The terrible natural phenomenon El Nino, because of which, in many parts of the world are catastrophic climate change in recent years, they write a lot. Droughts, floods and storms caused by this mysterious phenomenon, brought many disasters to several countries in the late XX century, and ten years ago, scientists were able to establish that El Nino in the past not only greatly influenced the development of ancient civilizations, but also caused the death of some of them.
When the climate is going crazy
Many, of course, heard of El Niño, but not everyone knows what a is a dangerous phenomenon that periodically brings untold suffering to many countries of the world. The fact is that, have not been identified by scientists of reasons, a fairly stable world system of winds and ocean currents sometimes fails. This changes the direction of the winds, and the huge mass of water begin to move along the Pacific coast of South America. Sea surface temperature in the coastal zone is increased by 6-10 ° C. This is the El Niño.
This fault does not pass without catastrophic consequences for the climate in several countries: in some starts prolonged drought, others suffer from the endless rain, causing flooding. El Niño appears in an area of millions of square kilometers — from Australia to Chile. On average for the disastrous consequences of El Niño occurs every ten years. There is also the phenomenon, the opposite of El Niño, it is called — La Nina, its manifestation is characterized by an abnormal decrease in the surface temperature of the water in the east Pacific. With La Nina in Indochina, India and Australia, there was strong rain, and the Caribbean and the U.S., by contrast, suffer from droughts and tornadoes. Almost El Niño affects the climate in all countries, but most of it goes to America, especially in Central and South. Suffice it to recall that in 1982 due to the El Niño phenomenon in the north of Peru, rainfall was 30 times more than normal, leading to flooding and famine. In 1997, floods in the same country, 300 people were killed and 250,000 were left homeless. As the scientists, during the El Niño significantly influenced the development of ancient civilizations in South America and even became the culprit of their disappearance.
Clams — an indicator of climate change
The Indians, who lived on the coast of northern Peru, the construction of the huge temple complexes about 5800 years ago. The construction of these facilities went about three thousand years, but 2,800 years ago, ancient temples and villages suddenly emptied. Only a few hundred years here again, new town, but they have not looked like the previous and were clearly different culture.
So what happened? The answer to this question, researchers found in … ancient garbage heaps. Proof of the fatal role of El Niño provided mollusk shells, which the ancient Peruvians ate. "We used the extinction of some species of mollusks in the garbage and the appearance of the other as an indicator of climate variability", — says Daniel Sandveys, American archaeologist from the University of Maine. The fact that the clams are really good indicators of climate change because they are very sensitive to temperature changes of water. Observations like clams in our time have shown that when an El Niño one species of these inhabitants of the coastal ocean waters is shifted to the south of Peru, and the other very quickly dies when the water temperature rises. Studying the shells of mollusks, the researchers found that 5,800 years ago, and in more ancient times of El Niño are very rare, but in the range of 5800-2800 years ago, this natural phenomenon began to occur more often and bore it all with great destruction.
Human sacrifices to end the flood
Scientists are still scratching their heads over the mystery of the disappearance of the Olmec civilization, who lived in what is now Mexico B XIV-III centuries BC Sometime after 400 BC Olmecs suddenly stopped construction of its monumental buildings, buried the giant stone heads and seemed to dissolve in the surrounding of the swamps. Maybe the reason for the loss of their culture began to El Nino?
Possible that the wily El Nino did not spare the urine culture, which originated around the year 100 BC on the northern coast of Peru. Indians urine erected monumental buildings of sun-dried bricks of raw. This civilization is well known to scientists for its original ceramic and gold products. Examining one of the pyramids near Trujillo, built by Indians urine, they found next to her a hundred skeletons buried under several layers of silt, which indicated severe floods. Obviously, the skeletons belonged to the victims, with which the Indians were trying to stop the next flood, which they regaled El Niño.
The drought has led to cannibalism …
When in some parts of the world due to El Nino and La Nina are a real flood, others not a drop of rain falls. Severe droughts from time to time, and fell upon North America. One of these climate disasters are likely to lead to the death of the Anasazi Indian culture.
The ruins of the Anasazi settlements can now be seen in the southwest Colorado. Despite the fact that the Indians were the home of stone and is clearly built for the ages, the Anasazi around 1150-1200 years BC for some reason they left. In the study of the remains of American Indians was a terrible discovery: many of them were just eaten …
It turned out that in the period of disappearance Anasazi culture flourished in their territory cannibalism. Scientists believe that cannibalism was caused by severe drought, which were rounded up from their homes neighboring tribes. Driven by hunger, they invaded the Anasazi, but have not found any other food, except the owners of stone houses. About half of all suspected cases of cannibalism scientists refer to 1150. By 1200 the drought ended, along with her disappeared and cannibalism. In 2007, scientists at the German National Centre for Geosciences have made a sensational statement that the death of the two civilizations — the Maya in Central America and the Chinese Tang Dynasty — blame El Niño. Although these civilizations are located in different parts of the earth, they died almost simultaneously due to a severe drought in the late IX-X century AD Victims of climate cataclysm, probably could have become the first European settlers in North America, who landed in 1585 on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. The settlers disappeared, and for a long time no one knew what happened to them could happen. However, through the study of tree rings was found that in the years 1587-1589 in the area of severe drought ravaged the colony. Obviously, because of hunger colonists were forced to leave the village and seek help on another island off the friendly Indians, but they were unlikely to do anything to help them. Recently, El Niño increases the potential for humanity to talk about himself. Scientists are trying to unravel the mystery before the end of this phenomenon. but even if they do, it is unlikely we will be able in the near future to curb the menacing natural phenomenon. It is hoped that with modern technology and assistance of the El Niño will never be able to cause serious damage to human civilization.
"Secrets of the twentieth century"