What is it?
Food allergy is a type of alimentary intolerances. At the heart of its development are the immunological mechanisms that remain not yet fully deciphered. It is a food allergy has a huge impact on the formation and subsequent development all allergic diseases in children. It can be a cause of acute conditions such as anaphylactic shock, severe bronchial obstruction (ileus), allergic vasculitis, and can also support and chronic recurrent upper respiratory tract lesions, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, nervous and cardiovascular system.
What if this happens?
Externally, a food allergy can manifest itself in different ways. At the use of some type of food a person in a few minutes occur: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, followed by diarrhea, itchy skin, rashes abundant throughout the body, swelling of the lips. In children, food allergy often manifests itself in the form of a diathesis.
Among the main factors involved in the development of food allergy traditionally referred to as follows:
- a genetic predisposition to the development of allergic diseases,
- delivery of antibodies in the body in utero and through breast milk,
- short duration of breastfeeding,
- the nature of the allergen, the dose, frequency of administration,
- the child's age at first contact with the allergen,
- increased permeability of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract,
- reduction of local immunity of the intestine,
- changes in the composition of the intestinal microflora.
The most common and powerful allergens include cow's milk, which becomes a cause of food allergy in 90% of children. Allergy to cow's milk usually develops in children in the first year of life, usually after the transfer of the child to bottle-feeding with formula milk.
The second most important allergen proteins are considered fish. According to the study, nearly all children (98%) with food allergies are allergic to fish. In 10% of the people there was intolerance to certain types of fish. Possible reactions to eggs, shrimp, crabs, lobsters, oysters and other shellfish. Found that the degree of sensitization (sensitivity) of the fish does not decrease with age and stored in adults.
In 87.2% of children with allergies, allergy causing proteins of the egg. It is often intolerant of egg protein is combined with intolerance to chicken and broth. Allergenic properties yolk expressed to a lesser extent than the protein.
From the cereals are most allergenic rye and wheat. It expressed allergens include a variety of vegetables, fruits and berries.
Allergic reaction to the reception of yogurt, rich products, kvass and other products, which were used during the preparation of fungi were observed in 22% of children exposed to such manifestations. To avoid this sort of allergy, should be excluded from the diet, certain cheeses, spices, vinegar, fortified milk, yogurt, milk drinks with added malt, yogurt, bread from wheat, rye crackers, sauerkraut, tomato sauce, dried fruit, beer, beer yeast, sausage, ham for breakfast, as well as some medicines — vitamins and antibiotics of fungal origin (penicillin, lincomycin, tetracycline).
In general, the degree of allergenic activity, there are three food groups:
- High: Cow's milk, fish, eggs, citrus fruits, nuts, honey, mushrooms, chicken, strawberries, raspberries, strawberries, pineapple, melon, persimmon, pomegranate, black currant, blackberry, chocolate, coffee, cocoa, mustard, tomatoes, carrots, beets, celery, wheat, rye, grapes, etc.
- The average: Peaches, apricots, red currants, cranberries, rice, corn, buckwheat, green peppers, potatoes, peas, pork, turkey, rabbit, etc.
- Weak: Zucchini, squash, turnips, pumpkin (light colors), sour-sweet apples, bananas, almonds, white currants, gooseberries, plums, plums, watermelon, lettuce, horse meat, lamb, etc.
Sometimes no cause allergic foodstuff itself and the different food additives: coloring agents, flavoring agents, emulsifiers or preservatives. Furthermore, most people with a food allergy exists reaction not only for food but also to other allergens thus recently doctors attach great importance to the development of cross-reactions between the food and non-food allergens. Knowledge of possible cross-reactions helps, ultimately, to draw up a diet and thus avoid the development of allergies.