The development of technological equipment of the military forces of science and every year millions of dollars are allocated funds. Research in this area deals with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, which is more clear on their own American abbreviations — DARPA. Specifically, the agency is the creator of such inventions as the Web, GPS and stealth aircraft type, which are of great importance not only for the military, and for the ordinary civilian population.
At this point, the agency has been developing a significant number of projects, which also will be able to have a significant impact on the population of the earth, if only be admitted to the industrial establishment.
At the current time DARPA pays great attention to the development of laser systems. In the middle of the Agency's programs can be identified such applets: Excalibur, Architecture for Diode High Energy Laser System, Ultra Beam and Compact Mid-ultraviolet technology.
Compact laser guided Excalibur cannon
The military is always very concerned about getting the perfect tool to use in the criteria for urban warfare. But in order to equip the aircraft and drones laser gun, it is necessary that the dimensions were rather small-sized and far more efficient than those systems that exist in the current time, and which are installed on huge platforms. Agency DARPA launch of the small-sized and powerful laser weapon system that is designed for installation on aircraft and other aircraft.
Earlier, more than the usual method of creation of the laser was to use large-sized vessels with active toxic chemicals. Namely, such a laser is mounted on Boeing-747, but to use as marker device as a weapon to attack aircraft or fighter very little impractical.
Brand new laser gun Excalibur is much more light and space-saving. Schematically this gun consists of a large number of lasers that are independent from each other. So Makar, you can reduce the size of the radiators themselves. These radiators are to be combined into a single beam without losing its power. This principle significantly decreases the amount of energy consumed. But the gun has certain shortcomings. Thus, namely, there are several problems associated with combining the vast number of beams into one, which would have a great brightness and low divergence. Obstacle to achieving this is interference, diffraction, and other nonlinear effects. Therefore, to correct this dilemma, creators used an analog phased array antenna, which is used in modern radar and provides an opportunity not only to create the focus of the beam, and the correct angle of its differences, not turning at all that the antenna itself.
Until the end of the year, the agency promises to show the standard of the most experienced laser gun with capacity of 3 m. But the final system will be even much power (about 100 square meters). So Makarov, it can be used for precision strikes against air and ground targets. And as the weight of the gun is 10 times less than the currently available lasers, the Excalibur can be installed on virtually all military platforms without degrading their combat traits.
Architecture for Diode High Energy Laser System
Another newcomer programm agency, which bears the title «Architecture for Diode High Energy Laser System (ADHELs)», devoted to the latest research the length of the laser beam in the process of creating the latest generation of compact high-performance high-energy lasers. Such systems can be integrated on tactical airborne aircraft, namely, UAVs.
The program initially focused on developing technologies to produce laser beams extraordinary power and brightness with low beam divergence.
The program is designed for 36 months and consists of a 2-steps. In the first step implies the study of the spectral and coherent beam combining. The second step is one hundred percent focused on the creation of a spectral beam highest efficiency and power. The ultimate goal of the project is to obtain a diffraction structure of the system that will work on the longish laser wavelengths on a scale systems HEL class of 100 square meters.
At the current time, the agency conducted several projects to improve lasers. For example, one such program is the «Ultra Beam», which aims to create a laser with a gamma-ray radiation. In the first step of development had already achieved some results — in laboratory conditions were made X-ray lasers, in which the photon energy is equal to 4.5 keV, which justifies the fact that the gamma-ray laser — it's the coming thing coming. This development has a civilian important as small-scale lasers can be used more effectively in radiation therapy and diagnostics.
With unique features of the X-ray laser, the development of which is designed DARPA, can promote the development of small-scale laboratory sources with high brightness coherent radiation, which ultimately will allow to display three-dimensional models of living cells.
In the program "Ultraluch" foreseen two steps. In the first step reached saturation enhancement of X-rays of 4.5 keV power 10mDzh, and confirmed that these rays can transmit impulses through the opaque solid objects, such as containers. In the second step provides for a period of 36 months, engaged in development of a superior power of x-ray laser, a diagnosis of gamma-rays and install the necessary features to enhance the gamma radiation when used on solid-state materials with a huge number of atoms.
