Criticism of individual professionals in procurement Russian French helicopter «Mistral» (The first two of which will be part of the Pacific Fleet) is not perceived in the background below the published material on defense preparations of the rising sun.
Peaceful, quiet, disarmed after the second World War, Japan is once again nominated for the position of an upscale military power.
Specifically, the feeling of a massive building behind allows the first persons of Japanese military and political control act with public demarches about visiting Russian President Southern Kuriles. Diplomacy vsegoda acts aggressively and confidently, when additional arguments can lead behind her army and navy.
In Russia, hitherto remember the bitterness of defeat in 1905 in the Russian-Japanese war, the tragic fate of our heroic ships in the Battle of Tsushima. And then our opponent so far remembers his victory. I had to visit the Land of the Rising Sun, I can assure the flagship of Admiral Togo «Mikasa» hitherto afloat is in wonderful condition and is stored as a relic of the state on one of the naval bases with free access to the Japanese people — to remember.
I was also on the peninsula Etadzima (one of the centers for the training of officers for the Navy) — in the museum the names of all those killed and kamikaze kaiten (human torpedo drivers) engraved gold hieroglyphics on a marble plaque in the hall of military glory. They honor their memory — specifically in this room take the oath of cadets and held festive ceremony epaulettes and diplomas officers-graduates.
In particular struck me shield dedicated feat Japanese naval attache — the other day war of 1905, this spy disguised as a Tartar (and had the proper documents, which made him the intelligence of the Japanese General Staff), counterintelligence royal fool, made unprecedented rudeness reconnaissance trip from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok, evaluating mobilization ability of Transsib and spending on a number of other ways razvedaktsy, including a three-week illegal stay in Vladivostok.
Land of the Rising Sun factor now — this is serious, and we need to think that we do not to look in the eyes of Tokyo such as weak, as in 1905. That’s why re-started 18th Pulad the southern Kurils. Of course, needs rapid rearmament and the Pacific Fleet. How would it look promising lineup? I will be glad to hear sensible ideas.
Japan Self-Defense Force to transform the army vsepolnotsennuyu
Long after the second World War, the Japanese policy of national security based on the doctrine of former Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida, which provided a significant limitation of military expenditures and strengthen the alliance with the U.S. in order to accelerate the economic development of the country under the South American «nuclear umbrella.» In the Land of the Rising Sun, and now there are many adherents to the doctrine of the upcoming orientation Yoshida and maintain the existing status quo in relations with Washington.
Together with those from the beginning of the 1990s. actualized the issue of strengthening the Japanese Self-Defense Forces. This was caused by changes in the system of international relations as a result of the collapse of the USSR, the growing tension on the Korean peninsula, the United States also zeal to increase the role and responsibility of the Land of the Rising Sun in the US-Japanese alliance.
Now Japan is heavily involved in peacekeeping operations around the world. In addition, the first 2000s. Japan has actively supported the coalition forces operating in Afghanistan and Iraq.
How then left the country, which according to the Constitution are not allowed to maintain armed forces intensively involved in the operations of the UN peace-keeping and provides logistical support for the U.S. and its allies during the humanitarian operations in different parts of the world?
On what criteria SDF land of the rising sun are involved in these operations and what are the main features are they doing? And most importantly, what are the main objectives pursued by the Japanese management, directing national divisions over the limit?
Constitution of the country of the rising sun and the right of self
Made in the 1954 Self-Defense Forces have always avoided to call the army, recalling the provisions of Article 9 of the Constitution of the Land of the Rising Sun, precluding the possibility of owning vsepolnotsennymi armed forces with offensive potential. Because Self-Defense Forces are formally special civilian organization, actually performing the functions of the armed forces. Now from a legal point of view the existence of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces control interprets as the realization of the inalienable right of every country to defend itself.
Constitution of the country of the rising sun does not regulate the question of the admissibility role of Japanese government units in collective defense. In a white book on defense land of the rising sun in 2011 noted that the Constitution of the country has the right to the least desired defense, which are defined by the scope of the evolving international situation. In addition, proponents of expanding presence zabugornogo land of the rising sun often appeal to the provisions of the Preamble to the Constitution of the Land of the Rising Sun, which is celebrated in the zeal of the Japanese people to «take a respectable place in the international community tends to keep the peace and forever on the globe to kill despotism and slavery, oppression and intolerance «.
