Folk art in the field of tank development during the Russian majestically. Part I

The obvious truth says — a war engine of progress. And if the war is global and it is attended by all the leading industrial nation in the world, progress, much less moving forward by leaps and pace. Compare, for example, the armor of the second member of the world shortly "before" and immediately "after" of this war. The difference is in sight, even visually. And if you delve into the tactical and technical characteristics, design features, it turns out that we have before us equipment from different ages.

Design offices have worked day and night on all sides of the front. In industrial facilities, and front-line maintenance "briefing" inventors — innovators become not only the designers or engineers, technologists, and ordinary workers and technicians. But in our country the projects of new models of armored vehicles offered not only by those who have the tanks directly or indirectly related. Scientific and technical creativity involved and ordinary citizens. And not only those of them who had a college education. Projects proposed to your attention, in the days of our cause smirk. But it is necessary to laugh at those who tried to make their own contribution to the victory? In addition, it will have a mind-blowing projects. And in the construction of a fully armored real inventors, innovators among the "mere mortals" have brought thousands of needed improvements.

Sharotank Bevolenskogo

The idea of the tank — the ball was popular during the First World War and the interwar period. Tanks in the form of spheres often appear in the pages of favorite technical journals and abroad and in our country. In fairness, it must be stressed that there was a country in which something similar to "sharotank" tried to do in the metal. This is Germany. There, in 1917, the company Bremen Hansa-Lloyd Works made a hybrid between a tank and a tank-ball-wheel. After running tests miracle machine was sent for scrapping. But sharotank since the second World War (better known under the German title Kugelpanzer) even has come to the front, where he became a trophy of our troops. What is it and what does it remained a mystery — no documentation after the war could not be found. At the moment it's a miracle weapon shown in the suburban tank museum in Kubinka. But sharotank offered to your attention, and remained on paper.

German Kugelpantser in the Museum of armored vehicles in Kubinka

Russian project sharotanka

A short explanatory note to the draft of ball-tank chem. SA Benevolensky.

In contrast to the existing tank systems — sharotank has crawler, but a ball of thick armor.
Inside the ball is placed motionless platform, which strengthen the roller bearings on it and placed a powerful tractor engine. Motor operates with a pneumatic tire wheel.
The wheel is rolling inside a ball on his shell and forces the last spin, while the inner area and attached armored towers remain motionless. The towers are located on the sides of the bowl, placed machine guns and cannon. Rotate sharotanka by turning the driving wheel by means of the control of management. Watching lying in front of movement sharotanka terrain by using 2-periscopes, issued through the armored turret and giving the image lying in front location on the special board, which is located in front of the eyes of the driver. Exhaust emissions is done by means of a special air duct, is equally injection into the shell sharotanka freshest air.
To clean the shell sharotanka from mud or snow — behind a panel thereof, which removes adhering while driving gryazyuka and snow. Armor shell sharotanka should be made of steel and anti-tank missiles to be impenetrable.
Dimensions sharotanka be 1.5 m in radius and Bole. Increasing the weight of the tank has no special significance, because it is distributed over the circumference of the shell. To avoid sliding sharotanka on its outer shell has spikes. Also necessary to provide a special braking device.
Sharotank a particularly manoeuvrable and can reach a tremendous speed. By relying on a single point sharotank offers exceptional maneuverability. In case of defeat or a 2-armored towers — sharotank does not go down, it can be defeated only by breaking through the shell, which should be particularly strong. Sharotank can overcome various obstacles anti — anti-tank ditches, tank obstacles, and more. Subject to seal openings — sharotank can cross water obstacles.

S. Benevolensky (signature)
11/27/1942, the
G. Canas

TsAMO RF fund 38. inventory of 11350, the case number 208

Armored cruiser

Armored cruiser

Tanks from the moment of their appearance in the world is often called the "land battleships". The comparison is certainly flattering, but do not forget that the size and displacement of the real battleship may be limited only by the width of a strategically fundamental channel (Panama, for example) or the depth of the raid at the port of registry. If no such restrictions, it can be lowered to the water a huge ship — for example, the Japanese "Yamato" with a total displacement of 72 thousand tons.

