The article is an attempt to analyze examples of amateurism and personal political engagement taking place in a number of publications, the creators of Azerbaijan on the history of the role of Azerbaijanis in the second world war as a foreign legionnaires Wehrmacht.
More than half a million sons and daughters of Azerbaijan Russian fought on the fronts majestically Russian war. Do not come back from the fights around 250 thousand. The entire population in those years did not exceed 3.5 million people.
The purpose of this article is not detailed and detailed description of the role of Azerbaijanis in Lofty Russian war. This is unrealistic, not only in one article, but even books. The purpose of this article — to draw readers' attention to an issue of importance from the standpoint of collective memory as the basis of state identity of young by historical standards, countries that once were part of the Soviet Union.
Prior to address the issue, noted in the title of this article, I would like to make an important slip of the tongue — the situation in Azerbaijan with the topic palpably different from that in the Baltic countries, Ukraine, Moldova or Georgia. For all 20 years of sovereignty in Azerbaijan and has not appeared neither grave, monument, obelisk, a commemorative plaque or anything else like that, rovnenky personal account, which is relevant to the Azerbaijani legionnaires Wehrmacht. Again the same — thanks to a conscious state policy, which determines the ratio of the country and society to the stateliness Russian war and its results.
But the problem is located and it is expressed in another. As you know, after the collapse of the Russian Union and the ensuing huge social and economic crisis in Azerbaijan, as in other post-Soviet republics, has lowered the level of education in secondary schools and higher education institutions. His work also made the crisis of values, cultural and historical shock, and the ideological vacuum of the first years of independence. Yet, over the last decade among Azerbaijani youth in a meaningful way has increased interest in military history, martial heritage of civilization, and municipal structures, non-governmental organizations and the media are hard at work in the direction of increasing the overall level of military-patriotic upbringing of the young generation.
By the end of 1990 in Azerbaijan, there was a group of researchers, such as Nasiman Yagublu and Mahammad Dzhafarli, the efforts of which were published in several publications on the topic of Azerbaijani foreign players Wehrmacht (1), (2), (3). Taking into account the municipal politics and worked out during the twenty years of sovereignty and the perceived public doctrine for the Lofty Russian war, its outcome, and Veterans and fallen into the ranks of the Red Army of Azerbaijanis, the emergence of the creators of the above publications on the topic of the Wehrmacht Azerbaijani foreign players should not be seen as part of a conscious society sample audit Lofty Russian war stories. Faster is part of the "public order" to restore the memory of military heritage of the people as a whole. As an example, the study (by the way, too, is not devoid of absurdities and inconsistencies) Shamistan Nazirli on the fate of Colonel Velibekov Yadigar (4), a prominent participant in the anti-fascist Resistance Poland occupied by the Third Reich.
In the coming, the efforts of individual journalists in a number of Azerbaijani newspapers at times, though rarely, articles began to appear on the designated topic. These articles priemuschestvenno repelled by the creators of the content of the above books. It is curious that the materials published on the pages of priemuschestvenno Russian press of the country (the newspaper "Echo" (5) "The Mirror" (6)). With age, the topic of the Azerbaijani foreign players Wehrmacht acquired a certain popularity. First among young people interested in military history and martial heritage of Azerbaijanis in the midst of active users of social networks and various network discussion forums.
In judgments often you can meet:
1. Incorrectness of dates, names of people, geographical titles, title and numbering of military units, etc.;
2. Overestimates the Azerbaijani foreign players in the ranks of the Wehrmacht;
3. Specific glorification of Azerbaijani foreign players in the ranks of the Wehrmacht.
Let us first.
First error — incorrect in dates, names of people, geographical titles, names and numbering of military units, etc. This problem is related not only to the issue of Azerbaijani foreign players in the Wehrmacht, and the quality of the above held by the creators of the military-historical research in general. Published materials are almost all artistic and journalistic nature and attempts to harsh research can not be considered. Nasiman Yagublu and Mahammad Dzhafarli, faster, are more journalists than historians, as is evident from their own biographies. Certainly, it can not affect the quality of the research work carried out by them.
