35 years ago, an American astronaut set foot on the moon
What is remembered in the history of summer 1969? The grand rock festival at Woodstock. Release of the film "Easy eater", heralded the end of the hippie era. Conflict Soviet Union and China in the Sino-Soviet. The coming to power of Richard Nixon, the destruction of the village of Song Mi in Vietnam and anti-war protest marches. John Lennon's refusal of a Knight of the Order of the British Empire. And an event comparable to the first manned flight into space — the landing of American astronauts to the moon. Neil Armstrong made "one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Moon was conquered.
Of all the space objects visible to the naked eye, the moon is the most attracted the attention of the person. Some of the people honored her above the sun, poets devoted her their lines, astrologers believed that it affects the lives and destinies of the rulers of states. Moon attributed most mysterious properties, to the extent that the light from her milk cows rolled, childless women under the influence of her twins are born, and the six-fingered.
Diameter: 3474 km
Weight: 7.34 kg * 1022
Density: 3340 kg/m3
Rotation Period: 29.53 days
The average distance from the Sun: 0.00257 AU
The period of revolution around the sun: 27.3 years
And people have always dreamed of setting foot on the moon. But the moon — like the one arm of the sayings is close, but do not bite. Dream acquired visible outlines in the second half of the twentieth century, with the beginning of space exploration. In January 1956, the Soviet Union decided to create an artificial Earth satellite and manned spacecraft. Began the great space race of the USSR and the USA.
Next, to the moon!
October 4, 1957 a two-stage rocket R-7 "Sputnik" put into orbit the first artificial Earth satellite. Satellite in space lasted three months. During this time, the word sputnik had time to enter into many languages. The Americans said that in April 1958, launched an artificial satellite of the Earth "Explorer 1". In both countries, there was intensive preparation for manned space flight and the landing on the moon.
In the first stage of the USSR was able to get ahead of the United States. In September 1959 the Soviet automatic station "Luna-2" for the first time reached the surface of the Moon in the Sea of Serenity, and in October the station "Luna-3" for the first time took a photo of the back side of the moon. In the United States began to get nervous. In the summer of 1960 it was announced the beginning of work on the project "Apollo." The project involved a manned flight around the moon and landing a man on the surface.
Moon always faces the Earth in the same hemisphere (known as the visible side of the Moon). Period of the Moon relative to the Sun is 29.53 days, so that the lunar day and lunar night lasts almost 15 days. During the lunar day of the lunar surface is heated and cooled at night, the temperature on the surface of the moon changes.
After flew in space, Yuri Gagarin (12 April 1961), and later Alan Shepard (5 May 1961), began Lunar Race. In May 1961 in the United States have adopted a program of conquest of the moon. The Americans were extremely annoyed by the fact that the first person to go into space was Russian. Since the Soviet Union ever staked their place discoverer of space, in the United States, it was decided to focus just on the lunar program.
U.S. President John F. Kennedy hoped to make a very landing a man on the moon before it will make the Soviet Union. He managed to get Congressional appropriations for the program in the amount of $ 25 billion. National Agency of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun to develop close the program. In turn, the Soviet Union 12 April 1962 was the first time officially announced the presence of the country's lunar space program. But the project has existed only in the stage of intentions. Finally, he was decorated only by 1964.
The most thoroughly studied the gravitational field of the Moon. This is due not only to the needs of space, but also gives scientists important information about the features of the structure of the Moon. These studies have revealed its non-central gravitational field due to the inhomogeneity of the density of mineral resources. The acceleration of gravity on the Moon's surface was 1,623 m/s2, that is 6 times less than on Earth.
American automatic station "Ranger 7" reached the surface of the moon July 31, 1964. In August 1964, the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Nikita Khrushchev signed a secret decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers under the number 655/268 "The work on the study of the moon and outer space." Space industry set a specific task: in May — June 1967 circumnavigate the moon, and in September of 1968 to commit to the lunar surface a soft landing and come back. By decision of the government was set up so-called "Moon Unit", which was headed by Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov.
But then the Soviet lunar project stalled. In October 1964, Khrushchev was removed from his post. He was replaced by Leonid Brezhnev, and he's keen interest in space exploration is not experienced. Gradually lunar projects have moved from the category of priority to minor.
This was compounded by the fact that two of the most prominent figures of the Soviet space, academics and Chelomei Queens, could not agree on what should be the launch vehicle for the flight to the moon. Korolev proposed a fundamentally new, environmentally friendly engine "N-1", which was to work on the oxygen and hydrogen. Chelomei advocated repeatedly proven engines "Proton". In January 1966, The King is dead. After a long rivalry leadership decided to still stay on the option Chelomeya. But time after time trials occurred inadvertently, leading to accidents.
FLYING SHIP APOLLO 11
Crew: 3 people
Launch: July 16, 1969 13:32:00 GMT from the Baikonur Kennedy
Moon landing: July 20, 1969 at 20:17:40
Landing: July 24, 1969 at 16:50:35
The number of turns around the Moon: 30
The duration of stay in lunar orbit: 59 hours 30 minutes 25.8 seconds
Finally, in 1967 the Resolution of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers "On the poor state" of the lunar program. '" In the Soviet Union realized that the race to the moon can not win: there was still a chance the first to fly around the Moon, but to sit on the surface before the Americans will not succeed.
