On the way to the War of 1812: Our homeland and Sweden

On the way to the War of 1812: Russia and Sweden

Sweden was a common Russia-Russian rival in northern Europe. Even after the Russian government crushed the Swedish empire in the Northern War of 1700-1721, the Swedes unleashed several wars. In an effort to return the lost as a result of the Northern War of land (Estonia, Livonia, Izhorskaya land, the Karelian Isthmus), the Swedish government decided to use the unstable situation Leopoldovna regent Anne (1740-1741), and on July 24 (August 4) in 1741 declared war on Russia. But the Russian army and naval forces acted well, and the Swedes were defeated. In May 1743 Sweden was obliged to conclude a 16 (27) June Preliminary Aboskogo the world (he was very consistent 7 (18) of August), in which the Swedes gave RF south-eastern Finland.

Follow the war began in 1788. Swedish master Gustav III decided to use the fact that the bulk of the Russian army was at war with the Ottoman Empire (Russian-Turkish war 1787-1792 years) and advanced to Catherine II ultimatum, demanding return of land in Sweden, lost in the first half of the 18th century. Sweden had diplomatically support Prussia, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, concerned successes of Russian weapons in the wars with Turkey. Sweden has entered into an alliance with the Ottoman Empire. But the Russian armed forces successfully repulsed the enemy attack, and inflicted a series of defeats Swedes. Sweden began to find peace. Petersburg, linked the war in the south, did not put forward territorial claims — 3 (14) August 1790 was concluded Verelsky world, confirming the conditions and Nishtadt Aboskogo contracts.

In the upcoming Our homeland and Sweden were allies in the struggle against France. Lord of Gustav IV Adolf (ruled by Sweden in the years 1792-1809) was a militant set against the French Revolution and initially oriented in its own external policy on Russia. Swedish master dreamed with Russian help get Norway. Back in 1799 in Gatchina was signed by the Russian-Swedish Convention on mutual assistance, and only a sharp u-turn by Paul in respect of France, Sweden, is not allowed to enter the war with France. Sweden in 1800 signed an anti-British Convention, which was to prevent the penetration of the UK in the Baltic region. After Paul's death, Our homeland reconciled with England, and was followed Sweden. Sweden joined the anti-French coalition of third (1805 year), And then to the fourth (1806-1807 years). In autumn 1805 the Swedish army was sent to Pomerania, but the military's 1805-1807 campaign ended in complete failure for the opponents of France. Yet, the Swedish master even after the Peace of Tilsit in 1807 ripped to London, continuing anti-French policy. It spoiled a Russian-Swedish business.

Russian-Swedish War of 1808-1809

Under the terms of the contract of Tilsit Our homeland was to give effect to Sweden, that the Swedish government has acceded to the continental blockade of Britain. Despite the long negotiations — Alexander I proposed to the Swedish king Gustav IV its mediation to reconcile it with the French king, diplomatic way to solve the problem of failed. The British have had a lot of pressure on Sweden. November 7 Our homeland has declared war on Britain as an ally of France and Britain because of the attack on Denmark. Actual hostilities between Britain and Russia were not, but London was able to make their own implements Sweden. For the war with Russia in Sweden have identified the British military subsidy — in the £ 1 million every month, while there is a conflict with the Russian. In addition, it became clear that Sweden is prepared to help the British in the war with Denmark, seeking to recapture the Danes Norway. In Denmark, Russia tied allied business and dynastic connections. Napoleon also pushed Russia to the war and even said Russian Ambassador that he agrees to the fact, that Petersburg had acquired for himself the whole Sweden, including Stockholm.

All of these incidents have given Russian Emperor Alexander I owned an excuse to seize the crown of the Swedish Finland, in order to ensure the safety of Petersburg of the close proximity to the aggressive powers of the Russian Federation.

