Towered tanks of the Red Army

Middle classes and languid tanks in the Red Army before the war were presented towered combat vehicles T-28 and T-35. It should be emphasized that a greater contribution to the creation of many-towered tanks brought specifically Russian designers, and the USSR was the only country in the world where such tanks are performed serially, with a noticeable amount.

The design of both vehicles began almost immediately and was conducted in parallel KB VOAO running from. Ginzburg and LD ABO-5, headed N.V.Barykovym. First concluded with the UMM RKKA contract to develop the project and the construction of a May 1, 1932 16-ton tank T-28, and the second received the task to August 1, 1932 to create and build a new 35-ton tank breakthrough. Soon both engineering organizations have been reorganized, their base was created experimental design mechanical department (OKMO) plant "Bolshevik" in Leningrad. Headed OKMO N.V.Barykov.

Towered tanks of the Red Army
Towered tanks of the Red Army
Towered tanks of the Red Army
Towered tanks of the Red Army

General views of the T-28 production in 1936. The machine has a cover over the fan with shutters and single leaf hatches ball set in a niche of the tower, the two hatches in the roof of the tower and a modified (in comparison with the previous series of tanks) placing APP

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The layout of the T-28, July 1932

First test run in the yard of the plant "Bolshevik" mock T-28 made May 29, 1932. Management of the country's army and showing great enthusiasm to the newcomer tank: July 11, showed his management UMM RKKA, July 28 — Management of Leningrad party, headed by the first secretary of the regional committee, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) the Kirov. Tank made a suitable memory.

In August — September 1932 constructors OKMO running O.M.Ivanova, taking into account the results of the tests and the requirements of the military, radically reworked drawings of T-28. As a result, almost got another machine swapped suspension and gearbox, the design of the towers and the body has been strengthened weapons. Without waiting for an experienced production reference, at the end of October 1932 the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR adopted a decision on the commercialization of the T-28 at the "Red Putilovets" in Leningrad.

Hull of the tank was going from rolled armor plate width 20 — 30 mm and was divided into four departments: management, combat, engine and transmission. Corps tanks were 2-types: a riveted and welded-welded. Two vertical sheet created cab driver, for input and output of which it had hinged lid. The stern of the hull armor cap covered air duct to the fan.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

Tanks T-28 pass on Red Square. Moscow, May 1, 1937 We can see that the parade tanks different years of release

76-mm cannon CT-28 ("Kirov Tank") arr. 1927/32, with the barrel length of 16.5 calibers located in the main tower. Right from the gun, and in the niche of the tower mounted machine-guns. The gun was equipped with telescopic sights and a periscope TOP arr. 1930 and PT-1 arr. 1932 The mechanism of rotation of the tower has an electronic and manual actuators. The lifting mechanism — sector type, manual. In small tower mounted machine-guns. The main tower had a radial arc of fire, any small 165 °. The corresponding feature was the use of placement of ammunition rotating combat pack. Two "turntables" to 12 rounds each were placed under the right (commanding) and left (gunner) seats of the main tower. On either side of the driver on the right and left sides of the machine, there is one
rotating drum, each of which was laid 40 stores of machine guns.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

T-28 on the Red Square. Moscow, November 7, 1938 On the left tank is visible grille styling canvas, mounted on the starboard side. It is found on some tanks production 1936 -1938.

The tank was installed 12 — cylinder V — type carburetor engine M-17-L liquid cooling. Box consisted of a head of dry friction clutch, 5-speed Gearbox (which had an interlock prevents shifting when not turned off the main clutch), steering clutches and two-row side gears.

Suspension of the tank for a board composed of one 2-trucks, suspended from the body in the i 2-points. Each cart included three bogeys, connected among themselves levers, and any carriage, in turn, consisted of a 2-pairs of rollers connected in pairs balancer. All the carriages were sprung cylindrical coil springs. Track chain — melkozvenchatye with 121 Truckee lantern meshing. Ring gears of the drive wheels made removable.

In the armored boxes on both sides of the hull installed devices dymopuska TDP-3, for which the management in the hull sides were round holes.

