Nanotechnology is called an interdisciplinary field of applied and basic science and engineering that deals with the collection of theoretical justification, as the practical research, analysis and synthesis, methods of manufacture and use of products possessing atomic data structures in a controlled manipulation of individual molecules and atoms. It is worth noting that in the world today there is no single standard, which to describe what the nano-and nanotechnology.
According to the "Concept of the Russian Federation in the field of nanotechnology activities in the period up to 2010" under the totality of nanotechnology understood techniques and methods that enable the controlled way to modify and create objects that include components with dimensions less than 100 nm in at least one dimension, which finally got this fundamentally new properties which make their integration into the operating system vsepolnotsenno larger scale. With all this practical nuance Nanotechnology Lock and contains various devices and their components, which are necessary for the processing and manipulation of molecules, atoms, and microparticles.
It is necessary to recognize that the development of this industry will affect all of the armed forces — from small tools and equipment to complex military systems and gallakticheskih devices. First nanotechnology went out and brought the application in existing types of military equipment and weapons, significantly increasing its multifunctional properties and characteristics. Nanotechnology will create new semiconductors and optics, unique construction materials, small sensors detect a component of chemical and biological weapons materials and computers, which are several orders of magnitude performance overshadowed existing analogues. In addition to this very crucial for the armed forces will play a lowering of the weight and price of devices and products made with the introduction of nanotechnology, reducing power consumption of the devices.
Latin American studies
In 2002, the South American army decided to join forces with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The result of this union was the Soldiers' Institute of Technology (ISN), which operates in five principal areas of strategic (SRA). So SRA 1 covers the lungs nanostructured materials and fibers; SRA 2 has been researching nanotechnology for defense fighter; SRA 3 working explosive ballistic protection; SRA 4 focuses on the study of ultra-sensitive sensors to warn of areas of infection; SRA 5 deals with issues of system integration.
Under the SRA 1 Institute of Technology Soldiers interested in different kinds of nano-coatings, nanostructures "core-core" and "core-shell", carbon nanotubes, fabrics, fibers, membranes and layered structures. The main purpose of the work is to produce coatings that could perfectly protect fighters from biological or chemical weapons. Functionalization of the surface of the fabric materials with nanometer-thin layers actually adds weight to the clothes, but with all this increases the feasibility of controlled actions with respect to those or other specific threats.
Under the SRA 2 studies are to improve in the medical care and treatment in the field of battle damage criteria. Cut one here nanomaterials and devices that can be activated at a wound site, and next removed by qualified medical personnel, ordinary soldiers or even work a hundred percent in automatic mode using the duplicate devices. Examples of this kind of research include polymer actuators that make the hardness on demand and can be used for suturing wounds or to prevent unnecessary movement in the neck or head injury.
The project is implemented SRA 3 studies that relate to the protection of fighters from ballistic and explosion hazard. Combining between the creation of polymers, synthetic chemistry technology, design ways to inform the molecular structure of the ISN scientists expect to make a new generation Myagenko, lightweight materials, which have the potential to be significantly increased energy absorption properties. These materials will consist of a rigid polymer chains with special navesnoymi groups in specific strategic locations along the polymer axis, which assign them a certain resemblance to the parallel strands of molecular "barbed wire." The combination of the likely interaction hinged groups and chain rigidity allows the calculation of the absorption of mechanical energy without damaging the overall structure even under simultaneous significant deformation.
Also within this direction of research tested nanostructured materials as iron alloys possessing low density. The concept is that these materials may be crosslinked to the flexible and light assembly, for example, in the structure in the form of mesh or woven beams which could serve as a comfortable and effective protection for the body.
Researchers are searching for SRA 4 methods that are able to make better detection of substances and unsafe drugs and devices for protection from their fighters. And it is within this theme is the study of nanoscale polymer coatings that allow special security features. Namely, we study the ability of nanometric layers to make the control parameters of the surface, which would allow, for example, repel or attract water, weaken the level of biological or chemical hazards. Also as part of this research study to re-adjust and multifunctional nano-coating that could be integrated into portable biosensors that are essential for the detection of various kinds of poisons.
Another direction of research data is to work on supersensitive nanoscale chemical sensors. This area of work focuses on the description and recognition of those substances or other chemical characteristics. These include the manipulation of nanoscale materials to elements merits of certain parameters: multi-functionality, low power, spatial resolution capabilities, ease of use, or a combination of all these properties.
Fifth area of research institute ISN — is the development and implementation of nanoscale devices and materials, as awareness of their features inside embedded systems. Scientists are working to develop systems based on neradiochastotnyh fabrics are also trying to build a uniform laser communication systems and communication facilities. Major problems include the properties multimaterialnyh optical fibers regards their sensitivity, response time, noise control. Along with that are working on the inclusion of fibers in the fabric materials, coupled with software and hardware needed to connect them with the data acquisition system.
The development of nanotechnology in Russia
In Russia, the development of Nanotechnology 2015 izderzhat planned order of 200 billion dollars. rubles. To oversee this activity was created by a separate gospkorporatsiya "RUSNANO". Among the most promising projects, "RUSNANO" noted optoelectronics, special steel, hydrogen ene
rgy, new medical diagnostic equipment. To ensure the interests of public safety Russian engineers and scientists are going to create a dual-purpose nanotechnology. For example, the successful application of the so-called "smart dust" will likely only in the development of modern micro-and nano-electronics. For all this, however, will inevitably face a number of problems. How, for example, to manage multiple micron "warriors".
It should be noted that the idea of "smart dust" was borrowed from the story of Stanislaw Lem "Invincible", the base of which lies in the use of micro robots. One such micro-robots virtually nothing on earth can do, but if you collect in one place a thousand of these devices, they will be able to organize a strike group that will act on the instructions of the person. According to the views of the U.S. military from such a group could be used to destroy military equipment. For example, if a cluster of micro robots containing explosive charges, to cover the armored car and explode or penetrate into the engine or fuel system. With the development of technology to disable a tank or a person will be able to either 1 or 2 microrobot, but the realization of these dreams into reality is still far away.
The decision by management tasks such microrobots could decide scientists from the Institute of multiprocessor systems operating at the municipal Taganrog Radio Engineering Institute. They believe that each micro-robots should be able to coordinate their behavior with staff and make their own decisions. In the end, they have developed a mathematical model of management "smart dust". Computer simulations of the model showed that it is quite effective, and the method of implementation inherent in her mind is quite simple and easy to implement.
There are in Russia and other unique designs. Thus, according to the director of "SRI-Tantalum" A. Ignatiev, in his KB were made geteromagnitnye systems that are ready for high-volume production. Among them is the processor on a chip the size of 5×5 m. mm. On the basis of this item, you can create a variety of structures which have no analogues in the world. For example, electronic warfare systems, precision targeting, counter-terrorism, the protection system info and much more. These systems are able to withstand the overload in the 10-40 thousand g, in their just nothing to break down. They own memory and a very small size, able to withstand the neutron irradiation.
More nanotechnology used in modern manufacturing. So on the Ural Plant of civilian aviation helicopters blades are treated special nanometals, which 5 times for extended service life. At the Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed nano powder, which generates electricity from at least some kind of organic fuel with very highest efficiency at the level of 60-70%, which is 2 times better than the existing characteristics. It is understood that the implementation of Nanotechnology can give significantly more effective than all gallakticheskie and the Soviet atomic project taken together.
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