Subject Nazi military expeditions to the Arctic has become one of the most mythologized in the history of the second world war — from the "base" Nord "to everything associated with" Annenerbe. " In fact, everything was, to say the least, different.
ZALEGENDIROVANNYE BASE AND REAL Raiders
Much has been said about the Tipo joint Arctic research activities conducted by the State Councils and the Third Reich before the second World War and even after it started.
But in fact co-operation with Germany in this area (as well as other cooperation with Berlin in military and civilian areas) falls in the main by the time of the democratic Weimar Republic. And if the truth were conducted joint scientific expedition in the Arctic, for example — an international expedition on the airship "Graf Zeppelin" in 1931 (materials which then really enjoyed the Abwehr). After Hitler came to power virtually all joint activity was terminated at the initiative of Berlin, but after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact things come to life. Thus, in the Murmansk in connection with the beginning of the second world war had taken refuge from the British Navy German ship "Bremen", and only in the Kola Bay in a different time is saved from the British more than 30 German courts, which do not go beyond the international provisions relating to the neutral states .
But most of all it was the legends surrounding the Northern Sea Route wiring to the Far East German raider "Komet" in August 1940. And in this case, the Soviet Union also did not violate neutrality, since the raider ship's documents considered by a merchant vessel, and the artillery was even before the arrival of the Murmansk dismantled and hidden in the holds. Russian government has received from Germany for this operation 950 thousand Reichsmarks. This operation, which the German High Command has given the code name "Fall Grün" ("Green case"), has received coverage in the works of naval historians, the U.S., the UK, Denmark and Germany in the 50s. In 1953 in Switzerland, even published a book of memoirs of the former commander of the raider Rear Admiral Robert Eissa "On" Comet "on the Northeast Passage." In the USSR this story until the adjustment is not made public, although not absolutely hushed. (By the way, there was nothing unusual — foreign vessels in the 30-ies of the northern sea by walking to the forest Igarki, even open a discussion of its opening to the pass-through of international swimming — anything but the war.)
In the end, the unhappy "Baze" Nord ", allegedly built by the Germans with the consent of the Soviet Union near Murmansk, where the German U-boat in 1939-1940-ies were walking to sink British ships. So here's this base and even anything similar to it just was not, except in the writings of dissidents revisionists like Alexander Nekrich and sensational books in the spirit of "Arctic lurking Third Reich."
Germany really appealed to the Soviet Union with such offers, promising Fri bases in the Kola Bay, the supply of naval equipment such as torpedo boats, but how-ever harsh negotiations (even talks!) Is not reached.
Of all the navies of the Union of Russian Top Lofty Russian North was the most feeble — from big ships on it, there were only six destroyers. Especially worthy look its results, and how so few troops managed to thwart German plans.
In June 1942, the headquarters of the Third Reich Navy received information that about 50 Russian and allied ships, including the favorite "Baku" and three destroyers, accompanied by Russian icebreakers "Anastas Mikoyan" and "Admiral Lazarev" and South American tanker "Lokbatan , "came out on July 15 from Vladivostok. This convoy and became one of the goals of the operation "Wunderland" — "Wonderland". It had involved a "pocket" battleship "Admiral Scheer" and four submarines. Assumed to be not only the defeat of the convoy, and the Russian general disturbance of navigation in the Kara Sea by the destruction of ports, weather stations, ships. Real successes have been very moderate. Germans managed to kill two Russian polar aviation aircraft, burn houses and warehouses explorers, sink transport "peasant" and the icebreaker "Siberians" — the first vessel passed within one navigation in the Northern Sea by 1934. August 27 battleship approached the island Dixon. As is now clear, the enemy pocketed huge value capture or even the destruction of Port Dickson. "Admiral Scheer" was due to land at one time the number of troops on the peninsula to several hundred people. The plan was to capture senior management staff of the western sector of the North Sea route, to burn coal storage, kill the radio and break the link with the Krasnoyarsk. But in the way of plans was unaccounted battery of 2-152-mm howitzers, under the command of Lieutenant Nicholas Kornyakova, which served only 12 artillerymen with the participation of local residents, including women, who worked on the toe cap shells. Frankly, not very significant strength in comparison with six 280-mm caliber guns head "Scheer" and eight 150-mm artillery barrels subsidiary on its board. Twice "Admiral Scheer" approaching the port, but both times was obliged to retreat. With all of this one of a very successful Russian shells set fire to the storage of fuel for on-board reconnaissance aircraft, so the team had to wage a serious struggle for the survival of the ship. Reporting on his own campaign, commander of the "pocket" battleship captain zur See Meendsen-Bolkow with disarming naivete reported to management: "To the surprise, at one point opened fire Coastal Battery 150-mm guns. As a result of the landing troops had to be abandoned. "
In combat, the enemy ships damaged "Dezhnyov", "revolutionary" and TFR-19, burned two wooden houses, knocked out the power station, steam room, and a few other buildings. After that, "Admiral Scheer" had to leave the Kara Sea.
So Makar, despite complete an advantage over the existing Germans from the Soviet Union forces in the area, the results of the campaign "pocket" battleships were, in fact, miserable. It is no accident the German High Command has canceled the following operation in the Kara Sea — "Double Impact." In the process it was supposed to storm all Russian ships coming from the east as the coast of the Kara Sea, including the Gulf of Ob. But because of the failure of the operation "Wonderland" newcomer military action remained in the archives staff. Since then, Russian hinder navigation in these areas has been entrusted submarines Admiral Doenitz, the joint task force in the "Viking". In general, they are not particularly excelled.
PARTIAL SUCCESS FOR complete collapse
In the years 1942-1944, "Kriegsmarine" has undertaken a number of operations in the Russian Arctic: "The Crusader", "The Arctic Wolf," "The Cellist", "Birds". In the process they made priemuschestv
enno reconnaissance missions, the most resounding of which was the capture of Russian polar station in 1944, when, while suffering the loss, the Germans were able to capture some of the documentation and ciphers. It was also cooperated several secret bases "Kriegsmarine" by the new Earth and Franz Josef Land (found after the war).
But it must be understood that all the bases were small and hard to disguise intelligence Fri no more than two or three dozen people staff. For example, the Germans made a c submarines Mezhdusharsky on the peninsula near the Earth's newest "air base" (as it is dubbed in the 90 journalists) was just the usual parking lot with a small seaplane with supplies of fuel, even without the constant personnel. No underground shelters for submarines and concreted runways, as is even wrote pochetaemye edition in 90 years, on these bases were not available. All the more so that the Germans have always had severe problems with the repair and supply even in occupied Norway. For example, in the port of Kirkenes "Kriegsmarine" had only a floating studio, and the harsh repair the submarine went to Bergen or in Germany. The last big operation, the Germans in the Russian Arctic has been planting in autumn 1943 in the western part of the archipelago of Franz Josef Land, the order for the organization radiopelengatsionnogo Fri But in the spring of 1944 people had to be evacuated — almost all of them trichinosis fallen ill due to the consumption of meat meal in a snow-white bear.
Overall, despite some successful moments, the German efforts in this direction have not brought significant success. And soon the Petsamo-Kirkenes operation Red Army had deprived the Germans of ports and bases in northern Norway, and Russian Arctic has become for them a very inaccessible, and of the overall unfavorable situation Reich forced to abandon the polar adventures.