The radio 71-TK-1 with poruchnevoy antenna provides communication only at the stops installed on the commander's tank, in which it was absent due to the stern gun. For internal communication had tankofon for 6 people and Radiopribor "Safar".

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The only thing today is not a bad photo of T-28 with conical tower: the tanks before the parade on the square Urickogo. Leningrad, November 7, 1940 We can see that the car is armed with a gun L-10

At the end of 1933 at the "Red Putilovets" had cooperated Special Design Bureau — SKB-2. It was headed O.M.Ivanov, which OKMO was the lead engineer in the development of the T-28. In May
1937, OM Ivanov, who was arrested and then shot, succeeded in his post 29 years of ZY Kotin, a protégé of Voroshilov, married to a ward of the People's Commissar of Defense. All the work ahead to ensure the mass production and improvement of the T-28 was carried out under its control.

The T-28 was produced from 1933 to 1940 year, wherein during the entire period of its structure was made more than 600 different configurations and improvements which have allowed to raise strength of components and assemblies and reliability of the machine as a whole. In the production of generic tower hatch for the landing crew was replaced by two, and the gunner's hatch equipped with anti-aircraft turret T-40 for machine-guns, voltage electric motor for rotating the main tower raised from 12 to 24, did not set Radiopribor for internal communication "Safar ", have been made countless configurations in the box, engine, chassis components. Since 1938, at the tank began installing 76.2 mm L-10 gun with a barrel in 26 gauge, has a much greater capacity than the CT-28. All the years of mass production factory shop left 503 T-28 tank.

First T-28 tanks arrived in the 2nd Independent Tank Regiment of the Leningrad Military neighborhood, then — in the 1st, 3rd and 4th tank regiments. December 12, 1935, these regiments were deployed in some languid tank brigades. Brigade stationed: 1st — Belarusian Military District (Smolensk), 4th — Kiev Military District (Kiev), 5th — Kharkov Military District (Kharkov) and the 6th named after SM Kirov — Leningrad Military District (Slutsk). With all of this languid 5th Armored Brigade had a mixed composition, together with the T-28 it was languid and T-35 tanks. Order of the People's Commissar of Defense from May 21, 1936 allocated to the Reserve Brigade Head Command. They are intended for high-gain rifle and tank units in the breakout fortified enemy positions. In accordance with this, and conducted training soldiers. Prepare for tank T-28 was carried out in the 2nd Tank Brigade spare LVO, in the Orel Armored School, also at the Leningrad armored refresher courses for commanders.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

Tanks T-28 21 th heaviest armored brigade in the area of village Mir. Poland, September 1939

First maneuvers with the role of 15 T-28 tanks were in the Leningrad Military District in January 1934. Most large number of T-28, once involved in the maneuvers — is 52 machine 1st heaviest armored brigade during the exercise BVI 8-17 October 1936. In a report on the exercise said: "The tank Complete 250 km per day or three" battle ". We have excellent reviews from parts of the tactical and technical properties of the T-28, but in terms of the properties of machines Kirov factory did not all. "

Another fundamental event in which constantly attended T-28 tanks were parades. Since 1933 and prior to the stateliness Russian war, they are often on May 1 and November 7 held on Red Square in Moscow, square them. Urickogo (Palace) in Leningrad and Kiev on Khreschatyk. Number of T-28, participated in parades, usually no more than 20 cars.

In September 1939, the 10 th (98 tanks T-28) and 21th (105 tanks T-28) languorous tank brigades participated in the "liberation campaign" and fighting against Poland in the Ukrainian and Belorussian fronts, respectively. Clashes with the forces of the enemy actually was not, the brigade marched through the 350 — 400 km, with all this, the T-28 tanks did his best side.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

View of the front of the main tower. Perfectly visible mask-setting gun CT-28 machine gun and ball mount DT

But at the end of November, they were expected a more severe test — role in the Soviet-Finnish War (November 30, 1939 to March 13, 1940). Martial acts were conducted on a fairly broad front — from the coast of the Gulf of Finland to Murmansk. But the more languid and bloody battles were fought on the Karelian Isthmus.

