On the 70th anniversary of the parent company
June 4 marks the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the "Corporation" Tactical Missiles ". Of course, back in 1942 the name was different. Originally it was a near Moscow branch number 145 Kuibyshev plant named after Stalin's Commissariat of Aviation Industry. But the Kuibyshev plant was evacuated from Moscow, the first Russian aircraft factory, the famous "Dux" manufactured aircraft since 1910. In 1918, he received the name of the State Aviation Plant number 1. Now it is a factory space technology "Progress" in Samara. But from what the root grows "Tactical Missiles".
- Passive radar homing A-112E for the Kh-31. MAKS-2009
Branch number 145 lasted six months, after which the system control unit that is very distant from the parent company, has been found to be ineffective. And the State Defense Committee decided to establish an independent enterprise on the basis of the branch. The relevant decree number 1868 from T-bills June 3, 1942 was formed Union Plant number 455 of the Second Chief Directorate of the People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry (NCAP). From the next day began the history of the enterprise, which is now called the JSC "Corporation" Tactical Missiles ".
Geographically Union Plant number 455 was in the village of Bolshevo, who was part of the city Costin Mytishchinsky District. In 1960, Costin entered the city of Kaliningrad, now Korolev. In 1941 Bolshevo plant number 472, which produced radiators for aircraft engines, was evacuated to the town of Kuznetsk, Penza region. And in its territory after the defeat of the Nazis near Moscow located branch number 145.
In addition to managing the factory 596 people were working in two main and three subsidiary plants. Reactivate the rest, and install new machines, the fall of 1942 the factory started producing basic products — belts braces for frontline aircraft and spray tanks. But to instrument the relationship they had, and were in the category of "units of weapons." Spray tanks VAP-200, WPA and WPA-400-500 — are containers for phosphate flame mixture. Mostly they were suspended for the Il-2, which from a height of 30 meters poured the contents on the enemy. Contents of the container enough to burn down the column of two dozen vehicles or artillery battery in the calculations. So that the contribution of the factory workers in Victory weight and concrete.
After the war NCAP converted to the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR. It included a range of new products factory: cassette holders KD4-456A,-246A CDHS, locks B-4, B-10 and U-electric B-4-A-2 bombers Tupolev. But the main task of the team is the expansion of the plant. Old production reconstructed, have created new — hot shop with the casting, forging and thermal areas, the probation department, the department of laboratories.
May 13, 1950 Director of the factory number 455 was assigned Arzhakov Mikhail Petrovich (1903-1977). Coming from a peasant family, work-caster, he graduated from technical school and college. Held an engineering internship in the United States, was on a business trip in Germany. He started as an engineer and director. In May 1950, he graduated from the Academy of Aviation Industry of the USSR and a new assignment.
When Arzhakova plant began to develop rapidly. There department chief engineer and chief metallurgist, tool department, x-ray laboratory, control and test station. Expanded the territory of the enterprise. And for 25 years of leadership Michael Arzhakov left in a future Queen residential neighborhood. Was awarded the State Prize of the USSR, the title of Honorary Citizen of Kaliningrad.
The development of production allowed in 1955 to make a new executive order — the party cannon turrets with automatic guidance for the design of strategic bombers Myasishcheva. After that, the plant became a major supplier of aircraft armament.
- Gun turret on the M3
Also in 1955 received a special government task — to create a production base for the development and production of the first Soviet guided missiles "air-to-air." The missile was developed in the department number 32 KB-1 of the Third General Administration of USSR Council of Ministers under the leadership of designer Dmitri Tomashevich since 1951. In 1953, almost finished the development was transferred to OKB-2 chief designer Peter Grushin.
In 1956, the number 455 at the plant began mass production of missile RS-1U (the first controlled rocket) to arm the MiG-17PFU and Yak-25P. But other aircraft also required a similar weapon. And May 17, 1957 order of the MAP on the basis of the design department of the factory serial number 455 was formed design bureau. It was headed by Michael E. Edidovich, who worked previously chief technology company. The task was to equip missiles "air-air" MiG-21 bis, Su-9, Su-15.
Jump from technical support to full scale production design is not easy. But even more difficult to shift from guns to a fundamentally different technique — missiles. Had to start from the elementary — new knowledge in aerodynamics, jet propulsion, electronics. In 1958, on the basis of missile RS-2U began work on a prototype K-55 with an infrared homing (GOS). In this case, there was a competing project OKB-4 — K-8 rocket smaller.
Design documentation was prepared in 1960. Then spent a bench working out the control loop. February 4, 1961 began test launches from the aircraft. Including special missile telemetry options, which gave valuable information about the work of the GOS and various types of detonators. Battle-tested, during which successfully brought down aircraft target different types, occurred from 1963 to 1967. According to their results rocket continued to improve.
The first independent development of the plant — a guided missile K-55 — was adopted by the January 21, 1969 by P-55 (factory index — ed. 68) as part of the weapons system of the Su-9. Compared with a competing project she had the advantage — adaptability conducive to mass production. Serial production of SD P-55 began in 1967 and lasted for 10 years — until 1977. During this time, have been upgraded missile. So in the new bureau were laid tradition of design.
April 30, 1966 the company received the numeral name — Kaliningrad Engineering Plant (KMZ). By the time it really was a brand new venture — a modern scientific-production association that can solve the most complex design and manufacturing challenges to create a modern tactical missiles.
And expanded product range. Mass-produced missile RS-1U, 2U PC, RS-2US and anti-aircraft guided missile air defense system for the 3M9 "Cube". Later, CMH began to produce missiles "air-air" R-8M, R-8M1R, R-8M1T, K-98, K-98MR, K-98MT, P-4, P-40. Production of R-40 for the MiG-25P, reach speeds of up to 3000 km / h, the plant required the development of new technologies.
