On the night of 24 March 1986 on the radar screens of the South American cruiser «Yorktown is 70 miles from the Libyan coast, there was a goal. Initially, it codified as a fishing boat, but the commander of the cruiser ordered to continue monitoring. When the distance between the vessels was reduced to 11 miles, the last suddenly earned radar turns off after the second rotation of the antenna. But this was not enough, so to «Yorktown» with SIGINT station systematized goal is a big Libyan Navy missile boat «Ein Zagut» («Ean Zaguit», the last Russian project MRC 1234), who was on patrol 20 miles west of Benghazi. Boat maneuvering at low speed, running lights were not lit, all electronic facilities were off.
South American cruiser immediately fired two missiles Harpoon («Harpoon») — and both of them hit the target. First broke the board a bit above the waterline and exploded in the engine room. Boat lost speed, on-board network has been de-energized. In aboard a hole area of about 20 square meters, through which the water began to flow. After entering the second missile boat appeared strong fire because of unburned fuel and half rocket explosion scattered around the ship. Fire intensified and after 5 minutes enveloped the entire boat. With the stern, he began to sink rapidly and sank in 15 minutes. The whole team lost boats. It was the first case of the introduction of combat missiles «Harpoon», developed by McDonnell Douglas and adopted by the U.S. Navy in 1980.
The Kh-35 (factory index 3M24) is designed to defeat ships with displacement up to 5000 tons. By design it is similar to the American AGM-84 anti-ship missiles Harpoon.
Since the early 1960s, designing anti-ship missiles (ASM) in the USSR was virtually monopolized by VN Chelomey, who headed the OKB-52. In 1959 has been adopted chelomeevsky ship doodlebug M-5. Outside, he really looked like a fighter jet. But, although the title of «doodlebug» perfectly suited Chelomeya products in the USSR in 1959 the term was officially replaced by the phrase «cruise missile.»
Following ship missiles Chelomeya P-6, P-35, «Basalt», «Volcano» and «Granite», in common parlance, were «the grown» P-5 — the larger size and weight. If starting weight P-5 was 5.2 tons, then the «Granite» he exceeded 7 tons. But Americans are not fond of languid missiles — by 1960 they had finished work on the ship’s doodlebug Regulus I and Regulus II.
Almost immediately with the start of work on the «Harpoon» in the suburban town of Kaliningrad in OKB «Star» started designing similar missiles received index X-35. Did our designers about the developments McDonnell Douglas? And if you know, to what extent? One can only guess. By the end of 1977 in OKB «Zvezda» developed technical proposals for the establishment of the missile system «Uran» with anti-ship missile Kh-35, created for use in ship, helicopter and aircraft weapon systems.
Complex tests «Uranus» began in 1983 at the site «Sandy bar» under Theodosius. Preliminary tests consisted of 3 steps. During the first step, conducted missile launches layouts with factory index X-35 (Marine index 3M-24). In addition, the Rockets had another name — the product 78. Layouts were equipped only with autopilot, and start marching engines. During the first step trials (1983 to 1984) from shore launcher located in the village Chernomorsk (battlegrounds landfill), was launched six models, and one «raketomaket» was launched with the support of the sea — a missile boat P-44 project 206MR .
Second step of the test was delayed by as much as five years — from 1985 to 1990 — began restructuring. Layouts Kh-35 this time were fully equipped, also with telemetry, missing only the active radar homing. Total for 5 years was made in the general difficulties 26 starts, with 18 coastal launcher and 8 boats. But were considered successful only half starts.
While the documentation noted that on the 3rd step also launched models, in fact it was the Kh-35 fully equipped, including a of the active radar homing — they run on the target CMS Project in 1784. Even in official environment, there was no consensus on this issue — in some documents launches were called third step preparatory tests, while others — flight tests.
Continued third step over 5 years, from 1992 to 1997. During this period of time was spent four starts — one with coastal launcher and three boats, shooting distance was 40 km. But success was again only 50% — recorded two hits in a target (both at start-up from a boat).
Missile system «Uran» aircraft modification has — aircraft missiles Kh-35U and helicopter X-35B.
Tests missiles in 1992-1997 at the site «Sandy bar» held in indescribably complex criteria. And not because of financial problems. A couple of times «independence supporters» tried to capture the landfill, and when they failed, engaged in periodic sabotage — power blackouts, prohibited missiles schali delivery to the landfill or covered area for aqua shooting. Yet at the end of June 1999 at the site «Sandy bar» began municipal (joint) tests the entire complex «Uranus». First launch was made on 10 September 1999 to target CM-148 (Project 1784) at a distance of 40 km, and it was bad — because of the failure of the control drive missiles at the site stabilization. Second (February 14, 2000 under the same criteria) was counted a success. And the best was the third launch — on target CM-148 at a distance of 120 km (22 March 2000).
