For a small period, China has gone from the buyer to the manufacturer and exporter of armored vehicles
Armored vehicles appeared on the Chinese countryside in the first half of the XX century. In a string of civilian wars and interventions that succeeded each other, tanks far not played a central role, yet this armament was given considerable attention here. In the 50 years running the country decided to move from the procurement of armored vehicles to its production. Advances in this field have allowed China already in the 80s not only to meet their own needs, and deliver their products over the limit.
Tanks appeared in China in the 20s of last century, when Manchu dutszyun (military governor) Zhang Zuolin acquired in France 36 light tanks FT-17. First 10 tanks were sent in English steamer under the guise of agricultural tractors. Another four arrived in November 1925 in the port of New Chang. They were used in the fight between the army and the Manchurian army dutszyunya Wu Pei-fu.
Meanwhile Nanking Kuomintang government decided to buy tanks for its army. In 1929, it ordered 24 Vickers Carden Loyd wedgies and in May the first 12 arrived in China. They were sent to Suzhou and waged war on Lunghayskom front. In 1938, procurement of armored vehicles have caught more ambitious temper. Through the German military objective was purchased 10 light tanks Pz. I Ausf. A and 30 armored cars. In Italy, they have bought 20 whippets CV 33, and in England, the company Vickers — 16 tanks Vickers Mk. E, and then in addition to four more tanks, but equipped with radios, — Vickers Mk. Together with F. Vickers Mk. E arrived in China and 33 amphibian Vickers Carden Loyd Model 1931.
March 1, 1938 was signed commercial contract between the USSR and the government of Chiang Kai-shek. Russian government gave China a currency credit for the purchase of a Russian military Union and other materials. Was acquired in the midst and 87 T-26 standard in 1933. In the late 30’s in the process of heavy fighting with the Japanese all this military equipment in the main has been lost.
Revival of Chinese armored troops began only in 1943, when the United States decided to form the Provisional Tank Group (Provisional tank Group) from the remnants of Chinese armored forces in India. Originally it included and South American tank crews, but over time they changed the Chinese. Americans also taken full tech support newly formed division. The group was armed with tanks manufactured in the USA, taken from British stores in India. Time in service tank group were priemuschestvenno M4A4 Sherman medium tanks and light M3A3 Stuart, also a small number of British armored vehicles Bren Carrier and American half-track armored personnel carriers. The group took an active role in the fighting against the Japanese in Burma in 1944. Later Temporary tank group became the nucleus of the armed forces of Chiang Kai-shek, who waged war with the Communists of Mao Zedong during the civilian war in China in 1946-1949, respectively. Incidentally, the People’s Liberation Army of China, led by Mao Zedong, has received from the Russian Union of the entire Japanese armored vehicles captured from the Kwantung Army in 1945. After the Communist victory in civilian war and the founding of the People’s Republic from the USSR began to supply armored Russian production — T-34-85 and IS-2. By self-production of armored vehicles in China started in the second half of the 50s.
Chinese firstborn of tank
Became the first Chinese tank average Ture 59 (WZ120). It ran from 1957 th at the municipal plant number 617 in the town of Baotou (Inner Mongolia) in Russian technical documentation. Later creation was deployed for another 2-factories in Inner Mongolia and Shanghai. Volumes of its release were first 70 500-700 units per year in 1979 — 1000, in 1980 — 500, in 1981 — 600, in 1982 -1200, in 1983 — 1500 — 1,700. Ture 59 is similar in design Russian tank T-54A. Serial production was carried out from 1957 to 1987 (after 1980 — the main export). During this period of time was about 10 thousand units.
Traditional tank assembly with front office management arrangement, medium — and fighting back — the engine compartment. The driver is located on the left front, gunner and commander are sitting in the tower left of the gun, and charging — right. Tank shell — welded tower — with weld-cast hemispherical roof.
The tower is set 100-mm rifled gun «59» (Genuine Russian D-10TG), stabilized in the vertical plane. It has an ejector for purging the bore after firing. Vertical guidance angles range from -40 to +170. For firing the gun used articulated telescopic sight with a variable 3.5 — and 7-fold increase, representing a copy of the Russian TS-2A-22. Ammunition consists of 34 unitary shots, 20 of which are in the rack installation right from the driver’s seat, and 14 — in the fighting compartment. All munitions are copies of Russian 100-mm unitary shots. Right from the gun mounted 7.62-mm machine gun «59T» (Russian SGMT licensed copy), once such a machine gun mounted in the aggressive front hull. On the roof of the tower, on the turret hatch loader installed 12.7 mm anti-aircraft gun, «54» — a copy DShKM.
