Press tour for bloggers in tech zone of the Academy of Strategic Missile Forces in Balabanovo-1
1. The staff of the Academy showed bloggers mobile unit launched an intercontinental ballistic missile RS-12M "Topol".
2. Apart from the fact launcher in the hangar are machine software alert (MOBD) and a two-car battle management (DBM).
4. Cab MBU.
6. Second MBU and launcher.
7. The telescopic antenna rear of the machine.
8. View of the hangar.
9. The rear of the launcher. The machine stands on legs, some towering above the floor. It is in such a state is run.
10. The emphasis in front of itself is not powerful: it has the lowest weight.
11. Not counting the 2-mean, all the other major axis of the machine. Three more pairs of front and guides.
12. Start the engine. Emission is expelled from the structure of the hose. Pay attention to the cable going to the hood launch container.
13. This cable is attached to a spring. Its task — to break cover when lifting the rocket in a vertical position. From time to time for all that spring is almost completely straightened.
14. MOBD already rolled out of the gate.
15. Inside it has a diesel-electric power station (in front of).
16. The rear of the set for the location of the combat crew. Corridor links the four rooms with sliding, as in the sleeping car, doors.
17. There are two malehankih coupe, four-and two-(pictured). Between the shelves very tiny distance, not sit.
18. There is also a kitchen. In the photo — a refrigerator.
19. There are some simple tools for cooking.
20. In the very back of the room is set spinning machine gun mount.
22. After rolling out the empty hangar.
23. Machines have made a lap around the forest road.
24. Back stop launcher.
25. Powder charge into the back of the container, providing a mortar rocket launch.
26. Vorachivayutsya machine with a circle in the woods.
29. This plant, although it is used for training cadets, is in fighting condition. The container bears a rocket.
30. Carefully drive the car back.
31. And bloggers are actually moving in the museum SRF.
32. It is a large hangar in which exhibited the standards of missiles that were in service during the last 60 years. Right there, in the corner, are part of the silos (silos).
33. But the main thing — the rocket. Because standing armed missiles to shoot rebuked, and along with all blizkostoyaschie, show only nine of them, the most ancient. As the museum looks absolutely, we can look at the virtual panorama.
34. Here are such well-known products as R-2, R-5M, P-12, P-14, P-16, P-9A, the UR-100, P-36 and RT-2.
35. To project the creation of a P-2 SP Queens in the SRI-88 began in 1948, after the development of the R-1 (analog V-2). For the growth range for the first time was used was separated from the body of the rocket nosecone. Mass of the rocket was reduced by the use of the fuel tank supporting structure of light duralumin alloys. TNT charge increased mass created in the explosion area heavily damaged area of 950 m². As controls, as well as the P-1, applied aerodynamics and gas rudders. Time to prepare the rocket for launch 6:00, and Time Spent rocket Wet limited to the 15 th minute, after that it was necessary to fuel or drain, or launch a rocket.
36. Slider Valentin Glushko RD-101 compared with the RD-100 (from R-1) had the highest over the turbine speed, too high a pressure in the chamber and used to fuel increased to 92% concentration of ethanol. In addition, it has become 1.4 times easier.
37. November 27, 1951 R-2 entered service. Batch creation of rockets has been established at the factory number 586 in Dnepropetrovsk in 1953. In the troops nuclear warhead for the P-2 began to arrive in 1956. In 1953 he took tests of missiles with multiple warheads, dressed with a radioactive liquid, "Geranium" and "Generator". The first version of the missile, "Geranium" undermining the capacity of creating high-rise with a radioactive liquid, which is being sprayed, settled in the form of radioactive rain. "Generator" has a lot of small vessels, undermines without the help of others.
