.
In other words, a bomb, draws its strength from the release of atomic energy.
The end of this remarkable document looks so "PickUp Dec 12 44 (1.2) Japanese; Receive 12 December 44, before 14 December 44 (3020-B)." Apparently, this is a reference to the fact that the message was intercepted by the Yankees in the original language (Japanese), to when it was received and when it was handed over (14 December 44), and by whom (3020-B).
The date of this document — after the atomic bomb test Tipo watched Hans Zinsser, and for day or two before the beginning of the German counter-offensive in the Ardennes — was to force the peel anxiety exploration allies during the war and after it. Although saying that the Japanese attaché in Stockholm is very vague for themselves the nature of nuclear fission, in this document are several extraordinary moments:
Quoted by the message "From Stockholm to Tokyo," No. 232.9 December 1944 (War Department), State Archives, RG 457, sra 14628-32, declassified October 1, 1978.
1) According to the report, the Germans used a weapon of mass destruction on the Eastern Front, but for some reason have refrained from introducing it against the Western Allies;
a) spell out the place — Kursk, the southern component directed to the 2-sides coming of German troops, which took place in July, not June 1943, and the Crimean peninsula;
b) Set the time as 1943, though, since the large-scale military actions were carried out exclusively in the Crimea in 1942, when the Germans were subjected to heavy artillery shelling Sevastopol, should come to the conclusion that the time interval in reality is stretched to 1942.
At this point the well to do a little retreat and see a brief siege of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol Germans, place the most massive artillery bombardment of the war, as it is directly related to the proper comprehension of the meaning of intercepted messages.
Siege led the 11th Army under the command of Colonel General (later Field Marshal) Erich von Manstein. Von Manstein assembled 1,300 artillery pieces — the largest concentration of the heavy and extra-heavy artillery any nation in the war — and a period of 5 days, 20 hours a day, slapped on Sevastopol. But these were not ordinary mnogokalibernye field guns.
Two artillery regiments — the 1st Regiment languid mortars and 70th Mortar Regiment, also the 1st and 4th Battalions under special mortar Colonel Nieman — were centered in front of Russian fortifications — a total of 20 one battery total of 576 barrels per including the battery of the 1st Regiment of languid mortars firing eleven-and twelve-a-half-inch high-explosive and incendiary projectiles oil …
But even these monsters were not the greatest tools in the middle of those that were located in Sevastopol. The shelling Russian positions were several "Big Bertha" Krupp caliber of 16.5 inches and an old fellow Austrian "Skoda", and even more colossal mortar "Karl" and "Thor", a huge self-propelled mortars caliber 24-inch, firing shells weighing more than 2 — wow tons.
But even the "Karl" was not the last word artillery. The most massive cannon was located in Bakhchisarai Palace Gardens, the old residence of the Crimean khans, and was called "Dora" or at least — "Heavy Gustav." It was the most mnogokalibernoe gun that was used in the war. Its size is 31.5 inches. To transport this monster by rail required 60 loading platforms. The barrel length of 107 feet threw explosive projectile weighing 4800 kg — in other words, almost 5 tons — a distance of 29 miles above. The gun could also lead consuming more languid armor-piercing shells weighing seven tons on targets placed at a distance of up to 24 miles. The total length of the shell, along with a sleeve was nearly June 20 feet. Posed on each other, they would have heights) 'luxurious two-storey house.
These data are quite in order to show that we have before us everyday tool, enhanced to large, simply unimaginable size — so that question can appear on the economic need for such tools. But a single shell fired from "Dora" destroyed the whole ammunition depot in North Bay at Sevastopol, although tog was arranged at a depth of 100 feet below ground.
The shelling of the languid and heavy guns was so terrible, that, according to the German head of staff, within 5 days of continuous shelling and air raids on Russian positions fell more than five hundred shells and bombs every second. Metal downpour that hit on the position of the Russian troops, tearing apart the morale of Russian; roar was such an intolerable that explode the eardrums. By the end of the bout Sevastopol city and its districts were completely destroyed, two Russian armies were destroyed and more than 90 000 people were taken into captivity.
Why are these details make such a difference? In 1-x, pay attention to the mention of "incendiary oil shells." This is an indication that at Sevastopol Germans used some unusual instrument, a means of delivery which were commonplace, although very large artillery pieces. The German army had indeed such projectiles, often with high efficiency using them on the Eastern Front.
What if in fact refers to the even more terrible weapons? In the forthcoming we will present evidence that the Germans really managed to create a model of the modern vacuum bomb, made on the basis of conventional explosive device, according to the destructive power comparable to a tactical nuclear warhead. Taking into account the significant weight of shells and the event that the Germans did not have enough languid bombers is completely possible and even probable, that they can use in super-heavy artillery. It also will interpret another weird fact in the report of the Japanese military attache: apparently, the Germans did not use the weapon of mass destruction to attack more populated Fri, and used them only at military targets placed within the acts of similar systems. Now it is possible to continue the analysis of the report of Japanese diplomat.