But on land battleship build will not work. Not fantastic, but the most ordinary serial languid tanks during the second world cause trouble not only the enemy, and their crews and logistical services — that is not in a suitable location of the bridge strong enough to bear this burden, then there was no railway platforms suitable capacity, Well, supply vessels and equipment commemorated these voracious and whimsical machines unkind words of the soldier's vocabulary. And it's — series cars. In the case of "Battleship" the difficulties are growing for a couple of orders of magnitude. But here's the colonel Osokin offered closer to the reality of the project — not a magnificent battleship, and completely ordinary "cruiser tank." In general, the left-propelled artillery battery weighing 270 tons. The project, by the way, was entirely due to the technical level. But, the only state that during the war tried to embody in a metal super-heavy tank was … yes, you're right, it is once again Germany. And we have had the good sense to refrain from costly tests.

Armored cruiser

Head of the Office of the Chief of the Red Army Tank-Automotive

Copy to: Head of the Military Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (Moscow)

Wanting to assist his beloved homeland in its struggle against the fascist hordes and actions to respond to the orders number 55 and 130 of the People's Commissar of Defence of the USSR Comrade. Stalin, I have developed and bring to your attention project new types of weapons of massive Red Army — "armored cruiser."

11.06.1942, this project was reported to me the chief of department of the Urals Military Tank-Automotive neighborhood Colonel Evdokimov, engineers entrusted to him by the department and the deputy commander of the Air Force Area, Major General Aviation comrade. Sokolov. They are my proposal was recognized and fun in the defense value
, and were made some technical guidance — for the completion of the project.
Colonel Evdokimov, gathering for another day in Moscow, promised to report personally to you about my offer and ask you for calling me to Moscow — for a personal report.

Since then, it took over a month and all I made notes in the project are fulfilled. This is me 02/07/1942, it was reported by telegraph Colonel Evdokimov (UralVO) to speed up my trip to Moscow.

Not having an answer to the telegram, 7/18/42, I wrote to the head of his own — divinzheneru comrade. Andreev, told him his own project and proposals and received permission to appeal in this case in the proper, the higher authorities.

Convinced of the necessity and importance of the proposed bolshennom fighting me "armored cruiser" I believe all impending delay in advancing the project very unnecessary. for this I ask you for the early call me to Moscow, in order to personally report to the project for you, or your designated order of the Commission reputable professionals — engineers and tacticians of armored forces.

Considering its proposal harsh, I have experience with design work, I give to myself, along with that, a full account of the likely difficulties of practical implementation of the project, but firmly believe that these difficulties will be repaid in full combat properties of new cars.

The development of the project "Tank cruiser" I have spent a greater degree of off-duty time over 500 hours and the event also asks bring a case to its logical end.

In the case of an appropriate decision on the project, my practical suggestions related to that, I ask permission to report in person.
At the current time, I am a representative of the Leningrad Aviation and Technical Programs Improvements Air Force named KE Voroshilov (the address: mountains. Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, 2nd dam, PO Box 529). If necessary, on my trip to Moscow please get in touch with Major General Aviation comrade. Ivanov — Head of the University of the Air Force Office of the Head of the Red Army or with his deputies.
When you call ask for your guidance on the issuance of travel documents to me to carry on airlines Magnitogorsk, Sverdlovsk, Moscow, because it 5-7 times will reduce travel time and facilitate the early resolution.

About the decision accepted by you please telegraph inform me at the above office address of courses.

colonel Osokin
July 27, 1942
TsAMO RF fund 38, inventory of 11350, case number 1356, p.4-6.

Winter tank with helical propeller

Winter tank with helical propeller

In winter, in our country, in the deepest snow can get stuck and tracked vehicles. This dilemma and try to solve the engineering technologist B.Beketov. True, one's eye on the project appears logical question — what this miracle of technology to do this summer? And in turn it Minorities in this country other than the road?

USSR People's Commissariat of Ammunition

Experimental Production Office

August 29, 1942 number 224/14

I attach herewith a brief explanatory note to the design of the tank with a helical propeller.

The proposed construction of the "winter of the tank" profitably different from modern tanks and intrigue to the appropriate organization. If intrigued by the respective organizations of the proposed design of the tank technical and work projects will be presented in a few short term with a view to creating a first experimental tank, in real criteria to identify the qualities that are specified in the explanatory memorandum.

For our industry, given the ready design of the tank does not present difficulties. I am deeply convinced of the Advantages of the proposed design of the tank, and so I ask to give an opportunity to make the first experimental tank.

Please tell your judgment on the issues concerned.