Its territory is completely covered with large forests, allowing the movement of tanks only on roads and glades. A huge number of rivers and lakes with swampy or steep banks, freezing lakes, rocks — all represented tanks for natural impassable obstacles. The roads were not enough, the movement even passable forest area sought of the driver of the highest skill. In addition, the terrible winter 1939 — 1940's with frost, which reached the middle of January temperature of -45 ° C, and almost meter of snow has created additional challenges.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The T-28 on the teachings of overcoming obstacles. Belarusian Military District, 1936

Natural barriers were reinforced by the Finns, who created a system of massive fortifications, known under the title "Mannerheim Line". It consisted of a strip of fencing (presumably), the main and second defensive lines and a huge number of individual products and components defense. "Mannerheim Line" had a huge number of massive reinforced concrete pillboxes and anti-tank engineering obstacles: anti-tank obstacles, scarps, anti-tank ditches, "pitfalls" and minefields. All this is perfectly camouflaged obmyslennoy system Artillery and machine gun fire.

It is here, in the area of the 7th Army, apply the brunt, and acted 20th Tank Brigade languid them. Kirov, equipped with tanks T-28 and was thrown out of the Belarusian Military Slutzk neighborhood on the Karelian Isthmus. Then her staffed up to wartime (the brigade poured up to 50% of the attached). Over the next six weeks were strengthened employment for combat training: an act perfected units in offensive combat in rough terrain, practical classes with the crews of tanks driving cars in azimuth NIGHT MODE and to overcome the obstacles of anti-(stone, wood and earth wall) with fascines . The increased attention paid to the training of mechanics, drivers. In the end, the beginning of hostilities tank battalions were well prepared for battle. The technical condition of vehicles was also very good, but all this was not enough repair shops and in fact it is no means of evacuation (of 4 tractor "Comintern" for the entire team).

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The tanks of the 20th Tank Brigade before a march to the front of the band. February 1940

In the first days of the fighting during the meeting with the Finnish tanks operated as follows: initially fired from machine guns obstacles and shelters nearby obstacles, and then done the aisles with the bomb squad. Somewhere granite dragon's teeth shattered armor-piercing projectiles, but there were occasions when the tankers out of the cars and crowbars manually done the passages in the concrete dragon's teeth.

20th Panzer languid team played in t
he breakout "Mannerheim Line" more active, if not decisive. This team thanks to an experienced and energetic management has been prepared for combat operations better than other parts of the tank. Its commanders could organize a good coordination with other branches of the military. The interaction of tanks with artillery and infantry carried way to align command Fri tank, artillery and infantry commanders. Checkpoint installed additional receivers tuned to the frequency of tank radios. This method gave positive results, as able to react to the application of tankers on the oppression of the enemy artillery fire, and the command was aware of the combat situation. To control the tanks during the battle, the units used intensively radio. The negotiations were carried out using conventional signals coded table consisting of frequently used phrases in battle and the notation (for example, the tanks were called stallions, infantry — rifles, fuel and water, etc.). Excellent has been established and the supply team: tank battalions, for several days while in combat, had no interruptions in the delivery of all necessary, regardless of the congestion in the rear.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

Tanks before attacking. The Karelian Isthmus, February 1940

In the course of the fighting on the Karelian Isthmus, the T-28 tanks were used in the full sense of its intended purpose to support the troops at the break very entrenched positions. And despite the fact that these machines are designed for the requirements of the beginning of the 1930s, they found themselves in the best possible way. T-28 were superior to T-26 and BT on the cross at the second gear moved freely through the snow depth of 80 — 90 cm, better overcome ditches, scarps and other obstacles. But for all that, with thicker armor (again, as compared with the T-26 and BT), they were vulnerable to fire 40-mm anti-tank cannon "Bofors", was in service with the Finns (fortunately, these guns have had their insignificant). Fighting in Finland showed that the T-28 is a reliable and maintainable machine, despite the formidable geographic and climatic conditions of operation, artillery shelling and minefields.