Due to a number of inaccuracies in the publications listed above Azerbaijani creators, is now in confusion, as if there was, at least, one Azeri unit, part of the SS. Apparently, the error is due to the fact of the existence of militant groups "Azerbaijan" under the command of a former colonel of the Russian Imperial Army Israfilbeka Mohammed Nabi oglu in the Caucasus connection SS. With all this forgets that the SS was first closed organization, the Order. The main aspect for him was getting into so called "racial purity." Accordingly, all SS fighting units, recruited from foreigners, were divided into:
1. Connections, complete with so-referred to as Volksdeutsche («Volksdeutsche») — only by persons of German nationality, who until September 1, 1939 lived outside of Germany;
2. Connections, complete with representatives of the German peoples of Europe;
3. Compounds staffed by representatives of non-German nationalities.
The first two categories had the highest status. They almost equaled to the famous SS division formed from rayhsdoyche («Reichsdeutsche») — persons of German nationality, who lived until September 1, 1939 on the territory of Germany. In the case of the latter category was assumed that the personnel of these compounds was like in the service of the SS, but not in the SS. As the Russian researcher Oleg Roman'ko (7), according to the rules:
— They were forbidden to wear the collar buttonholes with the SS runic characters (twin lightning);
— For their buttonholes were introduced with special emblems, usually reflecting the historical tradition of the origin or any other form;
— Military ranks of the personnel of these compounds had the prefix "CC" (for example, «SS-Schutze», «SS-Standartenfuhrer» or «SS-Sturmbahnfuhrer»); was used instead of the prefix "Waffen-» («Waffen-») , and in truth, if you read the military rank officers of the SS Caucasian, it is seen that the designated commander of the military rank of battle group "Azerbaijan" Israfilbeka Mohammed Nabi oglu is «Waffen-Standartenfuhrer» (8).
So Makar, the judgment that existed in the Azeri part of the SS — less than nonsense and ignorance of historical facts. In the 3rd Reich treasured German blood, and even the blood of the personnel of the SS units, the elites of the German army, even more so. Battle group "Azerbaijan" in the Caucasus connection SS, particularly in the SS did not come, and has been given the SS, which, of course, has different meanings in the context of the issue (they were in the SS or not). Here's to you and cannon fodder.
Second misconception — the total number of Azerbaijanis in the Wehrmacht. According to research by
the creators of Russian Oleg Roman'ko and Sergey Drobyazko, Azerbaijani legionnaires were part of the 15 reinforced field battalions, the 1st Battalion, in the special connection destination "Highlander» («Sonderverband Bergmann»), 21 march, construction and business companies, 314th Infantry Regiment of the 162nd Infantry Division and the Turkic already mentioned above battle group "Azerbaijan" in the Caucasus connection SS. The total number was about 25 — 35 thousand people (9), (10). Nasiman Yagublu and Mahammad Dzhafarli enroll all 25 — 35 thousand Azerbaijani players in combat units Wehrmacht. Yet, in the regulations German command all units formed from strangers, right differ in accordance with their multi-functional purpose on the following categories:
1. Military personnel support service or Jivi («Hilfswillige»);
2. Auxiliary police rear areas («Hilfspolizei»); matter what instance (military or civilian) subordinate auxiliary police, it was divided into:
— Auxiliary police in the rear areas of the active army («Sicherungsverbande») and
— Auxiliary police order, or noise («Schutzmannschaft der Ordnungspolizei»).
3. Combat units formed from foreigners.
Russian Oleg Roman'ko researchers and Sergei Drobyazko existence of this categorization is clear that they did not once say in its own materials, devoting an impressive part of the organizational structure of the written and the steps of forming the Wehrmacht foreign volunteer units, it can not be seen. According to them, only half of the designated number of 25 — 35 thousand Azerbaijanis people came specifically to combat units Wehrmacht. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the reticence about local researchers and enrollment of all 25 — 35 thousand Azerbaijani foreign players in the Wehrmacht's combat units can not be provided on the form. And the "flick of the wrist" code no peddlers of porridge and shells are converted to "not sparing the life and blood of fighters for independence."
Another important point. In terms presented above figures, it should be remembered that the Azerbaijani connection Wehrmacht were not formed in one day, and their status, structure, and functional subordination to use more than one occasion been the reorganization. That is why a clear number of not only Azerbaijan, and the players in the ranks of the Wehrmacht general, it is difficult to calculate. That's where this error — from 25 to 35 thousand people, and it takes place not only in the case of the Azerbaijanis. So Makar, figure 35 thousand people quickly points to the greatest number of Azerbaijanis past military service in the Wehrmacht during the entire period of the war from 1941 to 1945, taking into account the number of units and the chronology of their formation or dissolution.