Manufacturing Engineer Manufacturing Group SKB SEPB NBC (signature) (B.Beketov)

Rotary Tank

Luxury and unique idea. But imagine, in the horror such a machine would be reincarnated for the crew and repairers is not for you. Well, the cost of such machines do not even dare to count about. But do not think that would be a delight of a cheap.

Rotary Tank

People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR

To me, as an engineer, designer, actually worked quite a long time in the machine-building factories Union as an inventor who gave the new home of many real cars (namely the mining machine for cutting the coal, received the prize at the II All-Union Competition in 1937) as the future of scientific employee (post-graduate student), possessing the supplies healthy Russian resourcefulness, critical approach, theoretical knowledge and practical experience, it is clear that the offer fundamentally the latest car's not all — you need to have the ability to realize it, materialization.
In this case, offering a very schematic project designed rotary tank (or load the creator of the current job), I previously thought over the future of design, I do not see any obstacles to its implementation.
Fundamentally from the proposed project clearly can still create new that distinguishes rotary tank from existing tanks and convey a certain world view of the need for rotary tanks of the Red Army and the capacity of their production.
Extras (Elektrostal advantage of the proximity to Moscow), I can, if necessary, to supplement personally attached a short description (namely on the lining of the armor cap, overcome obstacles tank gyroscope as necessary distinctions vertical axis of the tank, shooting from a tank-gyro, etc. )
In the case of a decision on the need for a fairly detailed sketch or technical design of rotary tank please give me a design engineer (though not special education in the field of tracked vehicles), the opportunity to take part in these studies
Initiative at the service of the inventors of the Red Army!
We'll finish the fascist vermin!

Elektrostal, July 14, 1942
Alekseev VV
The address: Elektrostal, NKMZ im.Stalina, design department.

Short description of the rotary tank on the proposal Alexeev.

As the title indicates, rotary tank called armed and armored combat vehicle, the main feature of which is compared with the existing combat vehicles is that the armor protection of the vehicle, designed as a cap covering the tank, revolves around the vertical axis of the machine at great speeds.

I. Design.

The armor protection of the machine is a circular (in plan) of iron cap 1 (see attached sketch "project fundamentally rotary tank on the proposal Aksenov"), rotating around a vertical axis with significant angular velocities (circumferential speed at the highest speed can reach a radius of the order of 20-50 m / s).
Rational values of the speeds of rotation can be ascertained in the manner of a rather conventional tests.
By rotating the cap and the form is only achieved the highest resistance of armor that can reduce the weight of the armor in comparison with the existing tanks (with equal reliability) every three to four.
visibility of the tank is reached on the principle of the stroboscope by having two windows in the bell.
Despite the small possibility of falling shells in a
rapidly spinning windows, past the inside of the protected motionless ring 3, which has slotted openings in the right places.
fire of machine-gun and tank systems through windows 2, why they are blocked with a rotation mechanism of armor (on the principle of fire "through bolt" as a fighter aircraft).
The armor protection (rotor) is provided at the bottom of the tank radial saw 4 that allows (at various speeds) applied languid damage which came in contact with enemy tanks, tank obstacles and make an incision large trees, destroy enemy personnel.
The least fundamentally questions the design of rotary tank in a short description are not considered.

II. Advantages of rotary tank

1. Only the highest resistance of armor protection with the least weight.
2. Absolute protection from acts of incendiary weapons (bottles of flammable liquid, etc.) and abandoned grenades, which will be dropped rotating cap.
3. Beautiful visibility of the tank.
4. exceptional lateral stability of the tank (the principle of the gyroscope) that protects against damage from ram though how weary the enemy tank and allowing, in turn, more languid ram enemy tanks.
5. Most of the 'dynamic' mass of the tank, allowing to ram at least some enemy tanks.
6. The presence of circular saw with all the ensuing consequences.
7. The high speed of the movement for equal motor power and armor durability in comparison with the existing tanks because of the smallest total weight, because the extra power is going to the rotation of armor protection is comparable low.

III. Shortcomings

1. Complications of a kind design.
2. A certain set of complications firepower (9pulemetov and guns): shooting through windows and transport support (joint) to the output of the barrel.

IV. Area of implementation

Due to the advantages of the designated structures, precluding the need to implement the languid rotary tanks, this tank can be used as a light two-tank (weighing 10-15 tons).
As intended tanks of this type can be used in all possible ways.
greater effect rotary tank should give as a tank-destroyer on a uniformly rough terrain.

