Yesterday I was able to visit with the family on a very "sad" object located in the famous city-hero Sevastopol. Location — Cape Chersonese. This is — 35 Battery.
I must say that the place is not out of fun, and everyone who came out after the tour had been deeply immersed in thought … The fact is that during the Second World War are killed about 80,000 people, and our water, the Black Sea, were stained with blood …
The official version.
In 1913, for the Defense of the Main Base BSF project military engineer, General N.A.Buynitskogo began construction of two of the most powerful batteries in the coastal defense of Sevastopol: № 25 (later 35-I) — in the Cape Chersonese and the number 26 ( in the future I-30) near the village of Lyubimovka, near the mouth of the river Bel'bek. The First World War, the Revolution, the Civil War was not allowed to finish the job. Added two batteries in the middle. 20-x-nach.30's.
The 35th battery consisted of two artillery units (reinforced concrete blocks, which were installed turrets). Within a block of the first tower located on two floors of the cellars of ammunition, residential and office space, and within a block of the second tower, moreover, the power station and the central post with the fire control devices. In the 450 m north and 200 m south of the blocks were command posts with armored conning tower and an outdoor patio for rangefinders. Gun units and command centers were connected by underground corridors (footway). There were two emergency exits to the sea.
Citadel included facilities for housing, warehouses, galley, medical, wardroom commanders. By cupola was paved track. The whole position was encircled by infantry trenches and wire system constraints. The personnel of the battery consisted of 300 people on staff and 120 infantrymen for perimeter defense.
In July 1929, Stalin visited the battery, government officials, and a group of German officers under the command of General Blomberg.
In 1941-1942, the battery commanded by Captain (since 1942, Major) A.Ya.Leschenko. First combat shooting the 35th Battery was held November 7, 1941 in parts of German 132nd Infantry Division in the district of Mackenzie farm. 17 December 1941 on the tower number 2 occurred early shot from the left gun, so that the fire started and was followed by an explosion. Repair of the tower number 2 was completed in April 1942.
By the end of the last stage of the defense of Sevastopol 35th battery has become the epicenter of events. By the morning of June 30, Soviet troops were kept on the line cape Feolent-Malakhov Kurgan. When almost out of ammunition, the remnants of the Sevastopol defense area with fights started to retreat to bays Musketeers, reed, Cossack and Cape Chersonese. The command post of the GRA and the Maritime Army was deployed on the 35th battery.
The morning of June 30 the commander of the GRA F.S.Oktyabrsky sent to the People's Commissar of the Navy Marshal SMBudenny and the USSR People's Commissar of the Navy, Commander of the Navy Admiral N.G.Kuznetsova the following telegram: "The enemy broke through from the North side in the ship's side. The fighting proceeded in the nature of street fighting. The remaining troops were tired (flinch), although the majority continued to fight heroically. (…) On the basis of this particular situation, I ask you to let me in the night from June 30 to July 1 200-500 aircraft to take out the person responsible officials, commanders of the Caucasus, as well as, if possible, to leave Sevastopol himself by leaving his deputy, Major Petrov. "
At 19.00 the same day, Kuznetsov said that the evacuation decision-makers and the October departure personally authorized. At 19.30 in one of the casemates of the 35th joint meeting of the battery began military councils of the GRA and the Maritime Army, which was confirmed by the decision to evacuate Sevastopol Defense Command Region. It was decided the overall command of the remaining troops entrusted to Major General P.G.Novikova, commander of the 109th Infantry Division. Major General P.A.Morgunov gave an order to the commander of the 35th coastal battery captain Leshenko about undermining the battery after it is spent ammunition.
On the night of July 1 in Sebastopol, landed 13 planes "Douglas" had delivered ammunition and food. Return flights they have taken 232 people from commanding the GRA, 49 wounded, 3490 kg of cargo. Submarines "u-209" and "L-23" in the night of 1 to 2 July took on board 63 and 117 officers of the Maritime Army and city leaders, who were taken to Novorossiysk.
Remains of units of the Maritime Army and Coast Defense, according to the decision of the COP command had to perform their last combat mission, to cover the evacuation area for the removal of senior commanders, and then fight to the last break in the mountains or to the partisans. As subsequent days, to break into the mountain in complete blockade of enemy territory Heracleian Peninsula was not possible. The troops left without ammunition, medical and food supplies were doomed to captivity or death. From the memoirs of veterans of the last days of Sevastopol defense that the vast majority of them looked to the fleet, on its evacuation, did not know that the command has left them in this truly tragic situation.
By the end of July 1st German troops succeeded in taking bays Musketeers, Omega, close to the airfield near Kherson lighthouse and positions of the 35th Battery. Reflecting the furious attacks of the enemy gunners shot past the shells. Battery commander Capt. AJ Leshenko gave the order to prepare the tools and mechanisms to undermine all that has been done on the night of July 2, 1942. The first tower was blown up in 0.35, the second in 1.13. About three o'clock in the morning, with a group of 32 people left the citadel Leshenko. Swam to one of the "chaser", they went to Novorossiisk.
July 4th "Pravda" newspaper published a report Sovinformburo: "By order of the Supreme Command of the Red Army on July 3, Soviet troops left the city of Sevastopol. (…)"
At the same time, at Cape Chersonese, in the 35th battery continued to be tens of thousands of soldiers and commanders. They put up fierce resistance to the enemy, trying to break out of the encirclement. As shelters used precipitous cliffs, rock shelters coastline. The resistance continued until July 12. Just throwing grenades coastal strip, landed with a submachine boats, the Germans captured the half-dead from hunger, thirst and wounds defenders of Sevastopol.
According to the calculations of the military historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences G.I.Vaneeva in the last days of the defense at Cape Chersonese were killed or taken prisoner nearly 80,000 soldiers and commanders.
Add a little of what is not covered in the official version.
Indeed, after the official announcement to evacuate the combat strength of 35 batteries here were still thousands of people who had hoped to save.
They focused on the cliffs facing the sea, but the ship did not come. But there were German boats which were shot with guns of all: men, women and children who had taken refuge at the last point of defense.
Just add that in 1944, when Soviet troops liberated Sevastopol, history repeated itself, but with the Germans. They also kept the defense here and tried to escape in the same way as the Soviet people who died 2 years ago. But in their case, the rescue ship came and took them on board, although some of them were shot on the same rocks. Putting on the top deck of Russian prisoners of war, disguised them in white, they began to go to sea. The tour guide did not finish until the end, but it was clear that the enemy ships were destroyed …
Each year, up to now, there dig up more bodies trapped in the tunnels and buildings in the area, and how many bodies remained at the bottom of the sea cape Chersonese — or who do not know.
War is a terrible thing. The time when the morality and humanity simply disappears, leaving only a primitive sense — a thirst for life …
PS I highly recommend to visit the memorial, located on the territory of the museum complex. This is a huge dome, the ceiling of which is projected images with music. This is a must see with your own eyes.
Watch The 35th Coastal Battery Part 1
Watch The 35th Coastal Battery Part 2