The third error — a particular glorification of Azerbaijani foreign players Wehrmacht, which is present in the above Azerbaijani creators. The fact is that among those who were among the foreign legionnaires, the Wehrmacht, were very different people. The vast majority of Azerbaijani foreign players Wehrmacht were former Red Army prisoners of war. There is a saying — "War does not nurse, captivity is not my aunt." According to the memoirs of witnesses (one of the last and best source for me was the book "War is war," Russian researcher Artem Drabkin (11)), there could be met and fallen traitors and those in the service The Wehrmacht cold and hunger drove camps, and people lost. Yes, there were also obsessed with all my heart to resist the idea of Bolshevism. Stalin's regime created many prerequisites for treasonable sentiments in the ranks of the Red Army, is not only in the middle of the representatives of national minorities. But not in the least degree mode raged against specifically Slavic nations — Russian, Ukrainians and Belarusians.
"Why serve the Berlin regime that neither he nor his homeland did nothing wrong — the betrayal, and the capital, which, in contrast, had stolen from their home, destroyed the flower of civilization, were being exploited and raped his land — is heroism? After all, in fact the two regimes for Azerbaijani fighters were foreign, "writes Mahammad Dzhafarli in the introduction to the book by Rustam Alasgarova with a beautiful title" Under its banner: adjutant of his excellency. " From the creator of the book is clear. Rustam Alesgerov — less and more than just the son of his father, a famous Azerbaijani legion Wehrmacht Kerrara Alasgarova, (12) and a German mother. And here at Mameda Dzhafarli prepyadstviya apparently with a conscience, regardless of their own age.
If Azerbaijani Legion Wehrmacht were the heroes, the ones who were then 300 thousand Azerbaijanis Red Army, who did not return from the fields Lofty Russian war? If Abo Dudenginsky (13) fought for the independence of Azerbaijan, for which he then fought the generals Hazi Aslanov (14), Tarlan Aliyarbekov (15), Yaqub Guliyev (16), Heybat Heybatov (17)? Neuzh is expected June 22, 1941, to commemorate the independence? Maybe Guard Sergeant Garay Assad (18), rushing to the German recess, doing it for the sake of "ruthlessly exploiting and raping his land" mode?
Certainly, the Wehrmacht would bring Azerbaijan's independence. Adolf Hitler's plans to develop-independent border state in the South Caucasus were not a secret, there are a lot of research on this subject. But this independence would be granted for as long as enough in order to respond to the cry of a sassy «Kellner!» And ran to bring «Aserbaidschanischer Tee» Armudu in the cup. "When you, my friends, are fighting in the East, you keep the same struggle against the same nedochelovechestva, against the same inferior races that once appeared under the name of Huns, later during the rulers of Henry and Otto the First under the name of the Hungarians, and then under the name of Tatars. Then they came again under the name of Genghis Khan and the Mongols. Now they are called Russian under the political banner of Bolshevism, "read Heinrich Himmler, speaking to the soldiers and officers of the Einsatzgruppen Army Group" North "July 13, 1941 (19). Well, yes. And then it took cannon fodder, well, could not read Himmler Gumilev and Zia Buniyadova (by the way, the Hero of Russian Union) (20).
Fortunately, in Azerbaijan there are people who are able to convey to the public at the expense of sober reasoning of the case for the Azerbaijani legionnaires Wehrmacht. And these are people who are perceived by the scientific community with even more seriously than the creators of the above. For example, known Azerbaijani historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences Eldar Ismailov gives this assessment of personality Abdurrahman Fatalibeyli-Dudenginskogo: "This is a very difficult and controversial figure. I personally as a historian of mind to give him a specific assessment as a fighter for the independence of Azerbaijan "(21).
Irreparable loss of human Azerbaijan during the Russian majestically Russian war at least equal irreparable human losses during the second World War, the Union of Soviet states like France or England. More than half a million sons and daughters of Azerbaijan Russian fought at the front in 1941-1945. NIGHT MODE of days and their families worked in the rear on four shifts a day. Do not come back from the fights around 250 thousand Azerbaijanis. War Young business. War confiscate the best. 250 thousand, "I love you" 250 thousand "Wait for me!" 250 thousand "Dad, tell Mom — I'll definitely be back!". 43 Azerbaijanis were awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Union. Of their 16 — posthumously. The commander of the 35th Guards Tank Brigade, Major-General Hazi Aslanov Red Army was awarded the title twice (22).