On the border with Finland to top 1808 was centered 24 thousand army under the command of Theodore Buxhowden. In February-April 1808 the Russian army took possession of the whole of southern, western and south-western Finland. 16 (28) March 1808 Emperor Alexander I issued a manifesto on the accession of Finland to the Russian Empire. Russian government has pledged to keep its old laws and diet and give status majestically principality. April 26, surrendered Suomenlinna: were captured 7.5 million people, were captured more than two thousand guns, large military reserves, more than 100 ships and vessels.

At the end of April 1808 the Swedish army launched a counter-offensive from the area of Oulu and broke the Russian avant-garde at the village Siykayoki, and then detachment from Bulatov Revolaksa. The Swedes fought off the Aland Islands and the peninsula of Gotland, which the Russian army captured the first war. In the middle of May to help the Swedes arrived 14 thousand British subsidiary body and the English squadron. But Gustav IV and British command could not agree on common action plan expense, and British troops were taken to Spain. However, the Swedish left his squadron. In June, Fedor Buksgevdenom had to withdraw troops in southern Finland on line Berneborg — Tammerfors — Saint-Michel. First, in August, Count Nikolai Kamensky led the new coming of the Russian forces: August 20-21 (2-3 September), the Swedes were defeated at Kuortane and Salmi, and 2 (14), at the battle of Orovayse. 7 (19) October Kamensky concluded with the Swedish command Pattiokskoe truce. By its terms, the Swedes left Esterbotten and retreated over the river. Kemijoki, and Russian troops occupied Uleaborg.

Alexander has not approved the truce and changed Buxhowden to General of Infantry Bogdan Knorring. The new commander was ordered to go on the ice on the Gulf of Bothnia Swedish saved.

At this time in Sweden has matured political crisis: the war was not popular in society. Despite the troubles, Gustav IV Adolf stubbornly refuses to conclude a ceasefire and the convening of the Riksdag. Hurt personally introduced the unpopular war tax and also hurt 10s Guard officers of the noblest families, demoted them to the army officers. Sweden has matured komplot and 1 (13) March 1809 Gustav IV Adolf was deposed. May 10 Riksdag deprived Gustav and his descendants the right to hold Swedish throne. The new king of the Riksdag appointed Baron Zyudermanlandskogo — he was given the name of Charles XIII.

At this time, the Russian went to the new coming: the case of Peter Bagration and Misha Barclay de Tolly made the transition across the ice of the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland to Sweden. Bagration's forces occupied the Aland Islands, and went to the Swedish coast and captured Grislehamn 80 km north-east of Stockholm. Troops Barclay de Tolly, reaching the shores of Västerbotten, took Umea. Immediately north crossed the body of Paul Shuvalov Kemijoki took Tornio, ran the Swedish-Finnish border and forced to surrender significant enemy forces — Kalikskuyu (northern) Swedish group. 7 (19) March, the new chief Knorring went to Aland truce, he agreed to withdraw Russian troops from the Swedish countryside. However, 19 (31) March it was annulled by the Russian Tsar.

At the beginning of April to the place appointed Knorring Barclay de Tolly. In April, Russian troops began coming in northern Sweden, in
May, again captured Umea, and in June broke Swedish forces, who covered the approaches to Stockholm. This led the Swedes to go to peace talks.

5 (17) of September in Fredrikshamn signed a peace deal. Under this agreement, our homeland received the Aland Islands, Finland, Lapland, to the rivers and Tornioyoki Muonioele. Sweden broke off an alliance with Britain, became part of the continental blockade and closed its ports to British ships.

Subsequent Russian-Swedish business

Karl XIII officially ruled until 1818, but he suffered from poloumiya and the real impact of the policy is not provided. All real imperative levers were in the hands of the Swedish nobility. In 1810, the heir of the childless king was elected to the French army marshal Jean Bernadotte (Bernadotte). Bernadotte was adopted by Charles and became regent, the de facto ruler of Sweden.

