Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly

Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de TollyIt was Napoleon Bonaparte was annoyed at the inability to shoot the public opinion of the guns. But not only the French government had to reckon with the views of the public. In Russia, its pressure is not inferior to the post-revolutionary France. Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly was a frequent object of undeserved criticism of court circles in the heaviest period of Russian war in 1812.

Misha was born Bogdanovic (Michael Andreas) in December 1761 in the German Hanseatic a de Tolly — branch of an ancient Scottish family Barclay. The father of the future Marshal Veingold Gotthard (adopted Slavic name Bogdan), Barclay de Tolly entered the Russian service even in the middle of the century and retired with the rank of lieutenant, earning a knighthood.

Michael Andreas with 3 years was brought up in the family's uncle Georg Wilhelm von Vermeulen. He commanded at the time Novotroitskie Cuirassier Regiment, which was recorded with 10 years of Misha Bogdanovich. The actual service is started, it was decided, at age 15 with the rank of sergeant Pskov karabinerskogo Regiment. Just after 8 years of Barclay de Tolly was awarded the first officer's rank — the rank of cornet — affected commoners.

In 1783, capable officer saw General von Patkul and took his aide increasing to lieutenant. After 3 years Barclay de Tolly transferred to the rank of lieutenant in the 1st Battalion of Chasseurs of Finland to the graph FE Anhalt. A year later, Mike Bogdanovich received its baptism of fire in the Russian-Turkish war (1787-1791). Barclay de Tolly was involved in the assault and Ochakova in 1788, and then in the Battle of Kaushanov, taking Bender and Ackermann. In the service moved to a second major. Before the end of the war with the Turks in 1790, Barclay de Tolly transferred to the Finnish army, which included took part in the war ending in step with Sweden 1788-1790 period. Misha Bogdanovich distinguished himself in battle at Pardakoski, for which he was granted the rank of Major Prime. A few months later, he was appointed commander of a battalion of the St. Petersburg Grenadier Regiment.

In 1794, Mikhail Bogdanovich participated in the suppression of the Kościuszko Uprising in Poland. Here he proved himself a master tactician, being obliged to act against the few and scattered groups of insurgents. For these achievements, as well as for the capture of the town of Vilna, Barclay de Tolly was awarded the Order of St.. ZHoru 4th degree, and a few months later was followed by an increase to lieutenant colonel. At the end of 1794 Misha Bogdanovich transferred to Estland Jaeger Corps battalion commander. In 1798 Barclay de Tolly received the rank of colonel, and in the next year is headed by Jaeger Regiment, renamed from Estland in the 4th.

Chaotic reign of Paul I, with its opals for professional and close to Catherine generals did not touch Misha Bogdanovich. Commoner and distance from St. Petersburg and its intrigues, so long prevented the development of a professional career officer in this case, played in his favor.

In colonels Barclay de Tolly not stayed too long at his post of Chief of the regiment organizational capabilities have been demonstrated fully. In March 1799 for the best fighter training he received the rank of Major General. It must be emphasized that the huntsman — especially the infantry, they had to act in inaccessible places, such as mountains, forests or heavily traversed area. In short, wherever it was impossible to construct a standard line infantry. Huntsmen had to shoot straight, different endurance, swiftly and discreetly move to the countryside and, of course, be able to stand up for yourself in bayonet fighting. Fighters Barclay de Tolly absolutely satisfy these requirements.

With the French troops Misha Bogdanovich encountered for the first time at the Battle of Austerlitz. Already in this battle, it became clear how unsafe the enemy can be Napoleon. In the 1806-1807 campaign's Barclay de Tolly and led the division in the first big battle of Pultusk, in command of the first line, repulsed all the attacks of Marshal Lannes. For this fight was awarded the Order of St.. ZHoru third degree.

Covering the retreat of the Russian army through the town of Eylau, Misha Bogdanovich was seriously wounded in the right arm. Rana gave a long time for myself to know. Within a couple of years he had to wear a broken arm in a sling. At Barclay de Tolly even formed a habit to hold the right hand of a healthy left. Appreciating rearguard action at Eylau, Misha Bogdanovich made a lieutenant-general.