38. R-5 (SS-3 Shyster) — a single-stage liquid medium-range ballistic missile (IRBM) land-based. Head developer of OKB-1. Entered service in 1955. Development started after the failure of the rocket from the end of the development of the P-3 with a design range of 3,000 km, which has been recognized not sold on the step of the art. Instead, it was decided to create a missile with a range of about 1,200 km on the basis of technical solutions already tried and tested in the past and rockets to realize part of what was intended for the R-3. It was the first Russian carrier rocket with a tank of oxygen watery, devoid of insulation (which is offset by the fed before the start).
39. Designers abandoned stabilizers, making the missile aerodynamically unstable, although the air rudders remain. The RD-103 engine for the F-5 was even more accelerated version of the engine of the R-1, surpassing the initial thrust by a factor of 1.7. June 21, 1956 was accepted into service of the R-5M — the first Russian missile with a nuclear warhead. For this missile was developed brand new control system, basic automation units were dubbed (and some even triplirovany).
40. P-12 "Dvina» (SS-4 Sandal) — Russian single-stage liquid medium-range ballistic missile (IRBM) land-based. Head developer — OKB-586 running MK Yangel. Entered service in 1959. IRBM missile system with the P-12 was the first set of strategic focus, using the stored fuel components and absolutely autonomous control system. Four-chamber RD-214 development VP Glushko had a larger diameter than the single-chamber RD-101-103, resulting in the engine bay is covered by an expanding conical skirt.
41. May 15, 1960 P-12 stood on alert in four regiments stationed in Latvia and Belarus and the Kaliningrad region. Three missile regiment armed F-12 were located in Cuba in 1962 as part of Operation "Anadyr", which caused the Caribbean crisis. In order to increase the resistance of the rocket to the effects of a nuclear explosion, it was decided to develop a modified P-12 silo. September 2, 1959 at the Kapustin Yar, for the first time in the world, a rocket launched from silos.
42. R-14 (SS-5 Skean) — Russian liquid single-stage medium-range ballistic missile (IRBM) land-based. Head developer of OKB-586. Entered service in April 1961. In 1964 he was accepted for service R-14U missile silo-based missiles with a launch complex group start 8P765 "Chusovaia."
Launch mass of 95 tons with a range of 4,500 km achievement. The diameter of the body was elected at 2.4 m, as in the second stage of the R-16 intercontinental. Rocket performed by a single-stage circuit with a separating warhead. Fuel tanks carry missiles, used in the construction of duralumin panel. Aspiration of the oxidizer tank is air, fuel — nitrogen. Fuel tanks were isolated from the rest of the fuel system cuts through the diaphragm valves, which allowed the retention period missiles Wet to 30 days. After switching off the engines are detached head and leading away from her rocket. Detachable head of the rocket had a conical shape with a blunt hemispherical shape made of heat-resistant material sublimating. On housing head of the application of the protective coating of asbotekstolita.
43. The missile was equipped with a mid-flight engine RD-216 developed by OKB-456 under the control of VP Glushko. He worked on hypergolic of high toxic components of fuel — fuel and oxidizer NDMG AK-27And. Traction engine at the ground 151 ton, while the rocket engine when shooting at the highest range is about 125 sec. Control of a rocket made due to differences between the thrust vector with graphite gas-jet rudders.
Flight development tests began June 6, 1960 at the Kapustin Yar. First launches have revealed structural defect that caused the cavitation phenomenon, which led to the destruction of missiles. All defects are eliminated fairly rapidly and the results of 22 starts the State Commission signed recommendation for a missile into service. Serial creation of rockets since 1960 engaged in plant number 586 in Dnepropetrovsk ("Pivdenmash") and plant number 1001 in Krasnoyarsk.
44. R-16 (SS-7 Saddler) — intercontinental ballistic missile was in service with the Strategic Missile Forces of the USSR in 1962-1977 years. Russia's first two-stage ICBM on high fuel components with autonomous control system. May 13, 1959 special joint resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Government of the design bureau "South" (Chief Designer MK Yangel) commissioned an intercontinental missile at a high-boiling components of fuel. For the development of rocket engines and systems, and ground shaft and starting positions were involved in design teams, led by VP Glushko, VI Kuznetsov, BM Kanaplyou, etc. The need to develop the missile was determined low tactical, technical and operational characteristics of the R-7. Initially, the P-16 was supposed to run only from ground-based launchers. To meet the deadline, design teams went the way of widespread use developments on missiles R-12 and R-14.
45. The R-16 was performed on a "tandem" with alternate stage separation. First stage consisted of the adapter, which means 4 explosive bolts fastened the second stage oxidizer tank, the instrument compartment, fuel tank and tail section with a power ring. Fuel tank supporting structure. To ensure stable operation LRE all tanks were charging. With all of this first stage oxidizer tank nadduvalsya in-flight high-speed counter-pressure of the air. The propulsion system consisted of a propulsion and control engines, mounted on a frame. Marching engine was assembled from 3-chamber blocks and similar total draft was 227 on the ground that the second stage had similar construction but was made shorter and the smallest diameter, and a propulsion motor installed only one block. All engines were working on hypergolic fuel: dinitrogen tetroxide in nitric acid and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine.
46. Plug for filling the rocket.
47. October 24, 1960, during the execution of pre-launch activities, approximately 15 m
inutes before the scheduled start of the first test of the R-16, there was an unauthorized engines start the second stage due to the passage of early command from the junction box to start engines. The rocket exploded on the launch pad. In the fire once burned 74 people, among them — Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces, Marshal M. Nedelina a large group of leading professionals in size. Then in the hospitals due to burns and poisoning died 4 other people. Starting the second F-16 took place on 2 February 1961.
48. November 1 the first three missile regiments in Nizhny Tagil and item Yurya Kirov region were prepared for intercession on alert. Beginning in May 1960 were carried out development work associated with the implementation of the modified launch of the R-16U of the silo. Since 1963, production began on alert first missile regiment of Nizhny Tagil.
R-16 became the base for the creation of a missile group intercontinental missiles SRF. The launch was carried out after it is installed on the launch pad, fueling components of rocket fuel and compressed gases, conducting operations to target acquisition. In essentially ready F-16 could start in 30 minutes.
49. ICBM R-16 was equipped with a detachable single warhead with a thermonuclear charge of 3-6 Mt. On the power of the head of the largest range dependent, varying the range from 11-13 thousand miles.
50. R-9A (SS-8 Sasin) — Russian two-stage liquid ICBM silo-based and ground with a single warhead. The last combat missile, made by OKB-1 under the control of SP The Queen was in service in parts of the SRF 1964-1976 gg.
51. This missile had the lowest weight and size, compared with the P-7, but also the best performance. It was used supercooled aqueous oxygen, thus reducing the time of refueling up to 20 minutes. Despite the fact that the missile R-9A was put into service, and was deployed about 60 missiles such type, it became clear that the use of the IDB watery oxygen is not necessary.
52. In the first stage was a four-chamber marching RD-111 with swinging combustion chambers, 141 tons of thrust on the second stage set up four-chamber RD-461 design S. Kosberg. He had a record for that time, specific impulse thrust in the middle of an oxygen-kerosene engines and developed a thrust in vacuum 31 tons tank pressurization in flight and operation of actuators turbopump assembly was provided by the principal component of combustion products of fuel, allowing to simplify the design of engines and reduce their weight.
53. UR-100 (SS-11 Sego) — Russian liquid two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile silo-based. Entered service July 21, 1967 Head developer OKB-52 (control VN Chelomei). Manufacturers of Machine-Building Plant. MV Khrunichev, Omsk and other aircraft factory. UR-100 was the most massive of all IDB adopted at the Strategic Missile Forces. From 1966 to 1972 there were 990 deployed launchers of such missiles. On the UR-100 features a combined fuel tanks, which reduced the length of the structure and led to the permanent cross section is equal to 2 meters.