2) The Germans are seriously studying the possibility of creating a hydrogen bomb, since the interaction of atomic nuclei of the heavy water containing deuterium and tritium, is the essence of the fusion reaction that said the Japanese officer (though he confuses this reaction with the reaction of nuclear fission in the ordinary atomic bomb ). In support of this conjecture indicate the pre-war writings of Fritz Hautermansa dedicated fusion processes occurring in the stars;
3) huge temperature and pressure, resulting in the explosion of ordinary atomic bomb used as a detonator of the hydrogen bomb;
4) In desperation, the Russian was prepared to use against the Germans fighting poisons if they continued to use their new weapon;
5) The Russian was considered a tool of some "poison gas": in this case, the question or the legend, composed by Russian, or an error that appeared as a result of the stories of witnesses, ordinary Russian soldier who did not have a clue as to what specific gun was against to use them, and, in the end, the most sensational fact
Charred corpses and detonated ammunition accurately point out that was not used everyday tool. Charring corpses can be explained vacuum bomb. It is possible that an unlimited amount of heat generated by the explosion of such a device could lead to detonation of ammunition. Similarly, radiation burns, blistering with the relevant Russian soldiers and officers, most likely, had no idea of nuclear energy, were considered as effects of poison gas.
6) according to Japanese encryption, the Germans seem to have received this knowledge through communication with the Sirius star system, with a significant role was played by some unprecedented form of very dense matter. To believe in this statement is not easy, even in our days are.
Specifically, the last point directs our attention to a more dazzling and mysterious part of the research work on the creation of a secret weapon, held during the war years in Nazi Germany, for if this statement is true at least in part, it shows that in the 3rd Reich in the strictest secret work was carried out in a completely unexplored areas of physics and esoteric. In this connection, it is noted that the extraordinary density of matter described by the Japanese ambassador, most resembles the concept of post-war theoretical physics, received the title of "dark matter." In all likelihood, in its report, the Japanese diplomat significantly overestimates the specific density of matter — if that ever took place — and still need to pay attention to the fact that it is still many times greater than the specific gravity of ordinary matter.
Surprisingly, the relationship of Germany and Sirius again came out many years after the war, and in the context of the very sudden. In his book "Fighting Machine Giza" I mentioned the research work of Robert Temple, engaged lurking African Dogon tribe, which is on the simple level of development, but still retains a clear knowledge of the solar system (Sirius over many generations, with the Distant pores when modern astronomy has ever had. In this book, I noted that
Those who are familiar with a variety of materials other research complex at Giza in Egypt, a reference to Sirius immediately brings to mind images of Egyptian religion, is closely associated with the star of destruction of the myth of Osiris and the Sirius star system.
Temple also claims that his book showed severe enthusiasm Russian KGB and the CIA and NSA South American … And another weird observation may be acquiring the sense in light of our next discussion on the research work of German scientists in the field of scalar physics during the second world war and after it. Temple argues that Baron von Puttkamer Jesko revelatory sent him a letter, written on official letterhead PASA, but then refused it, saying that the letter does not reflect the official position of NASA. Temple believes that Puttkamer was one of the German scientists who had crossed into the United States as part of "Operation Paperclip" specifically after the capitulation of Nazi Germany.
As I later said in his book, Carl Jesko von Puttkamer was not an ordinary Germans. During the war he was a member of the military council of Adolf Hitler's adjutant for the Navy. Having started the war with the rank of captain, he said to her termination became an admiral. Then Puttkamer worked at NASA.
So Makar, the research problems of the German atomic bomb through it not so long ago declassified Japanese encrypted message has brought us too far away, in the kingdom of scary hypotheses in the world of vacuum bombs, artillery shells cyclopean, super-dense matter, hydrogen bomb and the consistency of the mysterious esoteric mysticism, and Egyptology physics.
Did the German atomic bomb? In light of the above material answer seems normal and specific. But if this is indeed the case, then. Taking into account the untold reports, comes of age from the eastern front, there is brand new riddle: what more hidden atomic research hid behind the project, because, of course, those studies were carried out?
But leave aside the exotic superdense matter. According to some versions of the "legends allies," the Germans did not manage to accumulate enough fissile weapons-grade uranium needed for the creation of the bomb.
Carter Hydrick, Critical Mass: the Real Stoty of the Atomic Bomb and the Birth of the Nuclear Age, Internet published manuscript, uww3dshortxom/nazibornb2/CRmCALAlASS.txt, 1998, p.
Joseph Borkin, The Crime and Punishment of lG Farben; Anthony C Sutton, Wall Street and the Rise of
Carter P. Hydrick, op. cit, p. 34.
Sapieha P. Hyctrick, op. cit., p. 38.
Paul Carrell, Hitler Moves East, 1941-1943 (Ballantine Books, 1971) pp. 501-503
Joseph P. Farrell, The Giza Death Star Deployed (Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2003, p. 81).