Compact Mid-ultraviolet technology
The military must be able to locate and identify chemical and biological weapon that can be armed with the enemy. But modern detection methods differ bolshennymi size and enormous weight, in addition, they also require high power. In order to eliminate these shortcomings DARPA began developing applets «Compac
t Mid-ultraviolet technology». The results, which are expected in the framework of the utilities that make the detection and identification of biological and chemical weapons using laser technology more effective. With the waves of medium length ultraviolet available amino acids and other organic molecules, because if the introduction of instruments such species, these elements can be identified.
Laser technology for detecting weapons of mass destruction have been inside the ultraviolet rays in huge lasers, namely, a KrF (248 nm). Small lasers (Bio Detection System Point) used in the current time at the level of chemical battalions. But, as previously mentioned, all of these systems, so big-ticket, because for general use, they are very uncomfortable. Because the proposed agency programm will be presented with 2 main areas: the orientation of LEDs 250-275 nm and an output power of 100 mW and 10 mW laser with a power of 220-250 and orientation of any. The main part of the applets will be focused on solving the problems associated with the restriction of the location of nitride semiconductors as srednekorotkih ultraviolet waves.
The implementation of this will allow applets to small devices that will be able to detect chemical and biological contamination in water for example.
Promising programs from DARPA in medical field. These projects include the agency Dialysis-Like Therapeutics (DLT), In Vivo Nanoplatforms, Living Foundries, Reliable Neural-Interface Technology.
Dialysis-Like Therapeutics (DLT)
Infections caused by microbes that are often the result of infection of blood (sepsis), from whom can die even slightly injured fighter. South American military establishment is seriously concerned about this issue because commissioned to create the latest technology cleaning blood from germs. In DARPA began developing the project, the price of which amounted to 10 million dollars. Its main objective is to make for a portable device with which to rid the body of infected blood, cleanse it of harmful substances to the introduction of special filters and added back into the body is pure blood. This device resembles and functions very renal dialysis.
At the current time, are being developed sensors pathogens, and that will stop viral and bacterial toxins. Apart from that, work and technology development department of the components of the blood. The next step should be to conduct a test to check the efficiency of the device. As a result, should get a portable machine that will carry out a detailed analysis of the entire volume of blood at a time that will allow to identify the emergence of viruses and toxins in the early stages.
A similar development will have a tremendous value for the civilian implementation, because it can be used to bail out hundreds and thousands of lives every year.
In Vivo Nanoplatforms
Various diseases limit the combat readiness of fighter and cause significant costs to the military department of health. But at the current time the available technology in the diagnosis of disease and the main costly long time. Because of their more rapid diagnosis and healing are needed in a modern army.
Beginning of the development agency DARPA has 1st ambitious project entitled «In Vivo Nanoplatforms». Its essence is to create a new class of micro-particles created for even clearer sounding of the human body, and for the healing of various types of infectious diseases and physiological abnormalities.
In fact, the program is focused on the development of microcapsules, which will provide unchanging monitoring of the human body.
The microcapsule is a hollow spherical particle of the shell which is made from phospholipids or polymers. Inside of the capsule is a small molecule. In addition, the sheath may be made of DNA molecules organized properly spetsefichesky, calcium silicate or a hydroxyapatite.
Use of microparticles can provide point administering pharmaceuticals or genetic structures of definite composition (hormones or enzymes). And in order to deliver the microcapsule "to destination", its shell will be equipped with sensors or antigens.
The program has passed the tests in March 2012. It is expected that in the fall she will be allowed to use.
Modern engineering was based on thorough special developments, the results are the same only after repeated trial and error. And very often work on the same project can not start work on the other. In the end, one bioengineering project allocated 10's years and hundreds of millions of dollars. Improvement of bioengineering technologies will allow to solve complex issues that the current time or have no solutions, or have several solutions at once.
Bimbo programm agency DARPA under the title «Living Foundries» designed for the creation of the modern bio base for the design of construction of human biology and expand their difficulties. The program is focused on the development of new technologies and techniques that will make plausible solution previously unsolved problems. Namely, will likely determine the genetic predisposition people to those or other diseases, correct function of the cells and the organism as a whole.