54. The engines of the first stage.
55. One of the main tasks successfully solved in the design of the UR-100, was to reduce the time to return to the team launch to launch the rocket. To do this, there have been a series of measures, starting with the fact that the missile could be filled for 10 years. To facilitate transactions with rocket and protect it from the effects of the environment rocket in transport and launch container in which was the date of the plant before the start. The whole complex of measures taken has led to the fact that on receiving the command to run passed least 3 minutes.
56. The tail part of the second stage.
57. R-36 (SS-9 Scarp) — strategic missile system with a heavy class rocket capable of carrying a nuclear warhead and to overcome a strong defense system. In 1962, the Design Bureau "South" was entrusted to make strategic missile R-36, equipped with second-generation missile 8K67. When designing for the use of recycled R-16 missile designs and technology.
During the test was carried out 85 launches, 14 of them failures, 7 of which in the first 10 starts. In 1967, the missile system was adopted. In December 1967, CB "South" began to develop missiles with multiple warheads. Brand new warhead consisted of three combat units with a capacity of 2.3 Mt and complex decoys. Its use in the criteria for anti-missile defense system has increased the combat effectiveness of a factor of 2. Rocket 8K67P with multiple reentry part in the complex P-36 was adopted by the armament In 1970, production began on combat duty in 1971. The complex P-36 was withdrawn from service in 1979.
58. The two-stage rocket is made on a "tandem" with alternate arrangement of steps. First stage provide dispersal rockets and sustainer engine was equipped with the RD-251, which consisted of three two-chamber RD-250 modules. Sustainer rocket engine thrust was on the ground 274 tons tail section had four brake propellant rocket motors that run in the separation of the first and second stages.
59. LRE rocket worked in a high-boiling two-component hypergolic fuel, asymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Applied design solutions provide the highest level of density fuel systems that will meet the requirements for a seven-year storage missile Wet.
60. Also on the first stage has been set four-chamber engine manager with RD-68M rotary combustion chambers.
61. Steering gear control motor first stage.
62. The second stage was equipped with two-chamber sustainer engine RD-252 engine and four-manage the RD-69M. These engines have a high degree of commonality with the engines of the first stage. For the head of the department on the second stage have also been installed brake gunpowder engines.
63. The missile was equipped with a single warhead with a more massive of the tested by the time the warheads capacity of 8 Mt or 20 Mt. The aft compartment of the second stage of the containers have been installed with the means to effectively overcome the enemy's air defense system. The protection system consists of special devices that are shot from the containers at the time of pyrotechnic separation of head and do in the area of the target warhead wrong purposes. The launch was carried out from the silo with the launch of the first stage motor specifically in the launcher. The structure consisted of six rocket complex distributed starting positions, each of which has single silo. Preparing for the launch and the launch itself would be held as remotely from KP, and independently from each starting position. Time to prepare and conduct run was 5 min.
64. RT-2 (SS-13 Savage) — Russian intercontinental ballistic missile was in service in the years 1969-1994. This is the first Russian serial solid-fuel ICBMs. Head developer — OKB-1. Entered service in 1968.
65. Development of solid-fuel missile with a range of 10-12 thousand km actions began in 1959. In the first step was created not accepted into service of RT-1 missile with a range of 2,500-3,000 km deeds. Development of RT-2 missile was in the main completed in 1963. Seasoned launches were conducted in the years 1966-1968. The rocket began to come into service with the Strategic Missile Forces in December 1968.
67. Nozzle engines second stage.
68. Beginning of the third stage.
69. The head part.
70. Apart from the missiles, the hall presented a command post and missile firing control in silos, which, in turn, should also be placed in the mine
71. These IPs and up to the present time are on active service.
72. In one of the adjoining buildings bloggers showed the work of calculation thereof KP. Here are installed panels, which are located in the 11th compartment CP (12th compartment housing, the other 10 — technical).
74. Here the students of the Academy of Strategic Missile Forces receive the necessary knowledge to conduct services in the underground Communist Party.