Research activities in the field of architecture and ships in the major subsystems of China State Shipbuilding Company (China State Shipbuilding Corporation — CSSC) engaged, open sources, nine of the 10 research institutes. The main ones are 701 th in the town of Wuhan Institute specializing in the design of surface warships and submarines, and 708 th in Shanghai Institute of projecting supply vessels and amphibious ships.
Do not be fooled by the articles presented a small number of shipyards: any of them is a large complex of 10-s small factories and companies engaged in the complete production cycle and several types of ships of different classes simultaneously engaged in ship repair, research, and with all this intense increasing creation for State Courts . Military orders are produced in large quantities and the highest rate. Production cycle PLAT 091 project like «Han» in less than 4 years. EM 052 project built within the boundaries of 2 years. Small ships RCA type can be made within 6 months. What is fundamentally in the last decade China ship industry has put a priority puzzle to bring technological excellence of military products to the world level. Recall that even modern warships of the PLA Navy, according to various estimates, structurally and in terms of materials are still at the level of 80-ies of XX century.
For all this his Chinese developments provided only nenaukoemkie production, such as case production and auxiliary power. More complex systems, usually zatarivaemsya abroad. Right up to 1989 China cooperated with France, Germany and the USA. France received from Celestial priemuschestvenno electronics and weapons: anti-aircraft missiles, artillery systems, tools and ASW helicopters. Germany and the U.S. supplied modern gas turbines. But after the shooting demonstrations at Tiananmen Square Western powers broke with China and once again become the main partner of the USSR, and after its collapse — Our homeland and Ukraine as having more experience in shipbuilding. Dwelt at languid economic situation of the former Union republics were just excited about this promising trade cooperation, resulting in the Celestial Empire has received a huge amount advanced for that time, or established development and creation of their license, or made on the basis of their own models. As a result, for example, Project 052C destroyers appeared Russian S-300F (more precisely, their Chinese version), Ka-28 and the Ukrainian gas turbine engines. Yet after repeated scandals illegal copying Russian products our country declares usmotritelny approach to selling China sverhtehnologichny guns.
And yet China is also a scientific idea does not stand still: already on frigates project part 054 electronic weapons and anti-ship missiles are state development. On the aircraft carrier «Liaoning» views on observers set at one hundred percent Chinese avionics, defensive weaponry and other important components, such as arresting gear. Even if the properties of the product is lower than peers in other countries, not enough who hesitates, that China will be able to bridge this gap.
In general, the shipbuilding industry China is currently on the rise. You can not refute the fact that production capacity and the pace of construction is much greater than China and Russia can really compete with the United States. Industry in China as a «sags» exclusively in the research part, in all other qualities can already read the full advantages over China Shipbuilding our respective industry. In China still has one indisputable advantage: cheap labor. Although the quality of the experience of 10 years Male has proved unsatisfactory, we can expect that at some point the qualification of workers will rise to world levels. Despite the fact that the PLA Navy, apparently, the amount has not yet run across a new quality, there is no hesitation in the foreseeable future China will be a real ocean-going fleet. And this is a harsh application for emergence of a new pole on the political map of the world.
An advantage of the vast
The pride of South American military-industrial complex are reduced visibility technology that intensively introduced in all branches of the armed forces. Some experts even believe that the essence of modern shipbuilding programs from the United States — curbing the rising China, namely due to large-scale introduction of ships made by technology «Stealth».
In general, it is only one element of a huge number sverhtehnologichny development, through which the U.S. military can rightly be called the most «advanced» in the world. Is undeniable, and the present status of the U.S. as the «Mistress of the Seas.» Owning the most countless, combat-ready and perfectly cooked naval forces, Washington can provide a military presence in at least some point of the oceans.
What is the most fundamental — fleet on time and pay tribute amounts provided new ships to replace outdated and exhaustible resources. You can not refute the fact that the number of BNC and submarines in the U.S. Navy has long fled to quality (for example, from 6 June 1942. — Ed.). In general, the combat strength of the U.S. Navy is also very significant: 288 ships. This award is a strong shipbuilding industry, apparently, which is the most effective and at the technical level in the developed world, with the consensus of elites, which is expressed in an indisputable attention to the needs of their own sun and MIC.
Organizational shipbuilding U.S. industry consists of 2-large companies with dockyards: General Dynamics and Huntington Ingalls.
General Dynamics has 3 main shipbuilders. This shipyard Bath Iron Works Corporation in Bath, Maine, Electric Boat Company, located in Groton, Connecticut, NASSCO (National Steel and Shipbuilding Company), located in San Diego, California.
As part of Huntington Ingalls also three large shipyards. Newport News Shipbuilding — the only South American Shipyard, where atomic erected U.S. Navy aircraft carriers of all types. This is the second enterprise producing nuclear submarines Virginia, and (until 1996) — Improved Los Angeles, specifically at this shipyard was built last in a series of SSN-773. In the same enterprise is service carriers and disposal of spent nuclear reactors.
Ingalls Shipbuilding — second shipyard. Its powers to create several types of amphibious ships: UDC (LHA) type America, capable of carrying helicopters and planes with small takeoff and vertical landing (SKVVP) F-35B, DVKD (LPD) type of San Antonio, DVKD LPD Flight II last generation. Fundamental order — big series EM UB type Arleigh Burke. And, finally, run cutters Coastguard.
