Russian aviakosmolet "Spiral" — he could take off for a long time before the X-37B.
April 22, with the launch site at Cape Canaveral carrier rocket "Atlas-V» was launched gallaktichesky unit of the latest generation of X-37B. Start-up was successful. That is, in fact, everything that the U.S. Air Force brought to the attention of the media.
I note that earlier information on this top-secret project was very uneventful. So, so far unidentified, even just weight and dimension properties of the device. The weight of the mini-shuttle is estimated at 5 tons and a length of about 10 meters, a wingspan of about 5 m in orbit, the X-37B can stay up to 9 months.
Established by an airborne landing is planned for Vandenberg Air Force Base, but the space plane prepared to accept the alternate runway at Andrews Air Force Base, just outside Washington.
Development of the machine X-37 was launched by NASA in 1999, and currently works on all kosmoplanu secret unit engaged in the Air Force. The main developer and manufacturer of the device is the company "Boeing". According to media reports, the engineers office did for the X-37 special new thermal barrier coating. Interestingly, the "Atlas-V» nominally equipped with Russian engines RD-190 production with a thrust of 390 tons.
Since May 2000, NASA passed tests X-37. Block sizes, which received the title of X-40A, made up 85% of the size of the X-37.
Since September 2, 2004 has already tested a full-size mock-up of X-37A. Layout 10s times dropped from an aircraft and created the runway. But the April 7, 2006 by landing the X-37 came down the runway and buried his nose in the ground, receiving severe damage.
That is until everything is clear the media. Behind the scenes remained almost everything — including the fact that the X-37 was a specific tip lasted for many decades, the development of aerospace vehicles, though most have remained in the drawings.
NOT skyrocketing "Daina GRA"
Development of the first U.S. space plane began October 10, 1957, a week after the launch of the first Russian satellite. The device has received the title of "Dinah Soar» (Dyna-Soar, from Dynamic Soaring — «Acceleration and planning"). The work on "Dinah Soar" was engaged in all the same company, "Boeing" in cooperation with "Vought". Dimensions of the X-20 rocket plane "Dinah Soar" in the latter case were as follows: length — 10.77 m diameter housing — 1.6 m Wingspan — 6.22 m, the highest weight of the machine without load — 5165 kg.
On board the space plane had to be two cosmonauts and a 454 kg payload. As we see, on the weight and dimension features "Dinah Soar" was close to the X-37B. Launch of the X-20 was due to be carried out by means of rockets "Titan IIIC." The main objective of the X-20 was to be the reconnaissance.
In November 1963, the project was proposed satellite interceptor capable of acting both at low and at high orbits, capable of flying for up to 14 days with a crew of 2 persons and intercept satellites at altitudes of up to 1,850 km. The first flight of the interceptor was scheduled for September 1967.
But in the middle of 1963 the Department of Defense prevailing worldview that is constantly current military gallakticheskaya station serving the altered gallakticheskimi ships "Gemini", more efficient X-20 rocket plane. 10 December 1963, Secretary of Defense McNamara canceled the funding for programs from "Dinah Soar" in favor of the creation of the space station programs from MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory — «Manned Orbiting Laboratory"). In total program from "Dinah Soar" was spent $ 410 million
"Spiral" at the Museum
In the USSR, the first project planner gallakticheskogo system — the rocket plane to descend from orbit and landing on Earth was developed in OKB-256 and approved by its main designer Pavel Vladimirovich Tsybin May 17, 1959.
According to the project, with the rocket plane astronaut on board was supposed to be positioned on the radial orbit at an altitude of 300 km, as well as gallaktichesky "Vostok", the launch vehicle 8K72. After a day orbital flight of the machine had to get out of orbit and return to Earth, planning in the dense layers of the atmosphere. First descent into the saturated zone of thermal heating apparatus used the lift lifting body's unique shape, and later by lowering the rate of 500-600 m / s, with a planned height of 20 km with drop wings, initially stacked "behind."
Planting is expected to perform on a special platform with the introduction of a dirt bike chassis type.
But, like the South American colleagues, our military acknowledged this idea unpromising. October 1, 1959 OKB-256 was disbanded and all its employees "voluntary-compulsory" transferred to the DB-23 to Myasishcheva in Philly, and the premises of the plant and the KB number 256 in Podberezye gave Mikoyan.
It is seen that Myasischev in an active manner in 1956 started designing a hypersonic orbital rocket plane to glide, horizontal landing (on the airplane) and a virtually unlimited range of radial orbital flight.
A manned rocket plane, has been called "the product 46", at first intended to be used as a strategic spy, and only secondarily — as a bomber, reaching at least some point of the earth's surface, as well as a fighter missiles and combat potential enemy satellites.
And KB Myasishcheva soon divided the fate KB Tsybina. As directed by the person. Khrushchev's Council of Ministers decision of 3 October 1960 DB-23 was transferred to Vladimir Nikolaevich Chelomei and became a subsidiary of DB-62. Myasischev himself went to TsAGI.
Design raketoplanov.Chelomey engaged in an active manner in 1959. Leading designer of OKB-52 and participant in these events Vladimir Poliachenko wrote: "In July of 1959 has been the development of the CBD-12000, winged-ballistic missile is not anti-aircraft type, with a range of 12,000 km, with a maximum speed of 6300 m / s. .. It was a three-stage rocket with a mass of stage 1 and 85 that considered the ascent to orbit. Here's an entry from July 10, 1959: "CBD entry into orbit: starting weight 107 tons instead of 85 tons of CBD-12000." Number of steps in this ballistic missile, which was to go into orbit, there were 4. At this time, we have a term "rocket plane". Rocket plane was on a rocket engine, starting weight was 120 tons, its first project — the planning, the number of stages — 4 engines — propellant rocket engines and rocket engines. "
In accordance with the decree of the Council of Ministers on 23 May 1960, the OKB-52 was developed in the preliminary design of the rocket plane 2-ways: Unmanned (P1) and manned (P2). Winged manned gallaktichesky the ship was intended to intercept, inspection and destruction of U.S. satellites at an altitude of 290 km. A crew of two people, the duration of the flight — 24 hours. Full weight of the rocket plane was supposed to be between 10-12 tons, range planning during the return of 2500-3000 km. In these studies participated experts at the former OKB-256 Tsybina and DB-23 Myasishc
heva that with October 1960 Chelomei subdued.
As the crotch step in the development of rocket plane Chelomei decided to make an experimental apparatus MP-1 weighing 1.75 tons and a length of 1.8 m aerodynamic assembly of MP-1 was performed on a "container — rear brake umbrella."
December 27, 1961 the unit MP-1 was launched from the landfill Volodymyrivka Air Force (near Kapustin Yar) using the modified R-12 in the area of Lake Balkhash.
At an altitude of about 200 km of MP-1 was separated from the carrier and using the aircraft's engines rose to a height of 405 km, then began the descent to Earth. As he entered the atmosphere in 1760 km from the launch pad at a rate of 3.8 km / s (14,400 km / h) and landed by parachute.
In 1964, the Air Force presented the draft Chelomei 6.3-ton unmanned rocket plane P-1, the equipped M-shaped sofa (middle upwards, ends down) a variable sweep wing and manned version of the P-2 weighing 7.8 tons
Care Khrushchev structurally changed the balance of power in the Russian gallakticheskoy industry. October 19, 1964 Chelomei called Air Force Commander Marshal Vershinin and said that obeying the order, shall submit all materials on the rocket plane in the OKB-155 Artem Mikoyan.
And now, according to the order of the Minister of Aviation Industry 184ss number of 30 July 1965 Mikoyan OKB-155 was entrusted with the design of aerospace systems "Spiral" or "themes 50-50" (later — "105-205"). The number "50" symbolizes the approaching 50th anniversary of the October Revolution, when were to be held the first subsonic tests.
Led the work on the "Spiral" in the bureau deputy chief designer Gleb Lozino-Lozinski. Preliminary design of the system was developed, approved by the Mikoyan June 29, 1966. The main objective was to develop programs from manned space plane to perform application tasks in space and to ensure constant traffic on the Earth-orbitTo-Earth.
The system of "Spiral" with an estimated weight of 115 tons consisted of a reusable hypersonic aircraft carrier (GSR, "the product 50-50" / ed. 205) carrying on to the orbiter itself, is actually composed of a reusable space plane (OS, "the product 50 "/ izd.105) and a single-stage rocket booster.
The carrier aircraft weighing 52 tons was equipped with 4-hydrogen-air-breathing engines (in the first step — serial RD-39-300). He soared through the booster carts with at least some terminal and clocked up a bunch of hypersonic speeds, the respective M = 6 (the first step of M = 4). The separation stage was at the height of 28-30 km (22-24 miles the first step), then the aircraft carrier vorachivalsya the airfield.
