The epic squadron Senyavina
English fleet operated in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. For example, Dmitry N. Senyavina squadron consisting of 9 ships of the line and one frigate after the conclusion of a truce with the Turks Slobodzeya 12 (August 24) in 1807 came from the Mediterranean to the Baltic, and the war found the Russian ships in Lisbon (they took refuge in the port of first-November for storms). The situation is very serious: Junot French army invaded Portugal — Portuguese fleet left from Lisbon, taking with him to Brazil (then a colony of Portugal) Portuguese prince regent, the royal family and the government, the British blockaded the city from the sea. In the English admiral had 13 battleships, 11 frigates and five small vessels. By the end of November 1807 the entire Portuguese territory was occupied by French troops. General Junot received the title of Baron d'Abrantesa and went to Lisbon. Russian squadron was between 2-lights. Both forces were able to kill the Russian squadron. The Order of Alexander I Senyavina obliged to conform to the interests of Napoleon, at the same time, Russian government did not wish to enter into an open war with England. And France was profitable, if the Russian into direct battle with the British.
Senyavin asked the king of instructions, but never got them. Napoleon wished that the Russian admiral from now received orders not from Russia but from France, from Russia's ambassador in Paris, Count Tolstoy, who simply forwarded to specify Senyavin French ruler. First 1808 Dubachevsky, last Russian representative in Lisbon, has received annotation of mandatory for all Russian troops. They said that the actions of the military must meet a friendly disposition, in which now resides Our homeland of France. March 1, 1808 followed by an even more clear by imperial decree three Russian naval forces commanders who were in foreign lands, including D. Senyavin. It spoke of a provision outside the Russian Federation naval forces at the disposal of the French ruler to harm the enemy. The French were informed of this order.
Beginning of the people's war against the Spanish domination of France sharply aggravated the situation of General Junot and his army in Portugal. In addition, the British saw in Lisbon and Portugal in general highly anticipated staging area for planting significant assault on the Iberian Peninsula. It is understood that Russian squadron could not make a breakthrough in the fight against France and the UK over the peninsula. But more important was the sign of joint struggle 2-powers against Britain. Guerrilla war in Spain more flared from Vienna were reports of military preparations Austrians. There was a possibility that the actual amount litsezrev military alliance of Russia and France, Vienna abstain from the war with Napoleon. Because the pressure on the part of Baron Senyavina d'Abrantesa amplified every day or a day. But Senyavin as before did not want to ruin his squadron in order to produce a pleasing French emperor political demonstration. It must be said that Admiral Senyavin very hostile attitude to the Treaty of Tilsit and unexpected "friendship" of the Russian Federation and France. He continued to ignore the suggestions of Napoleon and Junot. He was convinced that the alliance between Napoleon and Alexander is a short-lived design, and denied the French emperor and Junot help. It is understood that he was trying to do it in a diplomatic form, finding excuses for inaction squadron.
In July 1808 a couple of times Junot orders Senyavin put on Preserving the strength to fight the British troops, and the fleet to bring to attack the weakened British fleet (of the ships covered the landing landings). Senyavin torn all the proposals. He refused to disembark Russian sailors and for the protection of Lisbon. August 4 Junot brought out of the capital of Portugal almost all the forces and went to Torres Vedras. August 9, 1808 came from the village of Vemieyro battle, with French forces suffered a total defeat. Junot after a fight in which he lost more than 4 thousand people returned to Lisbon. August 12 was a Russian admiral of Junot Division General Kellerman, he notified Senyavina on the planned armistice between Juneau and commander in chief of the British forces. But the negotiations were unsuccessful. August 13 Senyavin received a letter from Juneau, in which all are invited to join the crew of the squadron to French forces (similar proposal was made in the past) and to prevent the British to occupy Lisbon and forts. Senyavin refused again, specifying that no opportunities to make war with the English who joined the Portuguese and the Spanish. August 16 Senyavin received the last letter the French general, in which he provided the Russian admiral specifically make arrangements with the British on the fate of the Russian squadron. British occupied Lisbon.
The British were aware Senyavina skirmishes with the French and in July entered into relations with the admiral. They want to encourage Senyavina go to their side and a heavy blow Russian-French alliance. Even if Alexander then disavowed acts Senyavin still on the Iberian Peninsula, was confirmed to the view that the Russian — enemies, not allies of the French ruler. July 16, Admiral Senyavin received "a certain Portuguese" a letter from the English admiral with a proposal to send their own representatives to the talks. July 18 ezdivshie from the Russian fleet to the British representatives — Collegiate Councillor Sasse and flag-officer Makarov — returned to his squadron. They said that the British notify Senyavina on the part of the French began hostile operations against the Russian Federation and the detention of the French ports of Russian ships, who have come there. Also, to begin peace talks with the Russian Federation Sweden and England. But Senyavin refused to engage in direct negotiations.