The third division is the Avondale Shipyards in a new Orleans Louisiana. This shipyard is known for a series of landing craft air cushion LCAC, also under construction type DVKD San Antonio. Northrop Grumman still wants to close Avondale Shipyards after its construction LPD-25.
Repair and R & D
Ship repair factory, usually, are also part of the big companies. Besides the already mentioned there are three NASSCO association.
BAE Systems Ship Repair — aimed only repair, maintenance and modernization of the ships company. Her power placed in Norfolk, Jacksonville, Mayport, Mobile, San Diego, San Francisco and Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. BAE Systems is a leading enterprise, repair non-nuclear ships and nuclear submarines, and works only with the U.S. Navy.
Manage shipbuilding and armaments (Naval Sea Systems Command — NAVSEA) most formidable of 5 MTO offices (so called SYSCOM — system commands) U.S. Navy. Commander (COMNAVSEA) obeys the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) and the Deputy Minister of specific R & D and procurement (Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition — ASN RDA). Problem management — development, realization, maintenance, repair and modernization of various Navy combat systems, including ships. Question acquisition TDC article is not considered. Working under the auspices of NAVSEA shipyards Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility, Portsmouth Naval Shipyard and Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility. Individual company is considered US Naval ship repair facility and Japan regional maintenance center, whose shipyards factory located in the Japanese town of Yokosuka and Sasebo. They serve the 7th fleet operational.
In the R & D organization, there are three components. The main body — the Office of Naval research (Office of Naval Research — ONR). This organization is also in charge of R & D Deputy Minister (currently occupies the post Sean Stukeley. — Ed.) And is responsible for coordinating, developing and conducting research for the benefit of all naval forces. ONR produces military-technical maintenance work relevant laboratories, institutes and institutions, many of which are private (commercial).
Subsequent element is a Naval Research Laboratory (Naval Research Laboratory). This is the basic profile Municipal Research Institute. His task — development and implementation sverhtehnologichny products. The laboratory consists of five divisions. Management of business operations (Business Operations Directorate) engaged in financial issues. System Management (Systems Directorate) consists of 4 offices — radar, information technology, optical systems, electronic warfare. Subsequent management — materials and components — is developing new types of materials for shipbuilding. It has seven divisions: Materials laboratory, chemical research, materials, computational physics and hydrodynamics, plasma physics, electronics and Biomolecular Engineering Center. Management of Oceanology and Meteorology includes six divisions: acoustics, remote sensing, oceanography, marine geology, marine meteorology and space exploration. And, in the end, the Naval Center of cosmic technologies (Naval Center for Space Technology — NCST) is developing and acquiring satellites for the Navy.
Specifically, the development of warships and weapons corporations engaged in manufacturing.
For example, General Dynamics, this role is assigned to the company NASSCO, which owns significant experience and capacity.
Curious nuance such R & D organizations such as joint research projects of several companies. Namely, there is a programm NSRP — National Shipbuilding Research Program. She was joined Austal, BAE Systems, Bollinger Shipyards, General Dynamics, Ingalls Shipbuilding, Vigor and VT Halter Marine. The aim of the joint project is to optimize the cost of building and maintenance of ships of the U.S. Navy through the introduction of the creation of new technologies and techniques. All participants interested in a similar study, because fluctuate efficiency applets do not have to.
Shipbuilding industry the U.S. is a completely oiled machine in decades, which is generating both industrial and scientific products that are often advanced for the whole world. Measured support from the country’s credibility and civilian customers provide adequate funding, which in turn acts as the quality of the workforce, and in the future development.
Without a doubt, all the scenarios of ocean operations in the medium term, except fight off the coast of China, suggest that the PLA Navy will not be able to resist the U.S. AUG. Unfortunately, talk about the place of in the ocean confrontation is not necessary. Virtually destroyed after the collapse of the USSR Navy (even skewed by submarine fleet) so far has not been restored. You can not wait and that the country would be able to contain the Navy, at least similar to the Chinese.
The above information in this article are not sufficient for a comparative assessment of industrial potential of China, Russia, the United States in the field of shipbuilding. Article raises the important problem of. Table with data on Russian PKB, CVD and SRH designed as amended by readily available information from public sources and the reduced number 3 in the weekly «MIC», such as a table in the USA and is incomplete. In both cases there is no initial data sufficient and valid method of analysis of the real database, technical condition, subcontractors, transport accessibility, property works, performance, utilization, bandwidth capabilities, staff, features support facilities, machine tools. January 29 report on Defence Plan Russian Federation Defense Minister proposed service company AME cross-cutting contracts. One of Rezonit — the constant inspection by the manufacturer at all steps of the current cycle of guns — from production to disposal. Naikrupneyshim Russian armored vehicles manufacturer Uralvagonzavod even last year signed an agreement with the Ministry of Defense not only to modernize, and to conduct a serious and average repair tanks, previously delivered to the troops. In Soviet ICBMs and SLBMs were on warranty and post warranty service industry. On the other hand, for vehicles, such system may be unacceptable. There are proposals to transfer the manufacturers not only serious, and the average repair, repair companies withdrawing from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense.