First MYTH: Base OPPOSITION — tribal elite
It seems to be correct: Libyan people is divided into various tribes, and in the midst of the coming of the forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi on Benghazi (and before the NATO almost took the side of the rebels) favorites largest tribe east of Libya Varfalla said they are not opposed Gaddafi. We need to realize that, before that clarity in this matter was not. Especially since at least as severe a monograph on the history of modern Libya says that Varfalla — the usual rival tribe of Gaddafi, the one to which he belongs and the favorite of the Libyan Revolution Muammar Gaddafi. And in general, the same number of monographs can figure out that no Libyan people not so long ago was not, and had various Arabic-speaking tribes, and for the first time to put together some semblance of civilization ruler Idris I just in the middle of the twentieth century.
In the coffee bar "Nuran" in Benghazi, I was talking with a man in professorial glasses and a "Kalashnikov" in his hands, his name was Muhammad Hassan. It is really up to the revolution taught at Kar-Younis, an old institution in Libya. And education in Britain. He explained to me the situation with the tribes.
Center of the uprising — the main city of eastern Libya, Benghazi. This is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the country, belonging to the tribe here — just an excuse to ask the source "from which it", and then it is gratifying to say, "and I, too." In fact the case, then the tribal solidarity means less than in Britain fact that you're a Scot or Welshman. Just another reason to talk, the political significance of the fact of belonging to a tribe has not already. Hassan Mohammed himself one hundred percent on the rebel side, and on the issue of podkovyrkoy "of what tribe will" only laughs loudly: "I am almost your compatriot: Circassian — my ancestors came here in the late XIX century."
But not all of the tribes that simple. Muammar Gaddafi overthrew the king, 10 years struggled with tribalism, during this period we talk about that, from what tribe you were simply indecent. The remnants of feudalism. But later he became a favorite of the Libyan revolution to manipulate tribal konkurentnstyu, raising or lowering or as representatives of other tribes, introducing collective responsibility, ensuring group loyalty. But ever the opposition Benghazi deliberately refuses to play these endless "checks and balances".
Second MYTH OF INSURGENTS WORTH "Al-Qaeda"
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in Libya there was a certain ideological vacuum. It turned out that socialism is not competitive and loses "decadent West." The resulting semantic Gaddafi tried to fill the void with something like municipal Islamism, but very quickly found that political Islam is not completely controllable and that he only made the newest form of opposition itself. Then in Libya and turned a real struggle to even what form of Islamism. It looked about the same as in Russia: searches, arrests, thrown up literature, trumped-up komploty (like the assassination of Matviyenko).
Since 2004, Muammar Gaddafi began to cooperate with the Yankees in the field of combating terrorism (the fun that at one time it was he who supported many terrorist organizations, both Muslim and leftist). In Libya were made by representatives of U.S. intelligence, carried out the arrests of people of interest to them and taking them to jail those states where they can be interrogated without zamorachivayas "human rights."
Gaddafi himself intensively We clean the Islamic opposition. Specifically, the Islamists in Libya are the main contingent of political prisoners. And virtually all Libyan human rights activists (including western and orientation) are engaged in the struggle for the rights of mostly Islamists. Legitimate Islamist movements is not here, but there is an underground group of volunteer veterans who participated in a variety of jihad. In the near future, for the most part against the United States, its European allies and collaborators of Iraq and Afghanistan. The funny side of the situation is that now veterans of the mujahideen were in the same basket with yesterday's enemies: fighting with Gaddafi for them was more principled, if to fight the "Great Satan."
With representatives of the veterans I've come across on the front lines in the battle for Ajdabiya. Certainly, they are not "al-Qaeda", although contact with her in them almost certainly is. The group, calling itself "Islamic fighters Libyan troops" does not support the practice bombings of embassies, ships, skyscrapers, bazaars and mosques. In general, al-Qaida, they do not condemn too. Quickly, they can be compared with our Cossack volunteers often ezdivshimi to Yugoslavia in the early 90-ies of the last century, some fighting for bratushek-Serbs.
Political Favorites rebel very difficult at the moment to abandon the help of "Libyan troops": people with combat experience its weight in gold. Yes, and no real policy does not allow them. The State Transition Council (the rebel government) no 1 representative of the group. And in general, of the 30 members of the board, most of whose names are kept secret — for the reason that they are in the area controlled by Gaddafi — only two people are positioned as representatives of Islam. Their names also were not disclosed, but the Speaker of the Council Abdulhafiz Gogh proves that they do not represent any group, and included in the council as people who possess great personal spiritual authority.
3rd Myth: Rebels rely on the monarchists and the Sufi orders SINUSSITOV ON, HEAD who was ousted Muammar Gaddafi Lord I IDRIS
I stopped at a cafe near the port, took the camera and started shooting antikaddafistskuyu propaganda on the walls. The camera slowly crawling on the most favorite cartoons on the Libyan Jamahiriya, for his sons until the lens is not bumped into comely portrait of an old man. King Idris, — explained the young man behind the counter. I decided to talk to him about politics, while pulling a tiny cup of coffee.
— Are you a Sufi?
— No, just a Muslim.
— Can you — monarchist, would wish to replace Gaddafi was again lord?
— Is such a thing be?
— But you above the entrance — an old monarchist flag, which has become the banner of the revolution, and the inside — a portrait of the king, it means something?
— Just it's not bad here is associated with old periodically: then built institute, sports arena, yes, read the entire Benghazi, there were many cinemas. And when Gaddafi was just blah-blah-blah about that soon will begin a change to the best.
Departing from this cafe, I have thought that if in 1991, a stranger asked me, does Russian tricolor as a candidate reddish flag that Yeltsin standing for the Cavaliers, I would think that this is crazy.
More seriously on this topic I spoke with Muhammad Kablanom, director of the rebel press center. "I'm not against the return of the royal family in Libya — says Kablan — but there are a lot of problems. Dynasty King Idris is not purely Libyan, Moroccan origin it, and this time, of course, would have played opponents o
f the return of the royal family in any capacity, except as personal individuals. To everything else, the hereditary prince Hassan al-sinusitis (grandson of King Idris), who lives between Saudi Arabia and London, is not very suitable for the role of a favorite personal qualities. " In short, although the people in the royal family is not very bad reputation in the State transitional council is no one who would have insisted on a different form of government, if the Republican.
4th MYTH: under Gaddafi Libyans lived so right, it is not clear what they want
In Russia, the love Gaddafi. Surely, not even love him so much, how many do not love those who are against him, the U.S., France and Britain — all that in the popular mind is connected to the image of "the world's policeman." In this context, there was a flood of articles praising life in Libya — the most prosperous in the social sense of the country in Africa. Looking through the RuNet, I learned that there was unemployment 800 bucks, the nurse received 1200, the newlyweds was granted an interest-free loan for 20 years, 64,000 bucks, free health care and education, and rivers of milk, milk and honey.
Tatiana Zabizhko, an anesthesiologist, worked in Libya 16 years. In the press room she came to call the "Skype" in Kiev, another connection with foreign countries is not here. Here's what she knows about the "sweet" life in Libya: "We are considered as foreign experts at highly paid, I wage is currently $ 800, in the last 3-4 years here pursue policies to earnings of local trained professionals moved up to our level , and before that they were getting 150-200 bucks. We then also earned less. And the majority of Libyans and to this day is considered to be $ 200 ordinary income. "
Ask about grants and loans to newlyweds — Tatiana raises his eyebrows in surprise, "the first time I hear about this." By the end of the conversation ask "security question":
— Are you for or for Gaddafi rebels?
— Honestly, for Gaddafi: We worked with him and no one will touch him, and the rebels just kicked us out of the apartment, they came and said that all foreigners ordered out of here. That I am not to the one who is good, who is bad, but to how it is essentially.
