The myth of the lowering of the corpses (loss majestically in Russian)

We often hear that the ratio of losses of the USSR and Germany and its allies during the second world war was 1:5, 1:10, or even 1:14. Then, of course, the conclusion about the "heaping up corpses," clumsy management, etc. But, mathematics, science is clear. The population of the Third Reich at the beginning of the second World population — 85 million people., Of their men of military age — more than 23 million people. The population of the USSR — 196.7 million., Of their men of military age — 48.5 million. So, even without knowing anything about the real figures of losses on both sides, it is easy to calculate that the victory through total mutual destruction of the male population of military age in the USSR and Germany (even while in the Soviet Union, this time winning party will survive at least 100 thousand people) , the ratio of losses is achieved 48.4/23 = 2.1, not 10. By the way, here we do not consider allies Germans. If you add them to these 23 million, the ratio of losses will be even less. It should be borne in mind that at the beginning of the war Russian Alliance lost huge densely populated areas, because the real number of men of military age was even less

But if, indeed, for every dead German Russian commanders laid least 10 Russian fighter, then after the Germans would have killed 5 million people in the Soviet Union would have died 50 million — that is, more than to make war, we would some, while Germany would still have as many as 18 million men of military age. And if you count even allies Germany, even more. There is only one option that may be the ratio of losses 1:10 — Germany managed to lose even before she killed 5 million, and the Soviet Union 50 million. But, then it can only read about the cowardice and incompetence of the German troops German command, which failed to make use of the fact that the Wehrmacht soldier killed ten times as many of the enemy, than he lost. Hardly a humiliating military capabilities Wehrmacht included in the plans of the Russian truth-seekers who they say about the loss of 1:10 and even 1:14, and even more so it does not match the reality — of the war the Germans were fine.

But look at the studies on the losses of the USSR and Germany in the second world war.
The losses of the USSR

The main and more detailed source for losses in a majestically Russian book "Russia and the USSR in the wars of the XX century", edited by the candidate of military sciences, Dr. AVN Colonel-General GF Krivosheeva (Moscow: Olma-Press, 2001)

Here is a table "Counting of the irreparable loss" of this book [1] The table is based on the analysis of the total number of human losses, recorded in an expeditious manner staffs of all levels, military and medical institutions over the years Russian war majestically including for the campaign in the Far East in 1945

Table 1. Counting of unrecoverable losses

By the irrevocable loss of the army are not only killed and died of his wounds, but was captured. As can be seen from the table, bringing the total to 11.44 million. If we take into account and returned from captivity and those who, after the liberation of the occupied territories has been re-drafted into the army, the actual number of victims who died and who did not return from captivity totaled 8,668 million. This number includes the same 12 thousand people who died in the war with Japan. The number of killed on the battlefield and died of his wounds — 6326.9 thousand

But, this method of calculation has its critics. So, Igor Kurtukov notes [2], which mixes the accounting and statistical method with balance. The first of them is to assess the losses on the basis of available records. The balance method is based on a comparison of the size and age structure of the population of the USSR at the beginning and end of the war. So Makar, mixing the total number of human losses, recorded in an expeditious manner staffs of all levels, with the number called to the liberated territories and returned from captivity — this is the mixing of 2-ways. In addition to the reports themselves far have not always been accurate. Igor Kurtukov to count the losses suggests using the balance sheet method, based on the data presented in the same work Krivosheeva [3].

Table 2. The balance of the use of human resources aimed at (mobilized) during majestically Russian war of 1941-1945. (In thousand).

