On the way to the War of 1812: Our homeland and Austria

Our homeland and Austria in the 18th century worked more than enmity. Was a common enemy — the Ottoman empire. In the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) Our homeland and Austria were allies in the struggle against the expansionist ambitions of Prussia. Both countries have cooperated in the sections of the Commonwealth and became enemies of revolutionary France. Russian and Austrian troops fought shoulder on shoulder during the II and III anti-French coalition.

At the same time, between the powers were fundamental contradictions. Interests of Vienna and St. Petersburg faced in the Balkans, the Austrians did not lusted strengthen the position of in the Mediterranean. After Austria December 26, 1805 signed a peace treaty with France in Pressburg, Vienna wanted by France to kill Prussia (the main rival for influence in the Germanic countries) take for themselves Silesia. But the Russian government acted against the Austrian claims. Our homeland was able to defend Prussia in Tilsit negotiations.

In addition, there were serious differences between the powers over the Polish question. The establishment of the French king of the Duchy of Warsaw in a similar degree of made me think and caused concern in St. Petersburg and Vienna. Russian and Austrian governments were opposed to the restoration of the Polish state in full. But during the war, in 1809, our home has officially been on the side of France by sending an auxiliary body to the borders of Austrian Galicia. Russian troops have shied away from supporting the Franco-Polish army in the Duchy of Warsaw, which was in a difficult position in the first period of the war. But then Russian troops have occupied Krakow (Austrians gave the city without a fight) and part of Galicia. Serious clashes between the Russian and Austrian armies in the war was not. When October 14, 1809 signed a peace treaty Schönbrunn, the Poles gave Western Galicia, and RF Tarnopolsky District. This made the Russian Empire Austria opponent.

Another discrepancy in the relationship of Austria and Russia was the Balkan question. Under the terms of the agreement Erfurt 1808 Danubian principalities — Wallachia and Moldavia were to enter into the Russian Empire. In Vienna, feared that this event, our homeland is firmly established on the Balkan Peninsula. Fortunately, the Orthodox and Slavic peoples belonged to the Russian Federation is much better than other powers. The Austrian government was afraid that the scope of the impact of the Russian Federation will get not only of Moldavia and Wallachia, and Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Illyria. In Vienna, there were plans of expansion in the Danube basin and the Balkans. Therefore, the Austrians began to test the waters in Paris at the expense of the joint anti- RF on the Balkan Peninsula. French government said in Vienna that the Danubian principalities for him cause secondary importance. But he wondered — if Austria is ready to wage war with the Russian Empire?

Vienna was not prepared to fight a war with Russia. The Austrians offered to mediate the RF in the conclusion of peace between St. Petersburg and Istanbul. With all of this Austrian side believed that it is necessary to establish the boundary between the Russian and Ottoman empires on the Dniester River. This proposal was rejected by the Russian government.

Already in 1811, when the war began to be felt affinity with the French Empire, the Russian government has tried to tear Austria from France. After the Russian ambassador in Vienna Stackelberg Petersburg Austrians plan proposed preventive war against France. Under this plan, the Russian army was to occupy the Duchy of Warsaw, then it was part of the Russian Empire, while maintaining autonomy. As compensation, Austria offered the Danubian principalities. However, the mission Stackelberg ended unsuccessfully. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Austria, Clemens von Metternich did not give an answer to this request. Petersburg had to abandon the plan.

The Austrian government was at that time negotiating with Napoleon Bonaparte on the conclusion of the military-political union. Vienna already given consent to an alliance with the French empire, but concealed his intentions from St. Petersburg. Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian ambassador urged that in the present state of affairs in Europe, in order to maintain the neutrality of Austria. Metternich tried to fool Russia. The Russian government realized that fact when in St. Petersburg right behind the Prussian envoy Knesebeck arrived Austrian Representative Marchal and they both began to convince Russia to accept the conditions of Napoleon surrendered to France.

It should be noted that Metternich held anti-Russian policy since the time of its own embassy in France. Once in 1807, St. Petersburg and Paris signed an alliance, an Austrian politician tried to upset friendly business between with 2 powers. He was afraid that our homeland and France will share ownership of the Ottoman Empire without the participation of Austria. He headed for his own goal by 1810, when the marriage was contracted between Napoleon Bonaparte and the daughter of the Austrian ruler Marie-Louise of Austria. In the war between Russia and France, as Metternich and Austrian French rulers would prefer to remain neutral, because Austria Macha while from financial problems. Funds for the war was not simple. But under the pressure of the French alliance was concluded, to the same Vienna pinned its hopes in this war not to take an active role and get some profit.

On the way to the War of 1812: Russia and Austria

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Austria in the years 1809-1848. Clemens von Metternich.

2 (14) March 1812 between France and Austria signed a union contract. The Austrian government has pledged to put 30 thousand. Auxiliary Corps to march on Russia. For his role in the war with the Russian Empire Austria pinned its hopes for Volyn. Both countries have agreed to bring to a campaign against the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Federation and Sweden.

The Franco-Austrian alliance made a strong negative memories not only in St. Petersburg, and in Vienna itself. Austrian public opinion, most of the military were against the union. For their common enemy was France, not our homeland. Taking into account this fact, Clement Metternich tried to convince the Russian ambassador Stackelberg that this alliance enforced and makes a demonstrative role, so as not to irritate the French ruler. The head of the Austrian Foreign Ministry said that the Austrian troops will not fight a war against Russia, but only to imitate their role in the war. Metternich invited the Russian Federation to conclude a contract for the undercover inviolability of borders. The agreement was accomplished orally. But the Russian government does not trust Vienna. Petersburg had to concentrate on the border with Austria and the Danube western third of the army. The Austrian troops during the War of 1812, acted on the southern strategic direction generally trying to avoid the big fights.

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