Position of Azerbaijan country here is clear. "As for you to understand, in the first years of our independence,
some forces have tried to cancel prazdnichek May 9, the ratio changed to veterans. We now look at it in certain countries. We litsezreem that the ratio of the veterans in some countries unjust. But after his return in 1993, Heydar Aliyev came to power in Azerbaijan, the situation has changed a hundred percent, all of these bad tendencies have been eliminated, and the veterans were treated as they deserve. Justice has been restored, and is now widely celebrated Victory day in Azerbaijan ", said the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev at a regular meeting with the Azerbaijani Russian war veterans majestically, held May 9, 2011 (23). It must be emphasized that such a meeting with the chief of the Russian war veterans majestically traditional. In the country, there remains cautious attitude to monuments, objects, architecture and streets of titles pertaining to the role of Azerbaijan in the Russian majestically Russian war. In large cities like Baku, Sumgait and Ganja, virtually every building, which in 1941 — 1945 were the years evacuation hospitals, maintained appropriate plaques. Almost all have to restore, develop anew, taking into account the current construction boom days. For example, May 9, 2008 after the opening of the reconstruction of the memory of the fallen in the Time of stateliness Russian war in Zira settlement of Khazar district of Baku. "I'll always be with you" — with these words President Ilham Aliyev ended his appeal to the veterans present at the opening ceremony (24). In addition, last year, a personal decision of the head of the country was also renovated and rented for the convenience of the inhabitants of the capital Sabail park named Hero of the Russian Union of Gafur Mammadov (25). Usually perceptible activity in this direction produces the Heydar Aliyev — the last year the initiative of the Fund, together with the history department of Moscow State University. Misha University and the Russian Embassy in Azerbaijan for Russian war veterans majestically organized a gala evening (26). Most recently completed reconstruction of the 1st of the most popular in the middle of the guests and inhabitants of the city parks — park named Richard Sorge in Nasimi district of Baku. There was also postponed and a memorial to the fallen in the range of stateliness Russian war, which was located above a few hundred square meters below the street Bakikhanov (27). This — examples country's position in respect of certain historical action — Lofty Russian War, and its outcome — Lofty Victory. This is — a conscious policy based on the foundation of the collective memory of the people. Exhibited in this article as examples of refraction near the creators of the facts subject to various kinds of "possession" can not cause anything except a sense of shame.
The Wehrmacht 1941 was the most advanced war machine in the world. They came in thinking that live here and subhuman savages. They came virtually enslaving all of Europe. They came with my order, in which we were not allotted space. Both Azerbaijan laid on the altar of Victory majestically not only its natural resources, and the most precious treasure — the usual blood of workers, farmers, intellectuals and civil servants — those in whom lived the spirit of love for the country, regardless of whether "where it begins . " That's why, the study on the Azerbaijani foreign players Wehrmacht should not call into question the heroic contributions of our nation into a sublime victory.