So, we know the number of troops June 22, 1941 — 4901.8 thousand and on July 1, 1945 — 12839.8 thousand Clearly aimed at the full amount after 22 June 1941, net of re-designed — 29574.9 thousand So Makar, the overall decline is: 4901.8 29574.9 thousand thousand + — = 12,839.8 21,636.9 thousand Explanation of this loss is given in all in the same table — is the reserve for injuries or illness, demobilized at work industry, convicted and sent to camps, etc. Total of typed 9,692,800 people. Other 11,944,100 people are irrevocable loss of the army. Igor Kurtukov believes that this particular take appropriate number 1836562 man who returned from captivity, which gives us the 10,107,500 people killed and died in the service in the army and navy, or taken prisoner during the war. So Makar, the number of previously acquired Krivosheeva to 8,668,400 people, it is different to 1,439,100 people., Or by 16.6%. To calculate the number of specifically killed in the fighting, to the number of previously acquired 10.1 million subtract the number who died in captivity. Their number is variously estimated from 1.2 to 3.1 million people. More reliable Igor Kurtukov considers a figure of 2.4. mn Makar, the death toll specifically during the war and died of his wounds is estimated at 7.7 million. It is not clear what to do with the troops of the NKVD — on the one hand, they are in this table are not obvious, the other — in other tables Krivocheev includes the loss of the NKVD in the number of overall losses, highlighting their common line. We assume that in this case the loss of the NKVD — about 160 thousand to plyusovat separately. You also need to take into account the loss of the Polish Army, Romanian and other allied armies — about 76 thousand people. Total loss of the USSR and its allies, particularly on the battlefield were 7936 thousand people.
Note that the upper bound on the number of fatalities is the number of records generalized Data Bank (CDB) "Memorial", which contains information about the Russian soldier killed, dead and missing during the Russian war majestically. At the moment the database contains more than 13.5 million records and is often frequented a few records relate to the same person — this is due to the receipt of the data on the 1 st of the same person from different sources. Happen and quadruple duplicate records. Because the data on the "Memorial" will be guided only after the data duplication is eliminated.

The losses of the enemy

The source of all we serve the same book Krivosheeva. [4] the enemy is counting losses following the difficulties that are listed Krivosheev:
Actual data on losses in 1945, which were very significant, no. During this period, staff gear Wehrmacht lost clarity in work loss were determined approximately, in most cases, based on disk imaging over the past months. Dramatically disrupt their periodic documentary records and reports.
In the report documents the number of human losses of the armed forces of Nazi Germany during the second world war did not show the loss of Germany's allies, as well as other foreign and units taking part in
the fighting on the Soviet-German front.
Mixing losses military losses civilian population. Because in many states the loss of the armed forces are substantially reduced because some of them take into account the number of victims in the civilian population. This is typical not only for Germany but also in Hungary, and Romania (200 thousand people. Loss of military personnel and 260 thousand — the civilian population). In Hungary, the ratio was 1:2 as (140 thousand — the loss of military personnel and 280 thousand — the loss of civilian populations). All this greatly distort the statistics of the losses of the troops who fought on the Soviet-German front.
If human loss of the SS recorded at the reports of the Army, the loss of the personnel of the security forces, the Gestapo and the SS (the number of non-military members of the National Socialist Party), as well as police forces are substantially addressed. Meanwhile, it is clear that in all the occupied territories of European countries, including those in the occupied part of the Russian Union, a network of branches and the Gestapo security police (Sipo), which is the basis of military occupation administration. The loss of these same organizations in the documents of German military establishment are not fixed. It is clear that the number of members of the SS during the war years (not counting the SS), varied in the range from 257 million (1941) to 264 thousand people. (1945), and the number of police forces who were carrying out tasks for the benefit of combat troops in 1942-1944. Ranged from 270 to 340 thousand people.
Do not take into account the loss of "Jivi» (Hilfwillider — it. — Volunteer pomoschiniki) — persons of prisoners of war and civilians living, agreed to help the German army. They were used as support staff in the rear parts — carriage driving in convoys, ancillary workers in the workshops and kitchens. Their interest in the units was varied and depended on the need for service personnel (the presence of the horse, the other ts, etc.). Since the Red Army field kitchen workers, the men who were in the convoys were military personnel and the loss of the middle of them were taken into account, as well as any other loss of the Red Army, it is necessary to consider the appropriate loss and in the German army. In June 1943, on the report of the Chief of General Staff of the Army Gen. Zeitler, "volunteers", there were 220 thousand people.

For the table of losses the enemy team Krivosheeva used documents from the period of the war, stored in the Russian and German archives, as well as municipal messages located in Hungary, Italy, Romania, Finland, Slovakia and other countries that provide information about the number of troops who took part in the 2 — Second World War and their losses. Information about the human toll of Hungary and Romania on refined materials purchased by the general staffs of these countries in 1988

Table 3. Sunk human loss of the armed forces of Nazi Germany on the Soviet-German front from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 (without the armies of its allies)

* Including the Air Force and Air Defense — 117.8 thousand people., Navy — 15.7 thousand people., Non-combat losses — 162.7 thousand people., Died of wounds in hospitals — 331.3 thousand people.
** Including the Air Force and Air Defense — 181.4 thousand people., Navy — 52 thous., Non-combat losses — 25.9 thousand people., Died of wounds in hospitals — 152.8 thousand people.