In the experience of the war there was a question on increasing protection of tanks. The solution was found normal and trivial: escape fighting vehicles, in other words, the main armor welded extra armor plates. This work began with the January 1, 1940. First screened 16 vehicles planned to send to the front of the 16 of February. But they went into the army only 10 days of later when all this was part of their screening: an additional 25 30-mm armor protects only the tower and the frontal part of the body. Overall, the Kirov plant produced complete and partial screening of 103 tanks T-28.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

Victim "Winter War" … On the heat of battle show completely feathered bullets and shrapnel tree branches.

Since the beginning of the formation of a Red Army mechanized corps in summer 1940 and the transition of Tank-Automotive troops on the latest company all armored brigades evenly disbanded and their personnel and real part acted on the staffing of new armored divisions. No exception, and languid tank brigades. Thus, based on the 20 th Red heaviest armored brigade, for example, was formed 1st Red Banner Tank Division of the 1st Mechanized Corps. However, by the beginning of the war Russian majestically quite a large number of T-28 sought repair, so that the creation of spare parts was discontinued in June 1940, and in store previously released almost completely exhausted, repair combat vehicles was nothing. For example, a report on the progress of the 5 th Panzer Division on August 4, 1940 said: "The Middle of the T-28 came 30 pieces, 23 of them require the average repair. Spare parts for them not at all. "

In the end, of the troops stationed formally be considered combat-ready 292 T-28 tank, but it is unclear how many of them sought troop repair substitution rollers, trucks, BATT, etc. Given a chronic lack of spare parts T-28, would not be an exaggeration to say one hundred percent working order and combat-ready around 170 — 200 cars.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The T-28 with an experienced 76-mm cannon F-2 March 1939

In addition, it should be noted that the tanks with a gun CT-28 is not suited to deal with enemy tanks, and could be used only to support the infantry. No. T-28 that were specifically tank divisions mechanized shells was significantly less than their full amount in the military area. Other machines, apparently, were stored in warehouses.

First clashed with the Germans T-28 tanks of the 5th Armored Division, stationed in the Lithuanian town of Alytus. The division, once on June 19 derived from a military town, took up defensive positions on the eastern outskirts of the town on the right bank of the Neman River. Therefore, when the 22 June 1941 at 4.20 am German aircraft began to bombard the parks division, there was nobody. Right behind these tanks and infantry of the 39th Motorized Corps Wehrmacht began to cross the Niemen by two bridges, but here they were met by artillery fire and counterattacks Russian tanks. During the battle for the bridge acted heroically personnel of the 1st Battalion, 9th Tank Regiment. In its structure there were 24 T-28 tank. Fire from the attack they supported the BT-7 tanks of the 2nd Battalion. Movement of German units across the north bridge was suspended. Exclusively at 7.00 on June 23, when a new enemy units, also because of a lack of ammunition, parts of the 5th Panzer moved. During the day the battle of the 9th tank Regiment lost 16 T-28 on the battlefield, while others have failed for technical reasons and were undermined by crews.

Tanks T-28, are in stock at Minsk, were captured by the Germans in the first days of a war. Only one machine, D.Malko controlled sergeant, June 29, at the maximum speed raced through the streets of the capital of Belarus, ramming enemy cars and trucks. The tank went through the city and was hit on its eastern edge. Malko was wounded, but was able to leave the tank and get to his. After the war D.Malko for this fight was awarded the Russian War I level.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

Left crews defective "dvadtsatvosmye" 5th Panzer Division. District of Alytus, Lithuania, June 1941

On the south-western front T-28 4th and 15th Mechanized Corps went into battle 23 — June 24. But a strong depreciation of combat vehicles and lack of spare parts is not allowed full use of their fighting properties.

