Mobilization of Germany to attack the Soviet Union

Implementation of the plan a "lightning war" spirited defeat of France, Belgium, Holland, the defeat of Great Britain has achieved a very low price. The Wehrmacht had not suffered significant losses in people, technology, and did not need to mobilize, all forces Third Reich. Germany is not only not diminished, but has only intensified: areas were captured 9 countries — Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, the area with the city of Klaipeda (Memel) — with a population of over 100 million people with intact infrastructure industry.

Finally, in Europe, there have been significant geopolitical shifts: before the defeat of the Anglo-French-Dutch-beligiyskih troops in Europe were the three forces — the USSR, the Reich and the alliance of Britain and France, now there are only two — the USSR and the Reich. Britain itself for itself was not the center of power, able to withstand Germany, also in the leadership of the Reich were strong Anglophile mood, it did not want to finish. So, Manstein wrote: "It is safe to say that Hitler would have preferred to avoid a war with the British Empire because of its main objectives were to the east." June 2 1940 at the headquarters of Army Group "A" Adolf Hitler said that after the French campaign and the expected "reasonable peace agreement" Germany will, in the end, the "freedom of action" for their own "big and true objectives: the collision with Bolshevism."

Mobilization of Germany to attack the Soviet Union

Adolf Hitler with approximate poses at the Eiffel Tower in Paris in 1940. Left — Albert Speer, Hitler's personal designer, future Reich's defense industry and arms. Right — the architect Arno Becker. Time taken: 06/23/1940.

Supported Hitler and financial-industrial society of the Reich at the end of May 1940, "European Economic Community Planning and Economy," which included the big industrialists, bureaucrats and representatives of Wehrmacht reached a conclusion. It later came into sketches "Programmes of continental European economies on the broad areas under the control of Germany" (do not forget that Hitler was one of the designers idea of a "United Europe"). These applets anticipate the exploitation of the peoples of the area of Gibraltar to the Urals, from the North Cape in the north to the island of Cyprus in the south, while maintaining the colonialist influence in Siberia and Africa. Another kind of modern Russia, Europe, the provisions of the African continent with the plans of Hitler.

This is confirmed by the creators and German, so K.Tippelskirh said: "Since the summer of 1940, the idea of winding up of the Union of Russian power has become an integral part of Hitler's plans regarding future warfare. I must say that this idea is still in a long time to implement their own was a determining factor in his strategy. " Prepare for war with the Russian Union becomes a core area of activities carried out in Germany in the army, economy, domestic politics. To do this, giving up the massive building programs and improving the Navy, all the focus is on ground forces.

June 29 1940 by decree of the commander of the Army of Germany Brauchitsch the beginning of the creation of the shock troops of the East. Began to develop a plan of transfer of mobile connections to the east. Hitler on July 19 in the UK parliament formally proposed the world, but the British government it does not matter. It was necessary to completely resolve — whether to continue once the preparations for the invasion of the British Isles, or to concentrate on preparing for war with the Soviet Union. At this time, begins transfer of armored vehicles to the east, built more roads.

Ultimately, the issue with Britain decided to quit later on, even though officially, right before the attack on the USSR simulated rough training for amphibious operations. July 31, 1940 at a military conference, Hitler said that Britain would hold only if the United States and USSR, if the fall of the USSR, the USA and will not support London completely because in the Asia-Pacific region by the Union of Japan will increase dramatically. Because Russia is necessary to eliminate the attack must be followed by no later than the spring of 1941. "The operation will only make sense in this case, if we are in one swift blow completely defeat the whole government. Only capture a part of the country is not enough. "

Preparing for the strike on the Soviet Union, Berlin relied on the power of entrained countries of France for two years of occupation have been stolen five thousand locomotives, 250 thousand cars in 1941, the Germans evacuated from France, 4.9 million tons of ferrous metals (t . ie 73% of annual production in France). In 1940, the Wehrmacht took almost all the weapons and equipment — 6 Norwegian, 12 British, 18 Dutch, 22-Belgian, 92's French divisions in France only took three thousand aircraft and about 5 thousand tanks. Due to the French and the other captured vehicles equipped with 90 divisions. This is without taking into account the Czech tanks and other arms of the Czechoslovak military-industrial complex.