But last run — March 30, 2000 — failed. Shot launcher portside boats, further expected reversal missiles at 90 degrees, but do not start the engine department. The next day, March 31, a meeting of the State Commission, in which it was decided to make a break for the analysis of the causes and eliminate defects occurring in the first four starts of state tests. But after the Armed Forces of Ukraine was shot down over the Black Sea Russian Tu-154 flying from Israel, President Kuchma generally forbade any missile firing near Feodosia (as if the X-35 can shoot down the plane!).
With great difficulty at the site «Sandy bar» managed to hold the next launch. March 6, 2001 with the coast in the village Chernomorsk position with combat vehicle DBK «Bal-E» (3K-60) on the target MKSCH rocket was launched X-35 (at the shortest range of 7 km with dovorotom 90 degrees). But the launch was bad — failure onboard control system … Restarting decided to spend a boat project 206MR. But because of the sabotage of the Ukrainian authorities to fulfill it failed. And only the first was held in June 2003 the first rocket launch X-35 second step test municipal, for the first time off the coast of Anapa and not of Feodosia. Shot from a boat at a distance of 7 km, the target was struck by a direct hit.
Total in June made nine starts Kh-35, of which 5 were absolutely successful. All launches were conducted by boat project 206MR target CM project 1784M. But testers complex, well, most «Uranus» very lucky, because at the end of start-ups in a suitable place and at the right time was a huge bosses — Sevastopol just arrived Russian Defense Minister and Commander of the Navy. They, of course, was very pleased to adopt the first Russian (rather than Russian) missile system, which was introduced to pass in the last 12 years. Because the final act of the municipal trial «Uranus» was sent to Moscow July 28, 2003. Soon the ship’s complex «Uranus» was officially adopted it.
The first ship kitted complex «Uranus», became a missile boat P-44 project 206MR, with whom and shot all 20 years. But by the summer of 2000 both launchers complex «Uranus» was transferred to the destroyer «Sharp-witted,» which became the second ship, kitted «Uranus». But in 2002 they were removed from the destroyer and returned to the rocket motor.
The design of the Kh-35
1. Radar homing. 2. Penetrating warhead. 3. System liquidation. 4. Inertial guidance system. 5. Radio altimeter. 6. Intake. 7. Fuel System. 8. Turbofan engine. 9. Managing drive. 10. Tverdotoplivnyy boosters.
Abroad shipborne system had greater success. India has decided to equip the «Uranus» frigates «Godavari» («Godavari») project 16 full displacement 3850 tons, with the first three frigates F-20, F-21 and F-22 were armed with 4 single launchers P -20M (export version «Termite»), and the subsequent four frigates, starting with the F-31, already armed with 4-quad launchers «Uran-E.» In December 1999, the Indian Navy frigate project 16 ‘Delhi’ training made missile firing 4-3M-24E missiles in the Indian Ocean. Shooting was carried out according to its own funds targeting in manual mode at a distance 47 km (two missiles), at a distance of 80 km (one missile), at a distance of 100 km (one missile) for the position of the 2-target marine sea trawler type. All four missiles hit the target.
In addition, the Indians decided to establish a «Uran-E» on corvettes type «Kukri» («Khukri») with a displacement of 1350 tons This first four corvettes built for the project 25 (P-44, P-46, P-47 and P-49) and armed with 2 twin launchers missiles P-20M. And the next four corvettes (P-61 — P-64) was designed by 25A and equipped with 4-quad launchers «Uran-E.»
On the basis of the ship’s complex «Uranus» was created coastal missile system «Bal-E» (3K-60, referred to in the literature index 3M-60). Missile of absolutely similar ship missiles X-35, but different surface portion. The structure of «Bal-E» except rocket propelled includes two command control and communication Fri, four self-propelled launchers (any unit equipped with 8 transport-launch containers with missiles X-35), four transport-handling machines and ground maintenance equipment all machines and coastal missile complex preparation for combat use.
Uranus or Harpoon
So whether inferior rocket «Uranus» South American «Harpoon»? All in all — no, its personal advantages and disadvantages in comparison with South American analogue can be easily recovered using tactical literate. Failure of the «Uranus», as well as many types of naval guns for the last 200 years — the incompetence of Russian admirals, sometimes reaching to the rave — worth at least claim to unify launcher «Uranus» with launcher «Onyx» (alias «Yakhont» ). Not the least role and desire to save, including in the cost of cruise missiles intended for export, the price of their finishing. In the West, both the government and private companies «get out of his pants,» but brought «turnkey» wing-latye rocket and then sell them to customers. If all this is not covered by the price development of the first, and of the following parties sold missiles.
Comparable tactical and technical data of the RK «Uranus» and «Harpoon»
«Uranus». Length of 4.4 m, the largest diameter of housing 420 mm, launch mass shipborne 520 kg, the maximum effective range of 130 km, warhead weight 145 kg.
«Harpoon». Length of 3.8 m, the largest diameter of the housing 340 mm, launch mass shipborne 520 kg, the maximum effective range of 120 km, warhead weight 227 kg.
Creator Alexander Shirokorad