TsAMO RF fund 38, inventory of 11350, the case 17

And to finish this sample technical folk art since majestically Russian, I would like here in this project, which is difficult to comment.


The desire to find effective ways of dealing with the Nazi tanks prompted me to write this letter.
If I am mistaken in their ideas, then please take it easy on the letter and did not put me great reproach. If my thoughts are worthy of attention, then please give this letter to the move. It seems to me a very effective means of defeat enemy tanks crew during their attacks on our defensive positions have electronic current-voltage 380-500 volts. Such current voltage according to Ohm's law — I = U / R (where I — current, U — voltage and R — resistance of the conductor) at the time of the passage of the hull of the tank, because of the small resistance (R) is gaining tremendous strength (I), which cause a momentary destruction of people are in the tank.

The validity of this does not cause vibrations. What still puzzles for constructive solutions to transfer to a distance of 100-200 meters of the desired current-voltage, it is also easily, by the principle of throwing a harpoon gun.
In our case, instead of a harpoon to be a shell shaped land mines made of magnetized metal and having contacts on the surface in the form of protruding buttons.
Throwing a projectile made of the trench with three-linear Russian rifles on the principle of throwing hand grenades from a rifle. By the projectile attached insulated wire (for example, two-core PRTO), which serves at once and a current path to the projectile and a means of returning it to the trench after use.
Wire wound on a coil and special ends attached to pins, placed with 2 concentric rings on the outer surface of the 1st drive coil. Before throwing the coil is placed in a machine tool having a liner brush for the current to the coil terminals.
The design of the machine has to be very common, because presented to him only three requirements that must be satisfied: this is to keep the coil at the time of the shot and the flight of the projectile, so freely unwound the wire spool to rotate in a horizontal plane and be transportable.
The machine is connected to a distribution panel which is located immediately at the battery in the trench and connected to a power source via a cable.
The power source must submit themselves movable power station, mounted on a motor vehicle and equipped with current transformers for high voltage.
Power Plant is located in a kind of distance from the trench in the woods and well camouflaged because it is more responsible and vulnerable element of the whole system.
As I see it, this elektrobatareya shall consist of the 1st electrical panel, 2-3 machines, once attached to the flap, and six to nine reels with shells, and a certain number of rounds in the event of their failure.
Serve this battery should be three people: one is charging the rifle to aim and shot, the second coil in the machine lays includes current at the time of the shot, tracks and off the current hit after hit, the third reel in the wire after the use of a projectile.
At the detailed design of parts of electric batteries have ample opportunity to automate all processes, so that the rate of increment it.
Elektrobatareya can operate without additional devices, such as at large, and at close distances. For example, the enemy tank for some reason or broke the trenches and turned on them, then eyeliner current to it is done with the help of contact with the body of the tank projectile embedded in the rifle as for throwing.
If you have the means available to combat tanks to equip each branch has the defending small elektrobatareey, it will be enough to pose a formidable force for the enemy tanks, especially in the first time, the introduction of electric batteries, in other words, until the discovery of their existence.
The use of electric batteries than the physical effects on the enemy tank will have a great moral effect on the enemy infantry, tanks should follow. In addition electric batteries do not require the consumption of explosives and can be used against him as an enemy tanks without cost, time and money to repair their preparation.
Quite evident that the effective application of electric batteries will be temporary in nature, because after discovering the enemy of their existence they will be taken quite common and existing measures, either as isolated parts of the tank, which touches the crew, or as an insulating odezhki for the crew.
But it should involve the following points are crucial. When good deeds during the conspiracy effective electric batteries will last quite a long time.
Very limited ability of Germany on the issue of insulation measures in connection with the drawback of her rubber.
And finally, the need for a sufficiently long period for all the events insulating tanks.
Either way, the enemy will be forced to reduce the scale of operations of the tank, if you do not want to have a massive loss of their own tank, and it is very much needed to halt the advance of him and carefully prepared counter-attack on all fronts.
If the foregoing is worthy, then please tell me at: UFA ul.Gafuri on number 71 ap.6 A.D.RUSSINU

November 20, 1941

TsAMO RF fund 38, inventory of 11355, the case 75, p.34-36

Resolution of the following:
T. Ivanov, give the answer that the crew of the tank current high voltage has no effect

In the forthcoming we will continue to introduce you to the exciting projects of military equipment proposed by ordinary citizens.

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