On the one hand it may seem that such technology can not be made, but the possibility that there will be mass production of new bio-materials and pharmaceuticals, sounds intriguing.
Reliable Neural-Interface Technology
Conducting research and development of neural prostheses, namely, cochlear implants (artificial ears) to substantiate that the human body takes this material. With the help of these prostheses were restored lost function to many people. Notwithstanding the fact that the prosthesis, which can be connected to the human nervous system, are very promising and necessary for military Ministry large and there are two basic constraints which do not allow the ability to use such implants clinical criteria. Both obstacles associated with fidelity disk imaging. Thus, a small portable device is ne
uronal adapted to obtain a clear disk imaging of nerve cells for many years. In addition, these prostheses can not use the acquired signals and control at high speed.
The agency is interested in that, to solve these two prepyadstviya, so that implants can be started in the clinical introduction. So Makar, recovery of wounded soldiers will have to walk faster, respectively, they will be able to have faster return to service.
First example program is focused on what to realize why implants can not serve as firmly in the past couple years. It is planned to conduct research on the parameter of interaction between abiotic and biotic systems. In addition, the system will be created newcomer, which will include information on how information is transferred from the prosthesis to the nerve cells.
It can be argued that a similar development will also have a lengthy civilian use.
Applets agency DARPA, which aim to develop surveillance systems.
Low Cost Thermal Imaging Manufacturing
Thermal vision system has many areas of implementation for military purposes. But to this day, this system is very expensive, because its use is not as massive as it is needed. The agency offers a program from DARPA development of economical thermal imager. According to developers, such imagers can be fully embedded in smartphones and mobile phones. To carry out development was allocated 13 million dollars. In this case, the end of the project must take place no later than three years.
The main requirements to advance to the last generation thermal imager — is comparable to the small cost — about $ 500. In addition, the resolution of the image must be at least 640 * 480 pixels, viewing angle — 40 degrees or more, and the power consumption — less 500 milliwatts.
In the framework of the new imager technology laid the introduction of infrared radiation, which helps to distinguish the range in color from warm objects cool. So Makar, they can be used not only in normal conditions, and in bad visibility and at night.
Those thermal imaging cameras that are in the current time, have huge size and great price. It should also be said that if research will successfully then the fruits will be able to take advantage of not only the military, and civilian organizations. Recall that such developments DARPA, as the development of hypertext and graphical user interface were also initially developed for military purposes.
Advanced Wide FOV Architectures For Image Reconstruction and Exploitation
The ability to build on, with more clarity in the highest of all the criteria is one of the reasons for the successful conduct of military operations. There is a need to increase the field of vision, the ability to create and perfect prototype of days, and at night, if the prices are a little camera. The main reason for such necessity lies in providing fighter visualization tools available to increase their combat effectiveness, to put it simply and photo cameras. Because in the DARPA launched programm «Advanced Wide FOV Architectures For Image Reconstruction and Exploitation (AWARE)», which was created to solve this kind of problems.
Brand-new imaging system that is planned for as part of the programs from this, it will be very small and light. It involves the growth of the field of view, the highest resolution and quality image in all weather criteria of days or NIGHT MODE on significant distance. It combines in more than 150 cameras in one lens. The system is designed for creating images with a resolution of 10 to 50 gigapixel — is much greater than the resolution of the visible spectrum in a human eye.
The first such system to be created for deployment of ground objects, there will be increased distance vision, hard work, day and night vision, establish the possibility of the search target, provided the opportunity to implement a large group of sensors.
Such devices are of great military importance, since they can be used for purposes such as targeting, sensing, maintaining constant surveillance.
At the current time, actually at least some military product stuffed with electrical components, chips, chips, etc. Because a lot of DARPA programs focused on the development and improvement of Component Base. In the middle of such programs can distinguish the following: Intrachip Enhanced Cooling; Integrity and Reliability of Integrated Circuits; Power Efficiency Revolution For Embedded Computing Technologies; Tip-Based Nanofabrication and others.
Intrachip Enhanced Cooling
Increasing the number of components in modern electronics has raised the level of heat and power dissipation up to unusual heights. With all of this to limit the rise in temperature without increasing the volume and weight of the electrical systems themselves is not real. The introduction of remote cooling, in which the heat must be conducted from the chip in the air is no longer effective.