In MTO diesel tank located 12150L engine capacity of 520 horsepower — a copy of the Russian B-54. Manual also a similar design absolutely set on the T-54A. Chassis for a board consists of five rollers, leading and guiding the wheels. Personal torsion suspension. Ture tank tracks 59 are not taken in the T-54A and the T-55 — they are lighter and more technologically in production.
First production version was produced from 1957 to 1961. On removable modifications Toure 59-I (WZ120A) were installed two-plane stabilizer arms, active night vision devices. In gun ammunition «69-II» (Russian analogue D-10T2S) introduced feathered armor-piercing projectiles AR100-2 with extended core developed by NORINCO (North Industries Corporation). First, the 80 began to be fitted rubberized side skirts, smoke grenade launchers, laser rangefinders Toure Toure 82 and 83-II of the Chinese company CELEC and ordinary analog ballistic computer. All necessary data were entered into the computer manually by using the control keypad. Laser range finder mounted on a mask over the gun barrel gun. To the level of «59-I» all tanks were upgraded Toure 59, who were armed with PLA.
Tanks Ture 59-II (WZ120B) changed weapons, setting a 105-mm rifled gun Type 81 with insulating cover. This gun is a copy of the U.S. M68 tank gun made in Israel. It has a significant advantage in shooting accuracy and power of the shot before the 100-mm gun. Loophole tower and internal hardware assembly also similar weight and size properties have allowed guns to install it in the tank without significant alterations. Stabilizer arms was such as to «59-I». For a new company implements NORINSO made feathered BPS overpriced armor penetration. BPS 105 mm with a core of uranium alloy can penetrate 150 mm armor at a distance of 2500 meters at an angle of 60 °. In the ammunition tank includes high-explosive shells and cumulative produced by Israeli technology. Ammunition as y ’59-I », consists of 44 rounds. In 1984, gun supplied insulating cover of duralumin alloy. Tank received pyatisektsionny rubberized screens, laser rangefinder in the commander’s cupola and bespodsvetochnym night vision devices, delivered to China by the British company MEL. This modification has received index Ture 59-IIA.
In an effort to maintain the combat capability of tanks Ture 59 on applicable level, China had a deep modernization of tanks Ture 59-II, designed to increase survivability by equipping dynamic protection and growth of the combat effectiveness of the improved method of installing the OMS and other related parts. In their combat traits tank, designated Ture 59-IID (WZ120C), approximately corresponds to the Russian T-55AMV. Dynamic protection (referred to as FY) tank «59D» is a box-shaped containers with plastic explosives, which are mounted on the upper front part of the housing (13 units) and on the cheeks of the tower (15 pieces, three of which have a triangular shape). Installed brand new 105-mm gun «83A.» In MSA includes new combined (day / night) passive commander and gunner sights, auxiliary telescopic sight, integrated laser rangefinder, an improved two-plane stabilizer arms, ballistic computer. Instead periscope Gunner can also be set by the imager. The sides of the tower is a four smoke grenade, and its aft — basket property crew. Tank resettled laying system (TDA). In the MTO set boosted to 580 horsepower (growth by supplying fuel and compression) 12-cylinder diesel 12150L7. Road speed — 50 miles per hour on the road — to 25 in store range — 440 km, extra fuel tanks — 600. Track used rubber mount, shaft torsion bars strengthened. A brand new radio station set-220A with a range of 16 km acts. Tanks Type 59-IID1 (WZ120C1) armed with 105-mm gun, «79» aluminum-composite heat-insulating casing. Maybe the introduction of anti-tank with the greatest range of up to 5.2 kilometers and up to 700 mm armor penetration. Shooting ATGM conducted through gun barrel as on Russian tanks. Also typical ground targets missile can hit low-flying helicopters. May be that the development is carried out tank guided missiles with Israel. Already carried out such tests demo ATGM, with all this at a distance of 4.8 kilometers was struck remotely-controlled self-propelled target. Not ruled out the purchase of Russian-made tank missiles 9M117 «Bastion».
In the late 60s the company NORINCO was developed main battle tank Ture 69 (WZ121). It was a modernized version of the Tour 59. Envisaged only the introduction of Chinese technology and devices. First 70 factory number 617 in Baotou started serial production of new tanks. But his finishing was slowly and directly to the creation of the 80 produced in moderate quantities. The first time the tank was shown at a military parade in Shanghai in September 1982.
The export version
Ture carried 69 tanks in the main export. Adopted PLA received little comparable military vehicles. First foreign customer was Iraq, has bought several hundred tanks since 1983. And all the Gulf countries for 3 years (1984-1987) was delivered, according to various estimates, from 1800 to 2500 units of this type, most of which — in Iraq. First of 1987 Thailand ordered a huge batch of Chinese military equipment, including 50 Ture 69. First machines have been supplied from Thailand Imperial Army back in 1988, when they got all this local designation Type 30 MBT. Acquired a certain amount of Sri Lanka. In 1998, 232 tanks arrived in Bangladesh.