In 1940, the growth of military production in Germany amounted to almost 54%. In August 1940, decided to increase the number of divisions in the army to 180 by the beginning of the war the Wehrmacht in conjunction with the Army Reserve and the Waffen-SS was to have 250 combat-ready fully staffed divisions. Increased the number of mobile connections: September 5 Directive Chief of the Supreme Command of Wehrmacht (OKW) to accelerate the deployment of armies wartime number of motorized divisions was increased to 12 and 24 to the tank. An important value was the release of a new instrument for aviation, artillery, armored forces.

However, the idea of blitzkrieg has left a bad mark on the preparations for war with USSR — Preparing for war such as "hit — I conquered", and not to the capabilities of a full war. Germany and the occupied countries have mobilized, but based on the "lightning war." In the end, the economic factor of the war with the Soviet Union has been underestimated. It was believed that the cluster weapons, ammunition quite frisky for victory, because the script was not calculated a significant expansion during the war. This factor could lead to a weary Wehrmacht consequences and lead. In addition, the question of the real and Supply became a secondary problem of, say, the cash will suffice.

Although the power of the Wehrmacht has increased substantially, and Hitler was confident in the success of instant war. The Wehrmacht was a great experience of rapid offensive operations, maneuver warfare, was tested in the wars command and control system, the Luftwaffe had a great experience in aerial warfare — even from the Spanish War. Has developed and successfully operated rear of the Armed Forces, transport and communications system could produce a rather short time scale military transport.

Diplomacy training

In the war with Poland on the German side made only in Slovakia, in the French campaign, when it became clear that France was defeated, Italy has participated. War same with the Soviet Union initially conceived as a "crusade to the East", with a broad role of the allied countries of Europe and the people of the conquered nations.

Thus, according to the plans of Berlin, Japan had to perform at
the East of the USSR, pinning down the relevant land forces, air force units of the Red Army. In addition, she had to distract the United States from operations in Europe, divert UK — threatening her possessions in Asia and the Pacific. The main efforts of Italy were to be targeted against the United Kingdom: for example, in July 1940, the Italian army from Ethiopia began coming to Egypt. September 27, 1940 between Berlin, Rome and Tokyo signed the Tripartite Pact, his ultimate goal was to gain world domination. For the purpose of disinformation in Moscow was told that the contract does not affect the political relations between the participants and the Russian Union.

In addition, in anger against the Soviet Union were involved countries of South-Eastern Europe. In Romania, was carried out a coup, was supporter of union power with Berlin General I.Antonesku. In November 1940 , Romania, Hungary, Slovakia entered the Tripartite Pact. March 1, 1941 in Vienna, signed an agreement on the entry of Bulgaria into the alliance with the countries of the Tripartite Pact in Bulgaria entered the German troops. Although Bulgaria earlier krivodushno assured Moscow of good emotions. Dragged into alliance against the Russian Union of Finland: September 22, 1940 was signed a secret agreement on the transportation of German troops and supplies to Norway through the Finnish countryside. Under the agreement in Finland have started a German group of forces for an attack on the Soviet Union. Finnish elite promised to send East Karelia, the Leningrad region for the role of the Finnish army in the war with the Soviet Union. So Makar, Germany was able to expand their strategic capabilities, threatening the Soviet Union on a large border of the Dark Sea to the Arctic Ocean, throughout the western border of the European USSR. In the war against the Russian Union were involved significant military force (division of Finland, Hungary, Romania, Italy, etc.), not counting volunteers from captured German states, which formed the whole brigades and divisions. Plus the economic resources of these countries, including the oil fields in Romania.

However, Moscow was able in 1941 to sign a contract with Japan on neutrality, virtually neutralizing the most unsafe potential ally of Germany. In Tokyo, take the final decision to develop its expansion in the south.

Berlin "closed" and its own southern flank — it was organized invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia. In Greece invaded initially only in Italy, but the Greek army inflicted a series of defeats her, Berlin "helped" ally. In Yugoslavia, under pressure from Berlin, the government March 25, 1941 joined the Tripartite Pact, but started the resistance of the people. On March 27, a group of officers made a coup and overthrew the pro-fascist government. This led to the beat of the Third Reich. In the end, Yugoslavia and Greece were occupied.

Mobilization of Germany to attack the Soviet Union

Blair, B., Drechsler, K. Foerster, H. et al Germany during the second world war (1939-1945). Moscow, 1971.
The history of diplomacy. Moscow, 1975. T. 4.

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