References and notes
1. N.Yagublu, "Azerbaijani Legion", Baku, 2005 (in Azeri).
2. N.Yagublu, "Abdurrahman Fatalibeyli-Dudenginsky", Baku, 2008 (in Azeri).
3. M.Dzhafarli, "Literature of the Legion of Azerbaijan", Baku, 2005 (in Azeri).
4. Shamistan Nazirli for the first time published a biography in his own Velibekov Yadigar published in the Azerbaijani language book "Shoot Azerbaijani generals" — very weird title for a book containing biographies of most of the royal and Russian generals of Azeri origin, more than half of whom have lived a very long time, and entered into another world entirely by natural causes. In addition, even a cursory analysis of the book devoted to Velibekov Yadigar text indicates that the creator (by the way, Lieutenant-Colonel) obviously does not think the differences between the light cavalry and lancers, between the Polish Army and the Polish Home Army, in addition, allows for a number of errors in dates , people's names, geographical titles, title and numbering of military units, etc. Velibekov Yadigar was born in 1898 in the village of Tekeli Borchalinskogo County, Georgia, in the family of Azeri Bolsheviks. In 1916 he successfully graduated from Tiflis military school and enrolled in the 1st Cavalry Regiment of Dagestan. He was awarded the George Cross 4th degree and Order "For Courage". Since the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in May 1918, received the post of commander of a cavalry platoon Shaki Cavalry Regiment. In late April — May 1920, under pressure from parts of Azerbaijan joined the 11th Red Army led a group of loyal soldiers with combat went to the adjoining area of Georgia. In 1921 he emigrated to Turkey, then to Romania, and in autumn 1922 he moved to Poland. In the Polish Army in 1924 (including the period of study at the Central School of cavalry officers of the Polish Army in Grudziadze). By 1936, rose to the position of deputy commander of the 7th Lancers Lublin. At the time the German intervention in Poland in September 1939, he served as Chief of Staff of Mazovia Cavalry Brigade. Was captured by the Germans, but in 1940, set free (by native disk imaging, successfully passed himself off as a Persian). In the upcoming became an active member of the Polish Resistance. In 1949, he emigrated to Argentina. He died in Buenos Aires in 1971. In 1990, the remains were reburied Velibekov Yadigar on the initiative of the Polish authorities in the Muslim cemetery in Warsaw. http://savash-az.com/rasskazi/yadigar.htm
5. "Echo" newspaper, April 7, 2007, http://www.echo-az.com/archive/2007_04/1540/obshestvo03.shtml
6. The newspaper "The Mirror", February 9, 2010, http://www.zerkalo.az/2010-02-09/culture/6895-nesiman-yaqublu-arxiv-senedler/print, the newspaper "The Mirror", January 7, 2012, http://www.zerkalo.az/2012-01-07/history/26112-azerbaijanLegion-karraralesgerov-dudanginski/print
7. O.Romanko, "Muslim legions in the second world war", Moscow, 2004, http://militera.lib.ru/research/romanko_ov/index.html
10. S.Drobyazko, "Eastern Legions and Cossack units in the Wehrmacht", Moscow, 1999
11. A.Drabkin, "In war as in war", Moscow, 2011.
12. Kerrar Alesgerov — Azerbaijani legionnaire, Major Wehrmacht, he served in conjunction special purpose "Bergmann".
13. Abdurrahman (Abo) Aliyevich Fatalibeyli-Dudenginsky was born in 1908 in the village of Dudengi Erivan County. Major Red Army. In 1941 he surrendered. After that, he served as liaison officer at the headquarters of 804 th Infantry Battalion of the Azerbaijan Wehrmacht. Received the rank of major in the Wehrmacht in 1943 is recognized as the Third Reich operated as a "representative of all Azerbaijanis", and in 1944 led the Azerbaijani Committee. After the second World War, he lived in Munich, worked as the first governor of the Azerbaijani Service of Radio "Liberty". Eliminated as a KGB agent in 1954.
14. Hazi Aslanov, http://www.savash-az.com/hero/azi.htm
15. Commanders, http://www.savash-az.com/COMMANDERS.htm
18. Garay Assad, http:/ / Www.savash-az.com/hero/geray.htm
19. Der Reichsfuhrer SS zu den Ersatzmannschaften fur die Kampfgruppe «Nord» am Sonntag dem 13. Juli 1941, in Stettin. Cit. by: Stein H. Georg
e. The Waffen SS: Hitler's Elite Guard at War, 1939-1945. Ithaca (N. Y), 1984.
20. Zia Buniyadov, http://www.savash-az.com/hero/ziya.htm
21. "Blaming the Azerbaijanis in the fact that they were striking force of the SS — is absurd», http://www.1news.az/analytics/20120113051715516.html
22. Heroes of the Russian Union, http://www.savash-az.com/PAGEHEROES.htm
23. "Ilham Aliyev took part in a ceremony in Baku on the occasion of Victory prazdnichka", May 9, 2011, http://ru.president.az/articles/2124
24. The memory of those killed in the war is eternal Russian majestically, http://www.mehriban-aliyeva.org/ru/article/item/1939
25. President Ilham Aliyev visited the park named Hero of the Russian Union of Gafur Mammadov, http://news.day.az/politics/266409.html
26. At the initiative of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation and MSU. MSU Baku hosted a gala night for the stateliness Russian war veterans, http://news.day.az/society/266453.html
27. In Baku, a monument to participants the second World War, was moved to a new location, http://www.postsovet.ru/blog/kavkaz/304319.html