Pakistan in the 80s also acquired 250 Ture 69, and in 1993 started their licensed production in the factory office Heavy Industries Taxila (part of nodes for all that was imported from China). Pakistani tanks production received the title of Type 69-IIMP.
The design of the hull and turret, engine and transmission, and many other components and assemblies, namely machine-gun armament, crew hatches, etc., compared with 59 Ture not have undergone virtually no configurations. The main difference are the improvements made to the fire control system and cannons. The tank is armed with the latest 100-mm smoothbore gun, «69», developed in the PRC based on rifled gun «59» and study Russian 115-mm gun 5TC U-T-62 tank, captured by the Chinese during the Sino-Soviet conflict in the island in 1968. The new gun has a very long barrel and ejector unique design shifted closer to the middle of the barrel. In the ammunition (44 shots) includes unitary shots with feathered missiles: high-explosive/fragmentation, cumulative kinetic energy ammunition and ready submunitions. Effective firing range — up to 1000 meters. Shots are in stacking in the fighting compartment and the driving compartment.
Ture on the tank 69 is a two-plane stabilizer arms, allowing to deliver fire from a course. Designed by Russian technology using elemental base for lamps, stabilizer already at the time of the creation of significantly inferior to its characteristics zabugornye vivid. In OMS tank comes laser rangefinder Ture 82 («Yantszhu») of the Chinese company CELEC, mounted in the box housing a mask over the gun. It allows you to determine the range within the limits of 300-3000 meters up to 10 meters. Analog ballistic computer machine receives information about the range, also has inclination sensors gun trunnions and its elevation (declination). These outside air temperature and the temperature of the charge is entered manually. The machine is equipped with night vision devices active type, copied from the Russian. New gunner periscope sight, mounted on the place where tanks «59» was the viewing device has day and night feeds.
Tank resettled radio station «889» with a communication range of up to 25 km and TPU «883», made by Russian standard, automatic fire suppression system, controlled from the crew compartment and the TDA.
Round 69-I got an advanced infrared equipment and collective NBC protection system, Type 69-II — 100-mm rifled gun, «59-II», an improved fire control system ISFCS-212 (Image-Stabilised Fire Control System), developed by NORINCO. In MSA includes stabilized gunner’s sight TGS-A, observation and sighting device commander, electric ballistic computer, the system disk imaging sensor input (lateral wind velocity, air temperature, gun trunnion axis tilt), laser range finder, two-plane gun stabilizer and control unit. Mounted above the barrel cannon laser rangefinder TLR1A made based on neodymium. The tank gunner night sight. For illumination purposes is IR illuminator. The fire control system ISFCS-212 provides defeat motionless and moving purposes as funny day and NIGHT MODE first shot with a probability of 50-55 percent. With all this typical target affected by fire from a tank gun in less than 6 seconds. The tank was installed automatic fire suppression system and pyatisektsionny protivokumulyativnymi side screens.
Tank Type 79 (WZ121D) is a deep modernization of the tank Type 69-II. Initially, he was designated Type 69-III. Installed 105-mm gun Type 83 (L7A3), Curb ejector and a thermal jacket, stabilized in 2-planes guidance. In ammunition includes unitary shots with shells of several types. All types of shots performed in China under license. Also developed a kind of shots burns sleeves. Firing guns — up to 10 shots per minute. MSA ISCFS-212 (Type 37A), which includes a laser rangefinder and ballistic computer with wind sensors, the angle of the cannon, axis angle pins, air temperature and charge. Data from the sensors are input into the computer manually. MSA is designed to help professionals in the British firm Marconi. The gunner has a periscope sight-independent stabilization of the field of view, single-day channel growth and passive night vision channel on the second-generation image intensifier. A similar two-channel scope mounted commander. Compared to the Type 69 slightly modified form of the tower, set Quadruple 76mm smoke grenade launchers and boxes of spare parts. Withdrawn exchange machine gun. Arranged side screens, used caterpillar with RLL. As the power plant installed on the tank V-shaped 12-cylinder diesel engine liquid cooling capacity of 12150L-7BW 730 horsepower at 2000 rpm / min. Manual transmission, the construction of such a box Type 59. Tank Combat weight — 37.5 tons, maximum speed — 50 miles per hour. Was around 800 Type 79 (according to other sources — 519).
It must be emphasized that the PLA adopted before the end of the 80’s came about 200 tanks and 69 Type 400-500 Type 79.