Here it is interesting to bring memoirs A. Burda, company commander of the T-28:

July 14 at the Battle of Beliaovkoy we stormed and killed a column of the enemy, who broke through to the white church, accompanied by 15 tanks. Me and my turret gunner Vasya Storozenko sixteen missiles destroyed a German tank, four cars and a truck with ammunition with a gun …

Tensions mounted by the hour. The Nazis were well aware that we ryschem here, and on the borders of our possible occurrence of exposed tank and artillery barriers. And in this environment, we still inflict a flank attack. Everything was done in a hurry: time for a serious intelligence is not enough. Litsezreem, anti-tank artillery pounding. Senior Lieutenant Sokolov with 3 tanks rushed to put her down, and before our eyes all three tanks were burned …

At this time, we began to get a large force Nazis. We were given the order to retreat. I'm with a group of 6 tanks were entrusted cover the withdrawal of the division: she had to concentrate in a new area. We were fighting from ambush …

We performed a combat puzzle, and here began the most difficult: ammunition and fuel to the finals, and the order to change positions as yet. Depart without an order and can not wage war is nothing. In addition, state battle technology vile motors have tested what they should be. In the 1st tank failed starter — he is put only on the motor movement when you pull the car in tow. And if the stall under fire, what then?

We took refuge in a fishing line, camouflaged, waiting for a coherent of command. And here is the failure, the Germans. There are many. And divide the bivouac 30 meters from our tanks. We are quietly waiting, watching, listening. The Nazis lit fires, mudslides dinner, went to bed later, leaving time. It's midnight … Hour of the night … Coherent is not. It was scary. Suddenly I heard something rustling. Shopped creeps people without caps. Whisper:
-Who such?
-I. .. Lieutenant Perdzhanyan, with the order. He had a rifle in one hand, the whole hung with grenades. I knew him very well.
-Ordered to withdraw. That's the route …

Well, it did, as agreed. Beat with a grenade in the direction of the Nazis, all the engines roared, malfunctioning machine yanked, she immediately started up. We give mad fire on piles of sleeping Nazis, in their guns, trucks. In their panic, rushing around the fires. A lot of us have put them there. Broke …

Braked, not a machine-read. What is it? Neuzh then died? Took the rifle and ran down the road with Perdzhanyanom see what happened. We look, blackens our T-28.
-His work — recognize the voice of the driver Czerny-Marchenko.
-What is it?
-Machine odd jobs, clutch does not take. And there is still the stone fell between the drive wheel and caterpillar lashes, it has thrown off inside. Now the caterpillar does not wear …

What to do? Enemy kilometer, is about to rush us to catch up with the Germans. Do not pull the car into a skid. With a heavy heart make the decision to undermine the tank. The commander of the tank was a hood — excellent, brave tank commander. I order him
-Take bandages dipped gasoline, light and cast it into the tank with fuel.

Though wish him the car, he orders executed immediately, but that setback bandages are off and there was no explosion. Accept the new solution:
-Pelted tank grenades, and we'll cover you!

Hood without hesitation and completed the order. There was an explosion, the car caught fire. We rushed to the tanks and went on.

Find their own, have reported on a combat mission commanders, were thanked. From there Pogrebische reached without fighting. That was July 18. There have handed over their car and headed to the formation to the rear. "

Towered tanks of the Red Army

For Leningrad! Winter 1942

According to the documents, just a little longer operated the T-28 1st Mechanized Corps, which was part of the North-Western Front. This was explained in-1's, the presence in the body is more shielded tanks, past repair in 1940, and in-2, the proximity (in comparison with other fronts) Kirov plant, capable of rapidly and perfectly repair warped machines.

Autumn — winter 1941, a small number of T-28 took part in the Battle of Moscow.

Significantly it is clear that at least one car, were on the number of polygons in NIBT Kubinka was lost in combat in October 1941. In February 1942, after the Russian counter-offensive that tank was evacuated to the rear for repair.

Included T-28 and a part of the 150th Tank Brigade (3rd Army). On 19 November 1941 it had 10 T-28 (there was only one militant, the other sought for repairs), 4 T-34, BT 19, and 15 T-26. By February 26, 1942 two cars were lost, and by 3 April the brigade was considered only one T-28 (not to go), and seven were sent to the rear for repair.