After the withdrawal of French forces had to think over the problem of, like British military have not announced their own squadron of the spoils of war, and the Russian admiral with all the crews of the ships — prisoners of war. After all, Great Britain at the moment is formally at war with the Russian Empire. Senyavin told the British that for 10 months in Lisbon, Russian constantly refuses to participate in aggressive actions against the British. The squadron took a neutral position. In addition, the Russian admiral Senyavin to Cotton said that after leaving the capital of the French occupation of Portugal vorachivaetsya in legitimate possession of the Portuguese government, and Petersburg to Lisbon is not at war, because he considers himself and his squadron being in a neutral port. He was an experienced diplomatic move. After British troops have planted in Portugal, solemnly declaring the whole of Europe that their goal — the liberation of the country from Napoleon's capture and return of its legitimate government, which fled from the invaders in Brazil. Legally, the position of the Russian admiral was so Makar, very strong and of mandatory for the English.
After some reflection British squadron commander Cotton said that he ordered to hang on the forts of the British flag, and that he does not consider the city a neutral port. The moment was critical: British forces increased their presence in the t
own, their fleet approached the Russian squadron. Power was on the side of the British. At the same time, Cotton knew Senyavin not agree to surrender and unquestioning be a bloody battle. Cotton went to negotiate and after a rather stubborn dispute has recognized the need to sign Senyavin extraordinary convention. September 4 it was signed. British command took Senyavina condition: the Russian squadron was not registered taken prisoner, she was heading to the UK and was to remain there until the conclusion of peace between London and St. Petersburg. After the peace ships could return to Russia with the same crew and with all their belongings. Senyavin even insisted on Fri, by which he and all his officers, sailors and soldiers (Marines) could immediately return to Russia without any criterion, that is, had the right, returning to his homeland, at least for the moment to take part in military operations against England.
It is clear that such conditions Cotton agreed not only because of the reluctance of loss, and of political judgment. In the relations between Russia and Britain could happen soon a new twist (and work), and annoy Petersburg sinking of the Russian squadron was stupid.
August 31 (September 12) 1808 Senyavin with its own fleet, which consisted of seven ships of the line and the 1st frigate departed from Lisbon to Portsmouth. Two ships — "Raphael" and "Yaroslav" were with injuries that they had to throw in the Portuguese capital for repair. British promised to return them. September 27 squadron arrived in Portsmouth. The British Admiralty decided that Cotton made a mistake and was trying to revise the convention. Two ships were seized in Lisbon, despite the protests of Senyavina. Do not even let go immediately (as it should according to the agreement Cotton — Senyavina) Russian officers, sailors and fighter in Russia, the British initially delayed the case for months, until winter came the year 1808-1809 and the Russian ports were hard to reach before the opening of vernal navigation. Then the British Admiralty began to express concern not withdraw to the Swedes, who were at war with Russia, Russian military transports from the British. In addition, the Admiralty insisted, that there was a Russian landing in Arkhangelsk. Russian admiral stood on the fact that she has occurred in one of the ports of the Baltic Sea. British bureaucrats fed Russian crews disgusting. Only June 12, 1809 was completed inventory of vehicles and property. July 31, 1809 the Russian crew were eventually transferred to the 21 British transport ship and set sail on August 5 from Portsmouth. September 9, 1809 Court arrived in Riga, and the people were able to enter the Russian saved.
The officers and sailors of highly valued skills commander. Alexander, however, I thought differently. Senyavin professional naval commander who participated in the campaign squadron Ushakov in the Mediterranean, which was at war with the French in 1805, 10-11 May 1807 defeated the Turkish fleet in the Dardanelles, and June 19, 1807 in the battles of Athos, despite the numerical superiority of the enemy, fell into disgrace. British ships will return in 1813.
May 17, 1809 British squadron consisting of three battleships, four frigates and one brig attacked a Russian detachment of Captain 1st Rank Bychevskogo consists of 5 ships of the line, one frigate and two corvettes in Trieste, but were rebuffed, retreated.