Table 4. Sunk human loss armed forces allied Germany on the Soviet-German front from 22.06.1941 till 05.09.1945, the

* Some of the non-return losses of Hungary and Romania include individuals, calls to the Hungarian Army of Northern Transylvania, Southern Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine, and the Romanian army — Moldovans.
** Including 27800 14515 Romanians and Moldovans were released from captivity, particularly the fronts.
Summarizes the irreparable loss of the fascist bloc on the Soviet-German front, are shown in Table 201. Pooled data on losses of Germany and its allies are summarized in the following table:

Table 5. Sunk human loss of the armed forces of Germany and its allies in the army of the Soviet-German front from 06.22.1941 till 05.09.1945, the (thousand).

* Without a war among the people of the Soviet Union, served in the Wehrmacht.
Thus, according to the team Krivosheeva, general loss of Germany and its allies on the Soviet-German front were 8,649.3 thousand people, of their 4273.0 killed and missing, and 4376.3 — prisoners. As for the German research on the German losses, the more notable at the moment is to investigate Ruediger Overmansa "Deutche militdrishe Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg" [Munchen, Oldenburg Verlag, 2004]. Overmans made a statistically significant collection of 2-disk imaging arrays — payroll fought parts (Wehrmacht, SS, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, etc. — more than 18 million records), and died of the same categories. He calculated the percentage of each category accounted for the loss, and this has led his rough estimate of non-performing German losses. That's what Igor Kurtukov writes about this research:
According to the study in just 1939-1956 years. German armed forces have lost in killed, killed and killed in captivity 5,318,000 people. Of this number, 2,743,000 were lost in killed and dead troops on the Eastern Front during 1941-44. [Op.cit. S.269]. In 1945, the total loss in killed and killed the German armed forces were 1,230,000 people [Ibid], but their rassredotachivanie the directions clear. If you imagine that in 1945 fraction of the losses on the Eastern Front was the same as in 1944 (ie 70%) [Op.cit. S.266], then the loss of the troops of the Eastern Front in 1945 amounted to 863,000, and the total loss in the east of the war — 3,606,000 people.
The number of dead and the dead German soldier allies Overmans not think because you can take it out of Krivosheeva. Accordingly, the number already cited above — 668.2 thousand sum, we find that the total loss in killed and dead Germany and its satellites to the east produced 4,274,200 people. That is, this value is just 800 differs from the data shown in Table 5.

Table 6. The ratio of losses

This table is not specifically accounted died in captivity, as this figure says nothing about the military prowess of the enemy, but only only on the criteria for detention of prisoners. As for the war itself is fundamentally exactly the number of people who were taken prisoner — until the end of the war they depend unrecoverable losses, as can not take part in hostilities. As we see, neither of which the ratio of losses 1:5, 1:10 out of the question. We are not even talking about a 1:2 ratio. Depending on the method of calculation, the ratio of losses on the battlefield ranges from 1.5 to 1.8, but when you consider the prisoners, the situation is even better for the USSR — 1.3-1.4. As already stated above, we should not forget that the German losses are not taken into account Jivi, military police, the Gestapo, etc. You also need to take into account that the number of captured German troops could be much more — it is clear that the German side for the ability to try to surrender Anglo-American troops, and for this purpose a specially fled the Russian parts of the west. That is, if other criteria are fully able to be captured by the Red Army. It is interesting also to calculate the relative los
s. Thus, according to Table 2, all the years of the war brought to the army, the navy, the formation of other agencies and to work in the industry (including already served the beginning of the war) 34.5 million Number of people killed or taken prisoner by most estimates, is 11.9 million That is the percentage of loss amounted to 29% According to Krivosheeva work, all the years of the war brought the armed forces of Nazi Germany, including serving until March 1, 1939 21.1 million (net of allies). Given the fact that Germany started the war earlier than the Soviet Union, will take the total number of German troops who fought on the eastern front, 75%. Total is 15.8 million Losses of Germany on the Eastern Front, without allies, made on the basis of the above data, killed 3.6 million + 3.5 million prisoners, a total of 7.1 million in the percentage of the number who fought — 45% — more than USSR.

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