Single orbital plane 8 m long and weighing 10 tonnes destined for output to low-Earth orbit at an altitude of about 130 km of cargo weighing 0.7-2 tons Aircraft made on a "lifting body" triangular in plan. He had swept wing that during injection in the initial phase of the descent from orbit was raised to 450 from the vertical, and in the planning from the height of 50-55 km, turned to 950 from vertical. Wingspan in this case was 7.4 m
How unfortunate it did not sound at the end of 1978, the Soviet Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov said that "the two programs, we will not afford," and closed the topic "Spiral" in favor of "Buran". A plane-analogue "150.11" later sent to the Air Force Museum in Monino.
In parallel gallakticheskimi rocket plane was engaged and Andrew Nikolapevich Tupolev. In 1950 Andrei stared at successes of the development of guided missiles and gallakticheskih machines and at the end of the 1950s did inside his own department OKB-156 "K", engaged in the design of aircraft. Headed this promising department offspring chief designer Alexei Tupolev.
In 1958, the Department "K" began research on the creation of shock programmke unmanned gliding aircraft "DP" (far planning). Rocket plane "DP" should was to represent the last step, curb strong thermonuclear warhead. As a booster considered modification of military ballistic missiles mid-range acts such as P-5 and P-12, and was considered an option for its elaborate booster.
But for various reasons, spaceplane Tupolev did not come from the design stage. The latest draft of the aerospace plane TU-2000 was created in 1988.
Impeccable AGENT FOR ORBITAL filibusters
But we are very enthusiastic about the forgotten history and the most important — what features should make the X-37B in space. Obviously, the first benchmark test may be limited to on-board equipment and conduct a number of research programs. But these? According to the official version, the X-37B will be used for the delivery of various cargoes into orbit. How annoying would it sounds, delivery of goods by one-time launch vehicles available even cheaper.
Maybe the X-37B will be used for intelligence purposes, in other words as a spy satellite? But what advantages it would have over the existing South American reconnaissance satellites, which during its existence is sent to the ground for a few capsules with intelligence mined materials?
And absolutely giddy is the assumption that the X-37B will be used for ground attack non-nuclear weapon. Frame it can strike any target in the world within 2-hours from the moment of the impact of the order. Well, in-1's, this is purely at the technical level is unrealistic from the standpoint of the laws of physics, and in-2, no matter what point in explosive areas of the planet and so can be simply amazed by South American aircraft or cruise missiles, more cheaply .
Much more exciting information leaked to the media in 2006 that the X-37 should be the basis for the creation of gallakticheskogo interceptor. Gallaktichesky KEASat interceptor must provide disabling enemy vehicles gallakticheskih kinetic impact (damage to the antenna systems, termination of operation of the satellite). The interceptor rocket plane X-37 is required to have the following data: length — 8,38 m Wingspan — 4.57 m, height — 2.76 m Weight — 5.4 tons Engine type liquid "Rocketdyne» AR2-3 thrust of 31 kt.
In addition, KEASat may conduct inspections of "suspicious" satellites.
August 31, 2006 the President of the United States was approved by the document entitled "National gallakticheskaya U.S. policy in 2006."
This document replaces the State gallakticheskoy policy, approved September 14, 1996 President Clinton's directive / NSC-49/NSTC-8, and has brought significant changes to it. The main feature of the State gallakticheskoy policy in 2006 is to consolidate its provisions, opening the ability for the militarization of space and declare the rights to distribute some U.S. sovereignty to gallakticheskoe place.
According to this document, the United States will: preserve its rights, its infrastructure and freedom of action in space; persuade or compel other countries to refrain from violating these rights, or the creation of the infrastructure to prevent the realization of these rights, to take positive measures necessary to protect its own infrastructure gallakticheskoy , to respond to the intervention, and, if useful, to deny opponents the right to implement infrastructure to gallakticheskoy, aggressive state interests of the United States.
Almost one-sided manner in the United States appropriated for itself the right to control foreign gallakticheskie phones or even kill them if they believe that they have the potential to threaten U.S. security.
When the ocean make another superweapon, we hear voices: "We? How can we respond? "How unfortunate it did not sound, in this case, nothing. Thus, gallaktichesky machine MAX, developed by JSC "NPO Molniya" since 1988, has spent over $ 1.5 million, and he did not come out of the stage of conceptual de
sign. Yes, and especially lament about the X-37B does not see any reason. On every attempt to "inspection" or destruction of our satellite Our homeland can answer asymmetric measures, and their variants may be 10's. It remains to impose that the Russian government will react strongly enough to sample inspection satellites "bad guys." Now — North Korea satellite, Tomorrow — Iran, and the next day — and Russian. And our first home should remember that there is an international gallakticheskoe right, and to remind some that it is either for all or it is not for anyone. And after troubles with Russian or Iranian satellites may occur offensive chance and with South American.