December 21, 1968, U.S. astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William Anders launched to the moon aboard the ship "Apollo 8". This was the first mission beyond low Earth orbit. Astronauts first people to see the back side of the moon. "Apollo 8" took a few turns on the lunar orbit, and then successfully returned to Earth. The first phase of the Moon race was won by the United States.
After the American astronauts have flown the Moon, similar to the Soviet program was outdated. There was another long shot to try to get ahead of the U.S. landing on the surface of the Earth satellite operated vehicle.
Neil Armstrong. Photo from www.nasa.gov
July 13, 1969 in the Soviet Union launched a new generation of automatic station "Luna-15", which was supposed to deliver samples of lunar soil to Earth. July 16 was launched into space ship "Apollo 11" (crew: Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin). July 20 Soviet automatic station "Luna-15" and the lunar module landed on the moon's surface, but the "Luna 15" broke. And on July 20 at 03:56 GMT, Neil Armstrong, the first time in the history of mankind set foot on the lunar surface. The second phase of the Moon race was also for the United States.
However, the work of the Soviet lunar program did not stop there. In September 1970, the Soviet automatic station "Luna-16" brought to Earth about 100 grams of lunar soil. But the launch of a manned spacecraft to the moon it was not walking. In November of the same year on the lunar surface was taken propelled vehicle "Lunokhod-1", who worked there for 9 months. Thus, the Soviet Union took partial revenge for their defeat in the Moon race.
But by 1973, the United States, following its lunar program, switched to long-term development of the near-Earth space station "Skylab". USSR, having suffered repeated setbacks with the launch of missiles such as H-1, which were to take astronauts to the moon, also turned in this area. As the end of the lunar program in the years 1973-76 in the Soviet Union launched the unmanned stations, in which the moon was taken "Lunokhod-2", and returned to Earth samples of the soil. Moon race was over.
Does Armstrong walked on the moon?
ALLEGEDLY TRUE STORY
In mid-1995, the media began to walk about the story is that in addition to its world-famous phrases Neil Armstrong said, and another: "Good luck, Mr. Gorsky." For a long time no one could understand what she was treated, and only recently astronaut allegedly revealed the secret. As a boy, he heard the neighbor's wife, whose name was Gorsky, refuses to in intimacy, promising to please him only when the neighbor's kid will fly to the moon. Much to the dismay lovers of spectacular stories, this "true" bike — no more than an anecdote. Armstrong never uttered such a phrase.
Landing a man on the moon watched over half a billion television viewers around the globe. This record was broken only 4 years later — Hawaiian concert of Elvis Presley in 1973, one billion people watched. In addition, during the lunar mission hosted the most expensive in the history of mankind a phone conversation — from the Oval Office with the astronauts talked personally President Nixon. Lunar expedition literally rocked the world.
And almost immediately there was a theory that the flight to the moon — no more than a clever fake. First talk about that arose after the journalists interested in the fate of the astronauts who took part in the lunar missions on the program "Apollo" (total took part in it 33 astronauts). Almost a third of them were killed in automobile and plane crashes! Then the pages of the media began to walk version of the strange coincidences. Reporters asked yourself, "What a strange epidemic disaster strikes astronauts? May be the root of this lies in the violation of the secrecy of their subscription flights?"
Scenes from the surface of the moon began to be studied carefully by both professionals and amateurs. A special surprise is the time of installation on the surface of the moon U.S. flag that was flying like the wind, although there is no atmosphere on the moon and, therefore, the flag must not waver. Advocates of the staging began to cite other evidence. The astronauts walking on the moon in inflated spacesuits in a vacuum in such suits to work would not be possible. Boots with suits were dusty. From the boot of one of the astronauts on the lunar soil was suspiciously clear imprint. The platform on which the astronauts walked, had a fine-grained structure of the surface corresponding to the sandy desert, which the moon is not.
The logo of the expedition "Apollo 11." Photo from www.nasa.gov
Fuel to the fire poured American film "Capricorn-1" (1978). The story of how the astronauts were preparing to fly to Mars, at the last second shot from the ship, and further flight and landing simulated with the help of television, found a warm understanding of the audience. Americans, perhaps more than anyone exposed to "conspiracy theories." Virtually any more or less well-known event in the United States immediately begins to explain some plot, usually led by an invisible or shadow government. These plots include everything: the landing of aliens in the United States in 1947, the Kennedy assassination, the number 13, which is present on U.S. banknotes in different variations, the war in Iraq, and, of course, the landing of astronauts on the moon.
There is even a legend that the director of the film "Capricorn-1" Peter Hyams originally wanted to "send" their characters to the moon, but it is strongly advised not to do so. Allegedly feared exposure of the true facts: the California desert very well mimic the lunar surface.
"Capricorn-1" only strengthened the confidence of skeptics is that the whole saga was faked moon. Numerous facts to refute this "conspiracy" is usually not taken into account. The theory that Americans landed on the moon, it is very popular to this day. And she has a lot of supporters around the world. The debate over whether Armstrong walked on the moon, will last a very long time, for several reasons. There will always be a large number of gullible simpletons who is good to know that they "really know the truth." People with a sophisticated fantasy also always be there in abundance.
But the answer to the question of whether flying expedition "Apollo 11" to the moon in fact, given a long time ago. NASA has officially denied all the allegations. Anyone can verify this by visiting the official website of the agency. Documents confirming the cogency of stay of astronauts on the Moon are in the public domain. In turn, numerous independent expert asserts is the authenticity of photos and video materials related to this mission. But people want to believe that, in reality, according to the saying Jerzy Lec, "it was not so in reality."