These provisions are treated as valid and proactive role in international cooperation on disaster management, humanitarian disasters, counter-terrorism, etc. Active role in all this is opposed to the existence of a closed — unarmed neutrality and pacifism inactive — in which the Japanese side only allocates money to support action by the international community. A similar position was born as under pressure from the U.S., and under the influence of the internal contradictions in the political elite of the country of the rising sun.
Available now in the Land of the Rising Sun laws already make a good base for operations zabugornyh SDF. Formally, these laws do not contradict the Constitution of the state, because they do not recognize the right to introduce the armed forces and contains a number of other restrictions. It should also be noted that the first laws were adopted at countering severe opposition, and their adoption in almost all been associated with major international developments, for example, such as the attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States. Coupled with the fact itself for itself existence of such legislation, which represent, in fact, flexible interpretation of constitutional norms, shows the development of defense policy harsh land of the rising sun and the enlargement of the scope of responsibility in the Self-Defense Forces for 20 years.
Such laws include: Law on Self-Defense Forces (№ 65 of 1954); Law on Cooperation with the forces of the UN peacekeeping (№ 79 of 1992); Law on special measures against terror (№ 113 from 2001); Law on special measures aimed at humanitarian and reconstruction assistance and support security in Iraq (№ 137 from 2003); Special measures law on technical support (№ 1 of 2008); Law on Measures against piracy (№ 55 of 2009).
GEOGRAPHY zabugornom PRESENCE land of the rising sun the past 20 years
In December 2011, celebrated 20 years since the beginning of the formal implementation Self-Defense Forces Land of the Rising Sun operations abroad: in December 1991, the Japanese government sent to the Persian Gulf group minesweepers, making, in its own contribution to the elimination of the consequences of the war in the first Gulf.
Based on the provisions of the «Guidelines for programs from the national defense,» the current legislation of the country of the rising sun, and its obligations to the UN and the U.S., all operations shortly SDF can be divided into several categories:
1. International cooperation in peacekeeping: peacekeeping operations (PKO); humanitarian missions; Election Observation Mission.
2. Logistic and logistical support of coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan.
3. International cooperation in the fight against piracy.
In the 1990s. SDF troops land of the rising sun are involved in missions and peacekeeping operations in Angola, Rwanda, Mozambique, the Golan Heights, East Timor. Its tasks include the provision of assistance to refugees, transport services, the embodiment of restoration work, counseling, acting as observers.
In the first half of the 2000s. intensity operations zabugornyh Japanese troops has increased dramatically due to the connection to the land of the rising sun counterterrorism coalition. September 11, 2001 in the United States served as a stimulus for Tokyo to take a decision on sending Japanese troops in Iraq and the Indian Ocean to provide logistical and logistical assistance to coalition forces.
Operations in the Indian Ocean and Iraq have always been home to a number of general zabugornyh SDF missions. Operation of the Japanese forces in the Indian Ocean in support of the actions of the coalition forces in Afghanistan was conducted from November 2001 to January 2010 Its main task was to provide fuel maritime and air assets of the coalition forces, the provision of transport services. In addition, the first 2000s. to the list in accordance with the «basic plan» cut in the operation of medical services, repairs, as the supply of necessary equipment, why foreign vessels allowed to enter the ports of the country of the rising sun.
Greater resonance in Japanese political circles and the public in connection with this transaction caused a trend in the Indian Ocean with a group of state marine SDF destroyer ORP for the role of escort vessels refills. The inclusion of this part of the destroyer escort group government justified the need to ensure effective protection of ships refueling. But, according to experts, the decision was taken, first, to check the preparedness of the Japanese public to accept these or other initiatives within the framework of state formation zabugornyh operations for mining routes Japanese ships in the Indian Ocean.
Contingent of ground SDF Land of the Rising Sun participated in a humanitarian mission in Iraq from 2004 to 2006. His tasks included the restoration Fri primary medical care, training of health personnel, reconstruction actual principal highways, fresh water supply. Japanese air units were in Iraq right up to 2008 in accordance with the «basic plan» operations, serving as transportation, supply also own and coalition ground forces.