In the Baltic Sea the British fleet operated in conjunction with the Swedish Navy in the areas of Revel, Porkkala, Baltic harbor, Vyborg and other British ships raided the coastal districts of, sabotage and attacks on shore facilities. Their captors attacked merchant ships in the Baltic and North Seas. The British tried to harm the economy of.
The Russian command has taken serious measures to strengthen the defense of Petersburg from the sea. In the capital, built a 15 batteries with 120 guns. Fairway to the north of the island of Kotlin blocked the barrier of stone and wood — ryazhevoy obstacle. Was prepared for the defense of Kronstadt. Based at the Baltic harbor fleet admiral Pyotr Hanykova (9 battleships, 7 frigates, 13 small vessels) could not resist the British-Swedish Navy. The ships were in a bad condition and could not conduct active act. Overall English Navy failed to provide meaningful assistance of Sweden. Final War was settled actions of the Russian Army. After the defeat of Sweden took the British ships from the Baltic Sea. In 1810 — 1811 years. acts of war between Britain and Russia in general were not conducted.
The confrontation in the East
The British began active activity directed against the Russian Federation in Turkey and Persia. The British have long feared the Russian penetration of the South and East. Russia could take over the approaches to India. Of particular concern in London caused a fact voluntary accession of Georgia and a number of Azerbaijani khanate to the Russian Federation in 1801-1806 years. In 1809, the British government signed a contract with the Shah of Iran, the British undertook to promote adherence to the Persian Transcaucasia. But the Shah's troops act have not been successful, and Iran began to find peace. Under pressure from the British agent Jones talks were disrupted. Soon the mission arrived in Persia Malcolm, who gave the Persians, 12 guns and 7 thousand guns. In 1810, the Iranian army tried to move in coming, but was defeated in Armenia.
The British took over Persia, more seriously, began the reorganization of the Persian army in the Persian Gulf have sent the English squadron, in 1811, the Iranians gave another 32 guns and 12 million guns. In Tabriz built a small cannon and rifle factory. And it did not help Persia. At the end of 1811 the Russian forces inflicted another defeat the Shah's troops and captured Akhalkalaki.
First 1812 London sent to Iran's own ambassador, who signed a new Anglo-Iranian deal. The British have allocated funds to strengthen the Iranian army. Arrived in the country, and the British officers instructors to prepare for the invasion of the Shah's army in the Caucasus. However, in June 1812, London pretended to be willing to contribute to the conclusion of peace between Persia and Russia. But the criteria for the withdrawal of Russian forces from territories formerly belonging to Iran. The Iranians tried to confirm the power of his rights and began combat action. The best part of the Iranian army were absolutely crushed in Aslanduza General Kotlyarevskii. Was captured and Shah's artillery. Later Russian troops seized the fortress Lankaran. As a result, the British attempt to oust Russia from the Caucasus failed. In 1813, the Shah of Persia agreed to Gulistan peace deal.
Immediately the British played against Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Here the British were identical tasks with the French. They want to oust Russia from the Balkans and prevent Russian capture Istanbul and the straits. The British prevented the conclusion of peace between Turkey and Russia. More than once, the English and French ambassadors were in Istanbul demarches aimed at the continuation of the war. But here, the success of the Russian guns brought the victory of the Russian Federation. The Turks have signed a peace treaty in Bucharest.
Alliance of Russia and Britain
Without achieving of success in the struggle with the Russian Empire, the British diplomacy went into peace talks when it b
ecame clear that war was imminent Russian and French. The threat of Napoleon was a priority for London. However, there was the possibility of peace between Paris and London. In April 1812 the French government asked the British government for an official peace proposal. Napoleon agreed to recognize the rule of the British colonies, but instead asked to recognize the predominance of France in Europe. British troops were to leave Spain and Portugal. But the British did not go for it.
6 (18) in July 1812 in the Swedish town of Orebro signed a peace treaty between Russia and England, and immediately between the UK and Sweden. Agreement terminated the Anglo-Russian and Anglo-Swedish wars and made alliances against the French Empire. Erebrusky world became the basis for the creation of the 6th anti-French coalition in 1813. 4 (16) August, Russian ports were opened to British ships. It was the success of Russian diplomacy. But the final War of 1812 influenced the agreement is not enough. Hope Petersburg on the practical assistance of London, including financial, is not justified. The British government sold 50 thousand incomplete RF guns, on the role of the British in the War of 1812 ended. London pinned his hopes on a protracted war on France and Russia, which both deplete the empire. Such a war made Britain mistress of the situation in Europe.