Because DARPA began development program under the title «Intrachip Enhanced Cooling (ICECOOL)», by which seeks to overcome the limitations of remote cooling. The program will teach the heat level inside the chip, using the silicon. Agency seeks to prove that the cooling — it's such a fundamental caveat in the development of integrated circuits, as well as other components. The draft means that cooling will be installed internally, or specifically to the chip, or in the micro-annulus between the chips.
In case of a successful end, the project will provide an opportunity to reduce the density level of the chip and cooling systems, which will be very effective for the creation of the latest generation of electrical systems.
Thermal Management Technologies
Significant improvements in the development and system integration has led to the fact that the power consumption by the military department is largely increased. The level of power consumption has increased, while the reduced sizes of chips. This has led to the fact tha
t these systems began perenagrevatsya. Because in the DARPA launched a development program from «Thermal Management Technologies», which is engaged in the exploration and optimization of new nanomaterials with heat system, which is planned to be used in the manufacture of microchips. The program is developed in five main areas: micro-heat exchangers for cooling, active cooling modules adapted the technology of thermal tubes, upgraded power amplifiers, thermoelectric coolers.
So Makarov, chief applets efforts are focused on development and production of high-performance heat spreader, which is applied to the base of a two-phase cooling, and the substitution of their copper alloys, which are currently being used in the system, increasing the level of thermal cooling technology to reduce thermal resistance, development of new materials and structures, can reduce heating, cooling technology research with the introduction of thermoelectric modules.
Power Efficiency Revolution For Embedded Computing Technologies
Most of the currently available military information systems have been limited in terms of computational abilities due to limitations electronic power, size and weight problems are also cooled. This restriction has a significant negative impact on the operational management units of the military department, so as, for example, intelligence and reconnaissance systems collect more disk imaging than can be processed in real time. Because it turns out that valuable data needed at a particular time, intelligence is not able to provide.
Available information processing system able to handle 1 GB of data per second, while, approval military to 75 times more. But modern microprocessors already have gained in the course of its own maximum capacity growth without increasing energy consumption. The program DARPA «Power Efficiency Revolution For Embedded Computing Technologies (PERFECT)» just for this purpose and is designed to provide the required energy efficiency.
The program provides for the achievement of the growth potential of information processing up to 75 times. The implementation of the programs from the state to make the probability of producing phones that are able to work for weeks or a laptop battery that will need to be recharged as often as you often fill the car.
The agency is wasting huge amounts of money on the development of nanotechnology. But despite the fact that the main concepts in their development deemed necessary, there are still difficulties with the mass of their creation.
The purpose applets «Tip-Based Nanofabrication» is intended to control the quality of production of nanomaterials — nanowires, nanotubes, and quantum dots, which contains the control of the size, orientation and position of each product. The program involves the union of control with Innovative technologies, such Makar, creating the highest temperature, speed and massive flows of electric fields like optical technology.
At the current time to control the process of nanofabrication is unrealistic. In recent years, some methods have been demonstrated, but they all have significant shortcomings. For example, in the production of nanotubes may be kept under control only their growth, but the size and orientation. In the development of quantum dots to make unrealistically large array with high homogeneity.
In case of successful completion of the project, the results will be very necessary for the production of nano-products.
Integrity and Reliability of Integrated Circuits
At the base of many electrical systems that have been developed for the Department of Defense, are integrated circuits. Coupled with the fact the military department uses them very carefully, concerned about the integrity of these systems. Since the criteria of market globalization most of the chips produced on illegal businesses, there is a risk that the acquired systems for the military department schemes do not meet the specifications, and therefore would not be reliable.
The agency DARPA, as part of programs from «Integrity and Reliability of Integrated Circuits (IRIS)» seeks to create such methods, which will be able to provide verification of the function of each chip without destroying it. In these methods, the system comes to an expanded definition devices deep submicron circuits, and computational methods to determine the connection between the devices.
In addition, the program provides for the creation of Innovative modeling methods and devices of analytical processes to determine the reliability of integrated circuits by testing a small number of samples.