Feature of the Iraqi operation SDF Land of the Rising Sun was that, in fact, it was held on the ground, where not excluded the possibility of a direct armed conflict that bad effect on the perception of the action by the Japanese public views.
Piracy in Gulf of Aden
Anti-piracy campaigns are not for SDF something completely new. But the operation in the Gulf of Aden is different from other scales and remote actions of frontiers.
Active efforts to combat piracy began in the Land of the Rising Sun in 2000, when the country was accomplished first regional conference on measures to counter piracy and armed seizure of vessels. In its course in the midst of the rest of the arrangements were made to hold joint exercises with India, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines. On the Japanese side in the exercise involved units of the Coast Guard. In addition, according to the agreements, the Coast Guard Academy in the Land of the Rising Sun to invite foreign students for internships.
First of the new millennium Japanese Coast Guard ships played a much more important role in ensuring safety at sea, including in combating acts of piracy than marine SDF units. They participated in the operation to evict the «spy» ship of North Korea’s territorial waters Land of the Rising Sun in December 2001, conflicts around the islands Liancourt, anti-piracy actions in the Strait of Malacca.
On national legislation marine SDF in this respect had still less privileged and made faster auxiliary functions. There was no need to create a legal basis for their more active verbovaniya to anti-piracy actions. But the situation has changed with the aggravation of the situation off the coast of Somalia in 2009, is now the operation of marine SDF land of the rising sun in the Gulf of Aden to counter piracy is in the active stage and conducted on the basis of constantly acting Law on measures to combat piracy from 2009, which allows talk about the formation of a new direction in the activities of naval forces.
When deciding on the direction of marine units and the Self-Defense Forces Coast Guard units to the coast of Somalia, the Japanese government was driven by safety of commercial maritime routes, including energy supplies caused by the geographical location of the country.
In his speech, June 19, 2009 on the occasion of the adoption of the Law on Measures against piracy then Prime Minister Taro Aso, Japan, said: «The UN Security Council in several resolutions, including resolution number 1816, called on the country to restore its naval vessels to the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden and take appropriate measures to prevent the acts of piracy. Responded to this call on many countries and organizations in Europe, North America and Asia … The Japanese government should also initiate anti-piracy operations off the coast of Somalia, based on the provisions of the new law as quickly as possible. This is done first, in order to ensure safety at sea, in cooperation with the world community. » Prime Minister again stressed that «in accordance with the new law, Japan will be able to defend against pirate attacks not only Japanese naval vessels, and vessels of other states. Under the provisions of Japanese law is a criminal act of piracy and crime will be punished. In totality, these provisions will more perfectly to fight piracy in the interaction with all interested countries. «
1st Marine Self Defense Force ships land of the rising sun appeared off the coast of Somalia to escort merchant ships of its own in March 2009 then their actions were based on the provisions of the Law on Self-Defense Forces from 1954, allowing to carry out escort operations. But the full accession Japanese troops to the multinational coalition to combat piracy in the area came out in June 2009 with the adoption of the said law on measures to counter piracy.
As in almost all past actions, the operation is carried out with very splotchenno USA. As part of the US-Japanese alliance was developed systematization devices to combat piracy, which originally worked out in the Straits of Malacca, and then skoplenny experience was transferred to the Gulf of Aden. Possible mechanisms to combat piracy are divided into the following categories:
• protective equipment on board (sirens, armed guards, etc.);
• naval protection, which contains both the support of state courts, and the activities of multinational patrol;
• A regional anti-piracy patrol, which involves the interaction of a multinational force with countries on the coast patrolled sea space;
• Creating an effective coastguard countries in the region.
In the case of the Gulf of Aden role in patrolling presupposed the continued presence of the Japanese naval units SDF off the Somali coast. That’s why the first time the staff of these units was placed on the U.S. Navy base in Djibouti. First, in 2010, the Japanese government has decided to expand the role of the SDF in the operation. In this regard, April 23, 2010 followed by an announcement that everything Fri-based marine SDF land of the rising sun.