This action was sudden for Europe. French government met its cold case with Marshal were spoiled his independent policy. In Russia, were concerned that the Riksdag made such a hasty decision and chooses the regent French marshal (at that time the case with France Porto). In addition, Sweden has declared war on Great Britain. There fear that we have received in the north-western borders of the country, an ally of Napoleon. But this fear is not justified. Bernadotte belonged to Napoleon, very reserved and showed eagerness to establish with Russia good-neighborly affairs. Regent of Sweden proposed an alliance of the Russian Federation. "From a conservation depends on the future fate of the Russian Federation all of us" — says captain. Petersburg was also interested in the world on their own north-western borders. In December 1810 in Sweden to negotiate with Bernadotte arrived AI Chernyshev. He laid out the position of Alexander. Letting Chernyshev, Bernadotte said to him: "Tell His Majesty that with my arrival in Sweden, I have become quite a man of the north, and be assured him that he can look at Sweden, both on its own is a sure" (lead — advanced garrison). Sweden for their friendly attitude towards Russia hopes to aid in joining Norway, which sought to free themselves from the Danish dependency. The Russian government has promised to assist in the case.

Bernadotte's policy was based on the interests of the aristocratic circles. Initially, they were waiting for Napoleon will return Finland. But the requirement to Paris to start a war with Britain and putting financial burdens in favor of France, led to increased anti-French sentiment. In addition, Napoleon expressed his eagerness to give Norway to Sweden.

Bernadotte asked to facilitate conditions of the continental blockade and reduce financial burdens. First proposed in 1811 the regent Paris to sign a contract that would have divined the neutrality of Sweden in the event of war, the Russian Federation and France. French government commissioned the French Ambassador in Sweden alcove to begin negotiations on the participation of Sweden in the war with Russia. But those talks did not lead to a good result. First, in 1812 the capital of Russian Empire arrived Swedish envoy Levengelm. We immediately sent home to Stockholm General Peter Sukhtelen. He had to agree to send the Russian auxiliary vessel to Sweden and begin negotiations with London (UK envoy Thornton secretly arrived in Sweden for talks with Russia). The instructions that were given Suhtelenu, detained and "The Great Plan of the compound of the Slavs." Britain should support the plan: 1) an act of their own naval forces in the Baltic and Adriatic seas, and 2) the supply of weapons and military supplies for the Slavs and Germans deserters from the army, the Rhine Confederation, and 3) the financing of the Slavic and Germanic movement that was due to strike at the Union of Austria Napoleon and the French Illyrian Provinces. VI began the process of creating an anti-French coalition.

French government learned of the negotiations of the Russian Federation and Sweden, gave the order to invade Davoust Swedish Pomerania. At the end of January 1812, French troops occupied Pomerania.

Negotiations between Sweden and Russia lasted until the end of March 1812. March 24 (April 5) was signed anti-French alliance 2-powers. At that time there were negotiations to provide cash grants by the English Sweden — London joined the union in the summer. Swedish Riksdag approved the contract. Both powers guaranteed the border each other. Petersburg pledged to contribute Sweden in joining Norway. Sweden was to put 30 thousand army under Bernadotte, Our homeland attached to it for 15-20 thousand auxiliary body. These forces were planning to use in Norway, and then plant them in Germany.

In the upcoming Russian-Swedish alliance was confirmed during the August meeting of Abo. Convention was signed by her Our homeland of Sweden has provided a loan of 1.5 million. Petersburg reaffirmed its readiness to assist the Swedish government in the accession of Norway.

Recently the invasion of the "Great Army" Napoleon in Russia Petersburg Swedish government has proposed to combine naval forces, and close access to French ships in the Baltic Sea. The Russian government has agreed to this measure and offered another — land in Pomerania Russian-Swedish army of 45 thousand landing. Our homeland has started to prepare the landing force: Assault Corps, commanded by Thaddeus Steingel concentrated in Sveavorg, Abo and the Aland Islands. But allies of — Sweden and the United Kingdom, were not ready for such a bold operation and it does not come true.

So Makarov, on the eve of the war with the French Empire, Our homeland was able not only to strengthen the north-western borders (Finland joined), and the purchase on behalf of Sweden ally. This not fear attack from the north and liberate significant forces in the north-western borders, using them in areas that have come under attack of severe enemy.

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