Because of injuries Barclay de Tolly had to retire from the army forever to heal, and in the troops returned only to the war with Sweden 1808-1809 year. Then, following the will of the ruler, Barclay and his troops made the difficult transition on the ice zamershego Strait of quarks and won the Swedish city of Umea. This maneuver forced Sweden to negotiate, they ended, but the fighting. By the end of the war Barclay led the troops across Finland and received the rank of General of Infantry.

Alexander turned his attention to the talent and skill of Barclay de Tolly. In January 1810 Misha Bogdanovic is assigned to sverhotvetstvennuyu ahead of the Napoleonic Wars post of Minister of War. Certainly, Barclay was aware of how much will be at stake in the future collision. Wasting no time, he vigorously taken to reform the army. Past wars have shown an advantage of the body and the organization and strategy of attacking columns, the first time applied even Suvorov.

The first area of reform is the regulation of in-command in combat criteria and the preparation of a fighter, and a clear definition of the hierarchy of titles and range of commitments, which corresponds to them. The result of the hard work of the commissions has become "an institution to manage large the Army" — one of the most perfect instruments of Europe since then. Thanks to the efforts of Barclay de Tolly size of the army was increased twice, improved supply. As part of the manufacturers were organized for war weapons depots and grocery stores, created a network of supply, renovated the fortress. Tremendous work has been done to improve the artillery park. When Barclay finished the implementation of "Arakcheyev" or of the "1805", which anticipate the unification of the artillery and the transition to unified principles of production and supply of all weapons in the army.

In addition, under the control of Misha Bogdanovich was a plan of strategic retreat, but its initial version, which foresaw a retreat to the Volga was not accepted by Alexander. Later, General Pfuhl (or Ful) proposed a plan to retreat to the Drissa fortified camp, with the simultaneous action of the armies of the flanks and rear of the French. Since the beginning of the war became clear that it can not implement because not enough who implied that Napoleon will gather and feed more than half a million horde and move against each of the 3 Russian armies in excess of the number of troops.

Stepping back from the fighting to worthless, but the fortified camp, Barclay de Tolly takes the decision to unite with the army of Bagration near Vitebsk, but not having time to the town before Napoleon, the venue transferred to Smolensk.

Storm of Smolensk was the first big fight of the 1812 campaign. Recognized military historian von Clausewitz noted that Barclay could reincarnate battle of Smolensk from the general to mean
nothing from a strategic point of view for the French. Lofty Army suffered a tangible loss, without having a chance to put all of this unquestioning Russian defeat.

Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de TollyPublic opinion in the meantime intensely expressed dissatisfaction over the court homegrown "strategists". Army Murmurs in not far behind, even Bagration wrote furious letters to the emperor, accusing Barclay of treason. Added fuel to the fire and non-Russian origin Misha Bogdanovich. August 29 Alexander, giving the requirements of "the public", appoints chief Kutuzov. A prince was clearly recognized and supported the strategy of Misha Bogdanovich, but for all that had the indisputable authority of the army and the nobility. This allowed Kutuzov to bring the strategy to Barclay de Tolly to its logical end.

At Borodino, commander of the 1st Army Misha Barclay de Tolly arose in the most dangerous places. At 11 am, after the battery has been returned Raevskogo counterattack Yermolov, Barclay, without waiting for a request from Alexei Petrovich, strengthened his position by infantry and artillery from its own reserves. During the fight, under Barclay de Tolly was killed and five injured horses. For Borodino commander of the 1st Army received the Order of St.. ZHoru 2nd degree.

After the battle of Borodino and the reorganization of the army, he takes a vacation and leaves at his village in Livonia. The army Barclay de Tolly back only to the beginning of the Foreign hike.

In the campaign of 1812-1814 Misha Bogdanovich commanded the 3rd Army, then joined the Russian-Prussian troops and excelled in almost all the battles. So, for the victory at Kulm, he received the Order of St.. ZHoru 1st degree, becoming one of the few full gentlemen of merit. Later, at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig played a big role in the victory of the Allies. In 1814, after the capture of Paris, received the rank of field marshal, and after year Built in the princely dignity.

After the end of the Napoleonic wars, Barclay de Tolly some time led the 1st Army, stationed in Poland, but had to resign because of the sharply deteriorating health.

In 1818, the road to a place of healing mineral waters, Field Marshal died. Buried Misha Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly the family estate Bekgof (now territory of Estonia).

Barclay de Tolly rightfully enters the glittering galaxy of Russian generals, who glorified the Russian cannon and defend the country against a French invasion.

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