By the spring of 1942, T-28 tanks were exclusively in the parts of the Leningrad front. In the conditions of the blockade and use them as a mobile gun emplacements T-28 were used until 1943, and in the rear units until the spring of 1944.

There were T-28 and as part of the 220th Armored Brigade of the 55th Army, on 27 September 1942 it was registered 8 T-28, 18 KB, 20 T-34, 17 T-26 and T-50 4. For the latest information on the T-28 of the Leningrad Front refer to February 1, 1944, while in the rear units still had 3 cars.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The T-28 tank museum in g.Parola (Finland)

Towered tanks of the Red Army

This tank has a Soviet and Finnish partly screening. The latter include the "cheeks" on the edges of the mask and gun flap broneschitok cutting the driver

But just a little longer in combat units of the Red Army T-28 fought wars in the 14th Army of the Karelian front in the Arctic. In August of 1941 from the remnants of the 1st Armored Division in Allakurti was formed 107th Independent Tank Battalion. By September 1, he had to build three T-28, BT 12, T-26, 5 and 5 LHT-133, while on the reports of command "when using our tanks were given special effect tanks T-28." In 1943, the battalion was reformed in the 90th Tank Regiment, and by July 20, 1944 (the start time of the coming of the Russian troops in Karelia) had in its composition 3 T-28, T-26, 8, 5 T-30, T-1 60 and T-38 3. This is the later (of the documents found in the) reference to the use of the T-28 units of the Red Army in the Russian war majestically.

As for the languid tank T-35, in accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Soviet Union in May 1933, its batch creation was entrusted to the Kharkiv Locomotive Plant named after the Comintern (KhPZ). From October 1933 to June 1939 there have made 61 car of this type.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The T-35-1 trials. August 1932. Perfectly visible folding hatch covers the driver and arrow gun course, also the peepholes in the sides of the main tower.

The T-35 had five cylindrical towers, arranged in two tiers. In the 3 towers — guns and machine guns (one 76 -, two 45-mm cannon and three machine guns DT), a 2— on one machine-guns. Housing — Riveted-welded construction. Since the end of 1938 KhPZ defected to the issue of the T-35 with conical towers, some thicker armor, reinforced suspension and increased capacity fuel tanks. These tanks had increased to 70 mm thickness of the frontal armor and sloping windshield and sheets up to 25 mm — towers and turret armor box. The tank 54 that have gained

First production aircraft T-35 arrived in the 5th heavy tank regiment GDH in Kharkov. In 1935, the regiment was deployed to the 5th languid separate armored brigade, which in March 1939 was transferred into the neighborhood of the Kiev military and relocated to the city of Zhytomyr. Soon she changed her number and became the 14th heaviest tank brigade.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

First serial T-35A on Red Square. May 1, 1934

Already by this time fighting value of these machines has become incomprehensible. The only area where they showed themselves completely, so it's role in military parades. Beginning in 1933, and right up to the start of the war majestically Russian T-35 shows the power of the Red Army on parade in Moscow and Kiev.
In 1940, during the formation of the mechanized corps 48 T-35 tanks were 67th and 68th tank regiments of the 34th Armored Division of the 8th Mechanized Corps. Other tanks were in different military schools and repair.

Military career of T-35 was a very rather short. 21 June 1941 at 24.00 in the regiments of the 34th Armored Division, stationed at the Jagiellonian Grudeke-south-west of Lviv, announced the alarm. Thread the machine and brought to the ground, where he began loading ammunition. In the course of the next fighting all of the T-35 8th Mech Corps were lost, with the majority due to technical reasons. Killed in battle a few tanks.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

The tanks of the 5th Brigade during exercises. At the tactical combat vehicles visible marking

In the Battle of Moscow in the tank regiment of the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization of the Stalin participated two T-35. There was another "combat" the debut of T-35. Now in the movie. We are talking about the documentary film "Battle for Moscow", some episodes of which were filmed near Kazan. They filmed two T-35 armored Kazan approfondies technical staff.

Towered tanks of the Red Army

T-P5 in the tank regiment of the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army named after Joseph Stalin on his way to the front. Moscow, October 22, 1941

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