Leading Edge Access Program
As mentioned above, most of the chips that are used in the areas of the United States, are made outside the country. A similar state of affairs, according to the views of the Yankees, has a destructive nature. In 1-x, lack of access to advanced technology facilitates the outflow of highly qualified personnel. In-2, the Ministry of Defence does not trust such chips.
Research in the field of semiconductor technology has tremendous value for the introduction of technological development, not only in businesses, and in the War Department. Because the agency and launched the latest example program under the title «Leading Edge Access Program», which aims to bring the institutions, industry and government military advanced semiconductor technologies. All this is done in the hope of a speedy return chip manufacturing back to America.
The field of implementation of leading technology contains a substitution of analog or digital integrated circuits mixed signal integrated circuits supporting mixed-signal solution prepyadstviya highest speed and low power analog-to-digital converters and multi-core microprocessors. At certain times of the military department will provide the agency new projects. The main aspects of the selection will be the novelty of the design, the possibility of introducing in the mi
litary industry, the potential for a successful mobilization efficiency.
Diverse Accessible Heterogeneous
One of the main problems that the currently hinder the future development of computer technology, would be that the chip has to do for them out of different materials. Agency DARPA spends on development programmke «Diverse Accessible Heterogeneous», which aims to create the newest single silicon platform that will be made of the latest generation of microchips. So Makar, on the views of the developers, the heterogeneous integration must overcome a number of severe problems associated with the process of data to find the density of heterogeneous connections, set the best temperature and improve the newest platform for mass production.
In the case of successful development, heterogeneous platform can be used in industries such as opto-electronic integrated circuits, optical sensing system, optical generators of random signals, multi-wave imagers with integrated image processing and reading disk imaging.
Results applets will be important for civilian use as well as the creation of a universal platform will help make computers work more frisky and effective.
Ubiquitous High Performance Computing
In the middle there is a development agency program that is suitable to the process of creation of computer equipment from the ground up — «Ubiquitous High Performance Computing». It is focused on the design and development of technologies for the creation of database computers with small-power, protection against cyber attacks and with greater efficiency. In addition, the program implies that the computers will be much easier in terms of programming, such makarom that it will be able to make even the spices with little experience.
These computers will be more reliable, and the work they will be more effective by improving vysokoprogrammiruemoy scalable system. Are participating in this project such severe structures such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Intel, NVIDIA. So Makarov, it can be argued that this example program — one of the more fundamental developments DARPA.
In addition, the agency is working intensively on the development of three-dimensional integrated circuits. At the current time chips are one of the main points of microelectronics. But the criteria of constant reduction of the size of chips, advanced semiconductor technology are faced with a huge number of basic and specific problems. Because, despite the great success of semiconductors, developers seek out new types of universal chip that will hold more than the highest operating characteristics.
Creating a three-dimensional integrated circuit will open enormous capacity for more frisky and efficient development of computer technology, as will overcome limitation 2-dimensions. After all, progress has reached such a point of development when the chips so complex that the desired compounds in the two-dimensional chip is simply no room.
Creating a three-dimensional integrated circuits, for all the dilemmas associated with its practical application, will enable technology to do more small-sized.
Micro-technology for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing
In many decades in most military navigation equipment has been integrated Global Positioning System or GPS. So Makar, many types of weapons depend on the location data, the direction of travel, time of flight and the similar information transmitted by the system. But such a relationship can create a huge problem, since the criteria of difficulty receiving or signal jamming tool that asks constant communication with the system will not work.
Agency DARPA began developing applets «Micro-technology for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (MICRO-PNT)», the essence of which is to create technologies that work in offline mode. The main neuvvyazkami devices in this step are the size, weight and power. The success of the research will allow to make a single device, in which will integrate all the necessary accessories: accelerometers, clock, calibration, gyros. Microscopic calibration should provide clearer guidance on the subject due to internal error correction.
In 2010, began research on the development of microtechnology, connected with the creation of accurate clocks and inertial instruments.
Development programs from first focus on something, that increment the dynamic range of inertial sensors to reduce the error hours, and create microarrays to determine the position and trajectory of movement.
If the example program is implemented, imagine for yourself Google Maps on the subway.