For a long time the question of the Japanese zabugornoy base remained open. The main reason is strong opposition within the country and the difficult situation the Country of the Rising Sun after natural and man-caused disaster in March 2011 Yet, opening the database held in Djibouti early June last year.
This database, designed for 200 staff cost the Japanese side to 4,700,000,000. yen ($ 58 million) and became the first Japanese unchanged Fri based outside the country since the days of the second world war. Base built on rented from local authorities a plot of land of about 12 hectares. He built a hangar for aircraft maintenance, barracks for military personnel, cafes and a gym. New Japanese military facility adjacent to the U.S. air base. In addition, off the coast of Djibouti constantly based two destroyers and two patrol aircraft P-3C SDF land of the rising sun.
The Japanese command constantly emphasizes the need to strengthen the fight against piracy in the Gulf of Aden, where once a year pass 20 thousand marine cargo ships. About 10% of them make tankers and bulk land of the rising sun, who often suffer from pirate attacks. Because the safety of these waters, views of the Japanese command, is of great importance for the country based on the beliefs of its national interests.
At the same time, according to skeptics in the midst of Japanese politicians and professionals should not include the operation of sea Self-Defense Forces in the Gulf of Aden to the level of priority and fundamental as the real value for their defense should be the Japanese archipelago. With all this attention is drawn to the fact that in case of real conflict in the APR and overlap the Malacca Strait, the Japanese fleet would be cut off from the archipelago and not be able to fulfill its main objectives.
Yet, there is evidence of significant configurations temper military doctrine land of the rising sun, occurred in the near future, and the severity of the objectives of capacity building naval and air defense forces of the country. One evidence is the improvement of legislation, in accordance with which the operation is carried out in the Gulf of Aden, the creation of the first zabugornoy Japanese military base. Uniformly expanding opportunities and SDF units in zabugornyh operations. And if the amendments to the law on cooperation with the UN forces to maintain peace in terms of expanding opportunities to use guns Self-Defense Forces have not yet adopted, the Law on Measures against piracy already gives the right to use the Japanese unit instrument in cases where other means of suppression of piracy exhausted. In addition, the operation in the Gulf of Aden — is to some extent continued very fundamental for the country of the rising sun Self-Defense Forces operations in the Indian Ocean.
To form a holistic approach to some zabugornye missions Government Land of the Rising Sun took a long time. Specifically first XXI century for plans to expand the role of the SDF in such operations has developed a more appropriate setting, because at that period came the active phase of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as a result, overestimated the need for cooperation in the framework of the US-Japan military-political alliance . Zabugornye shares SDF were sustained development indicator defense policy of the country of the rising sun.
In the meantime, the role zabugornyh operations in the general context of foreign policy Land of the Rising Sun is not so great now is to ensure that international presence, developing a positive style peacemaker, ensuring energy security of the country.
With all this, despite the adoption of a number of legislative initiatives in the development of self-defense forces in the past 20 years, now remains the case that the Japanese government has to act in the new international criteria for old «rules of the game.» The growing severity of this contradiction asks Yoshihiko Noda Cabinet from taking any steps to change the obsolete seems to «rules». The first such configuration was the revision of the principles of arms exports in December 2011, opening the way for the development of military-technical cooperation of the rising sun with the NATO countries, Australia and South Korea. This coming is not excluded and the empowerment of Self-Defense Forces to use guns during zabugornyh operations, and their transformation into real Sun Namely, a similar development has facilitated the growth of a positive perception of the Japanese public activities of the SDF. These data are shown in the latest survey of public opinion conducted by the Ministry of Defense of the Land of the Rising Sun and posted in March 2012 All this suggests that over time, Japan can be a real military power.
Currently, the use of geography departments of Japanese Self-Defense Forces coincides with the general trends of regional and global politics Tokyo security. Necessary factors affecting this policy, are concerned both the land of the rising sun, and the United States and some other countries the impact of China’s growth, as the Japanese zeal to achieve control over the highest position of the country in international organizations, to ensure its energy security. So Makar, the general context of the rising sun Country Policy promotes enhanced its power component that likely will find reflected in subsequent operations zabugornyh SDF.
Yuliya KRYACHKINA — junior researcher RISI