- 3M9 on the launcher
March 12, 1966 by the Minister of Aviation Industry number 100 KB factory was converted in the bureau under the direction of Yuri Korolev. Later it received the name of OKB "Star". Before the bureau was tasked caused the request to the Vietnamese Air Force — give guided weapons to attack ground targets. It was about a new class of SD "air-to-surface". Missile was developed in a matter of months, using elements already developed SD "air-to-air." Already in November 1966 started the first test launches. And in December, the first domestic missile X-66 class "air-surface" has been recommended for the adoption. Used in the armament of the MiG-21PFM. Produced until 1976.
- X 66
Also in 1966, the design bureau of the number 134 (later GosMKB "Vympel") were transferred to the proceedings of the rocket design, pilot controlled by radio control. The Design Bureau of CMH was decided to retain the management and arrangement of nodes of the Kh-66 and use radio command guidance system with coded control signals transmitted on board the rocket airborne equipment "Delta". State tests completed in the autumn of 1973. In early 1974, the Kh-23 entered service aircraft such as the MiG-23, MiG-27, Su-17, Su-22, Su-24, Yak-28. Soon was upgraded missile (X-23M) for more advanced equipment "Delta P2M." In 1977, he successfully took fire at surface targets. SD X-23 was produced until 1983 and was exported to ten countries.
In 1976, the Su-17 was the world's first self-contained set of weapons, including laser station illumination purposes "Projector-1" and the Kh-25 semi-active laser seeker. New SD developed on the basis of the X-23, inheriting its aerodynamic design and a number of structural elements. For the successful implementation of the laser weapon system team of scientists and engineers has been awarded the Lenin Prize. In April 1986, the Kh-25 in the armed attack aircraft such as the Su-25 has received its baptism of fire in Afghanistan. Launches were carried out from a distance of 4-5 km from a dive at an angle of 25-30 degrees, the deviation of rockets from the aiming point does not exceed 1.5-2 m
SD X-25 was the basis for a new class in the next biography EDO — anti-radar missiles Kh-27, intended to counter enemy air defense radars. Work on it began in 1972. Replacement for radar seeker developed in the ICD "Pendant" (Moscow) and CDB "Automatic" (Omsk). To increase the flight range of up to 40 km on the MMZ "Iskra" was created by the dual-mode solid composite propellant engine with an increased one and a half times the total momentum. The tests were conducted on the MiG-27 in August 1975. Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR № 758-248 on September 2, 1980 and the Order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR number 00155 Kh-27PS with a passive radar seeker was adopted by the Soviet Air Force aircraft.
Expanded production — extended CMH. And by the Minister of Aviation Industry number 459 of November 2, 1976 the plant was converted to a "Kaliningrad production and design association" Strela "(" IMEP "Arrow"). In the new association includes CMH OKB "Star", Kostroma and Mechanical Bender Machine Works. A 7 August 1978 IMEP "Arrow" was renamed Kaliningrad production association "Strela".
One of the main directions of development of the missile was to develop a modular missiles "air-to-surface". Needed to reduce the number of model rockets, to unify and reduce the cost of production.
So there were three versions of the modular Kh-25M: X-25MP — anti-radiation PRGSN with three modules operating in different bands, X-25ML — multi-purpose missile with a laser seeker, X-25MR — multi-purpose missile with a radio command guidance equipment. The following is taken abroad was to create the world's first production supersonic aircraft guided missile Kh-31P. The speed of its flight reached 1000 m / s. High speed, endurance and long-range guidance to ensure effective use of missiles mainly from abroad reach of carrier rockets of modern air defense SAM systems.
- X-31P for the MiG-27
Decision № 17 MIC USSR from January 11, 1978 order of the MAP and number 60 on February 15, 1978 OKB "Star" was commissioned to create based on the Kh-31P missile Kh-31A, designed to destroy surface ships with a displacement of 4500 tons. Replacing passive radar guidance system for an active and high-explosive fragmentation warhead for penetrating managed to get effective anti-ship missile (ASM).
In the difficult 90th state purchases were curtailed. But in 1994 signed the first contract for the supply of foreign ship missile system (SLS) "Uran-E" for the Indian Navy. There are agreements with a number of other countries. Thanks to the export sales company in 1995 received the status of Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State Research and Production Center (SSPC)" Zvezda-Strela ", could survive. Further improvement of the CBC "Uranus" and included in his The Kh-35 has already been given new association — JSC "Corporation" Tactical Missiles ", formed by Presidential Decree number 84 of 24 January 2002 on the basis of Federal State Unitary Enterprise" SSPC "Zvezda-Strela". Now the corporation has 19 Russian defense companies.
In July 2003, the CBC "Uranus" was adopted by the Navy Russia. In parallel, there were works on the use of the Kh-35E in the coastal missile system "Bal-E". The results were brilliant, and "Bal-E" was also adopted for use. Then The Kh-35E adapted for aviation support. The tests were to patrol the Indian Il-38SD. Rocket adopted in the arms of multi-role fighters. Now, a new perspective The Kh-35UE, which by its performance characteristics twice the previous sample.
JSC "Corporation" Tactical Missiles "continues through the ongoing development of a planned modernization of the technological base
and active innovation technology policy.
The team of the "Independent Military Review" congratulates guide, veterans and employees of the "Corporation" Tactical Missiles "Happy glorious jubilee and wishes everyone good health, happiness, prosperity and new successes in your work for the good of the fatherland!
Photo source: www.airwar.ru; www.ktrv.ru; pvo.guns.ru; wikipedia