A couple of days later we went to the desert for 150 kilometers from Benghazi, to look at the lives of ordinary Libyans in ordinary Libyan hinterland: in houses made of corrugated iron huddle 8 families, electricity from a gasoline generator, 3 km — well with muddy water, bread baked in " tandoor "- steel barrel, smeared with clay — a dozen sheep, around the rocky plain with little or no vegetation and wind.
— Where are your kids learn?
— Yes nowhere, until the coming school 60 km.
— What are you, nomads? Why do you live here?
— We settled, want to the city, but it is very expensive — to move there, we do not have such funds.
5th MYTH: REBELS — hirelings of the West, but on the side GADDAFI — healthy parts of Libyan society
In the first part of this statement will not argue. In the middle of the rebels really a lot of westernized people, many good British. The State Board of transition, except for 2-Gaddafi's closest associates — former Interior Minister Abdel Fatah Younes and former Justice Minister Mustafa Mohamed Abdul Al-Dzheleyla — or teachers from other Western institutions (Ali Tarhouni and Fathi al-Baja), or lawyers Human rights defenders (Fathi Tiber Abdelhafiz Gogh). And the army is Gen. Omar al-Hariri, who escaped from Gaddafi in the U.S. back in the 80's and sit out there right up to the revolution. In general, quite pro-Western audience. Although, strictly speaking, is not a "hirelings", but simply supporters — the West and the Western way.
But as for the "healthy part of society," that is to understand.
Muammar Gaddafi did not trust his army, to counterbalance it, he did the other armed forces — Katyby (in Arabic — battalions), a kind of privileged personal guards. Katyby formed not so much the number of Libyans, but rather because of murtazakov (mercenaries, mostly from Chad). Each such katyboy ran one of the closest relatives of Gaddafi himself. If your army bases were always outside cities, katyby were always stationed in the middle of them. Specifically, these were the mainstay of the regime, specifically mercenaries opened fire on demonstrators in the defeat, while still naked.
Advancing on Benghazi katyba Khamis (subordinated offspring Muammar Gaddafi Hamisu), first head recaptured just citizens, while NATO is not yet connected. With murtazakami Khamis fought really fiercely. Why? Yes, as feared, knew no one would be spared.
But the story of Ukrainian doctors. They brought the wounded to the hospital, and the one and the other, and after disposal operations of both in the same wards. Libyans even fought on different sides, held together peaceably, relaxed discussions are various household stuff. Injured Libyans, Gaddafi and prisoners, the number of probation. Everyone knows that the war is over, their podlechat and released to their homes. Another thing — the mercenaries. Delivers itself from the operating room to the ward from the anesthesia and he has not had time to retreat, and it really dragged to the back yard and if you do not have time to intervene, in the same killing. What is the most unusual in these executions and prisoners-Gaddafi Libyans are also involved, though, as it were from the 1st camp with the mercenaries.
To say that the inside of Libyan society Gaddafi absolutely no support — means to lie. There is a structure in Libya — Legendre Savra (revolutionary committees) — civilian supporters of Muammar Gaddafi. On these committees, Dr. Mohamed Hassan knows: "They are above the law. People of them walking on the streets with a gun, they had the right to destroy you, even according to its own purely personal reasons. The only thing they need to later say — is that the victim was suspected that you had something against Gaddafi. " You can make adjustments, it is the story of an enemy regime, but that is in the body, it is still impressive.
Mohamed Hassan teaches at a local institute of political science, and we picked up a long time with him analogue Legendre Savra in other countries.
— And the Iranian Pazdoran like?
— No, there's Islamic ideology, these anything that is not present, just as they are for power, it can be everything.
— And on the Chinese Red Guards like?
— No, they were young, there was a conflict of generations, there is nothing that is not present.
— And about the Russian "Nashi" have you heard?
— No, these I do not know.
— Maybe it's like a Colombian drug mafia?
— What or similar, but not quite.
We have not picked up analogue. I even wanted to tell him about Shvonder, but realized that the vocabulary of supplies is not enough. A pity. It seemed to me that the chairman of the house committee with a revolver in the pocket — just that — social support Gaddafi.