Tradition of naming adjectives patrol ships from time to time to peel a unique label. «Guarding» firstborn 20380 — it’s just a sign of class patrol ship. «Courageous» razlyubeznaya received us on board — already severe application success, because he — the third in the series. After a dozen or so will be the turn named «Reasonable» — because if the ship will be truly massive, it is the best show that the rate for the new class corvettes for the Russian Federation has been made correctly.
Class patrol ships of the coastal zone in the USSR — it’s the same «holy place», which for 10 years s empty. Why is this happening, well explains the history of the ship of Project 12441 type «Novik».
In 1991 the project was approved 12440, designed with the latest technology: the gas turbine power plant with 2 sustainer and 2 reheat engines; hull and superstructure made using composite materials and to meet the requirements of low radar signature (development «Stealth»); most modern and promising at the time anti-missile system «polyment? /? Redoubt» hangar for constant based antisubmarine helicopter.
In the 1994 revision of the project was completed, due to the collapse of the Soviet Union: a huge number of prospective suppliers suddenly appeared in zabugornyh countries. Project repeatedly upgraded during the construction. Improved its running properties and fighting properties, but with them grew and displacement of the ship, which significantly exceeded the originally designated in the job. «Novik» tightly close to the ships maritime zone, capable of long-term maintenance and patrol vessels at crossings on the seas, but owning sverhizbytochnymi features for fighting off the coast.
Ultimately, the best on a technical level, advanced ship was renamed the Russian school was never completed.
A similar story is being developed in the 1970 «Undaunted», project 11540. Zagadannoy as a small anti-submarine ship with a displacement of 800?? T, he in a few years «plump» up to 1500, then to 2000, and in the version with the helicopter reached the 2500? Rm and moved to the maritime zone. The result looks like: the service in 1987 came only one «Fearless.»
Obviously, high-spirited, well protected and armed «Novik» just mastered what would even puzzles in the coastal zone. His critical drawback — the cost. But for the protection of maritime borders and timely response in local territorial conflicts patrol ships should be plenty.
Because closer to the end of 1990 was announced a competition to develop lighter and cheapest kind of a patrol ship, which won the Central Marine Design Bureau «Almaz», the one that designed the «Novik».
Ships 20380 type «Guarding» promises to be the main force of the Navy of the Russian Federation in the coastal zone. And despite the lowest price in comparison with «Novik» is undoubtedly one of the most innovatorskih and at the technical level advanced machines of the Russian fleet.
By perceptible innovations include recycled and hull shape with almost a quarter of a reduced hydrodynamic resistance and helicopter hangar for the first time placed on so little ship. Important breakthrough application can be called a unified information system and weapon control all electrical equipment of the machine.
In the end, the ship received a new class designation in full accordance with the time and international terminology. Now this is not a patrol boat and a corvette.
In comparison to its predecessors project 20380 is currently can be called successful. We were lucky to get on board a «lively» — the third draft of the ship, anchored at the plant «Severnaya Verf» in St. Petersburg. He dwells on the terminating stage of industrial tests. The other two, «Guarding» and «savvy» have already been taken by the Navy of the Russian Federation. Another four corvettes laid on the stocks «Northern shipyard» and the Amur shipyard, just as ordered 20 ships, and maybe this is not the limit.
The main components of success 20380 — painstakingly-designed hull design and a unified power system automation. These terms define and combat characteristics and composition of weapons, and the conditions of the crew, as reliability, maintainability, and the possibility of upgrading the machine.
Contours of the iron hull was designed from the ground and was so successful that the drag at full speed (27 knots or 50 km / h) decreased by 25%. This allowed the use of the least strong and more than a light main power plant (GEM), the freeing up more than 15% growth for the displacement of payload. Hence, impressive for a 1500-ton ship set of different weapons, and even a helipad, a hangar and a 20-ton fuel in store for antisubmarine helicopter «Ka-27.»
Improved seakeeping corvette weapons you can use it in rough force to 5 points (two points more than the previous analogues). In addition, the least powerful powerplant is quieter, helping decrease the visibility of the ship in a hydroacoustic spectrum. To reduce noise devices engines were used technology previously processed on submarines.
GEM is a two diesel diesel units DDA12000 designed specifically of «Kolomna factory» based on the tested diesel D49 with microprocessor control. Each unit consists of 2-16-cylinder V-type diesel engine and gearbox and summing leads fixed pitch propeller. The total capacity of the two-shaft power plant achieves 24? 000 hp Four diesel generators of 630 kW each provide onboard power network.
«Guarding» not in vain called invisible, although adherence to the principles of technology «Stealth» — a mandatory attribute of modern ships such class. Topside width from side to side is made of slow-radar-absorbing glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Antenna posts and Missiles abilities by cleaned body. Of four-330-mm torpedo torpedo defense complex «package-NK» nestled in latsportah. In general, the average radial effective scattering surface ship reduced to three times compared with the previous analogs, this possibility pointing at him anti-ship cruise missiles has been reduced from 0.5 to 0.1.
Shoulder to shoulder
A single combat information management system — this is perhaps the most important innovation in the 20380, one way or another affects the tactical characteristics of the ship and the lives of the crew, and the reliability of all the hardware, and even the speed of modernization of weapons.
«If the system were previously scattered throughout the ship and all the work on their coordination fell on the crew, now the ball is ruled built bridging system in which focused description of the current status of all vehicle systems, from mechanics to the introduction of weapons», — says deputy head builder plant «Severnaya Verf» Yuri Alexandrov.
Not counting government ship built bridging system includes two components: a control section missile and antisubmarine weapon and combat radar section and light air, surface and underwater situation. First section is a three posts located on the shoulder right shoulder on the bridge. Working here commanders of combat units (CU). First is responsible for anti-submarine warfare, the second — for anti-ship complex. Outside their positions are equally look: this huge screens, which displays information about the purpose and status of combat systems. Similar screens have the commander of the corvette, which may at any moment to request any information about the ship and the officer of the watch, also with access to a variety of sources — the characteristics of diesel supplies to the caterer.
In the third commander puzzles comes warhead coordination of all weapons systems and issue advice to the captain on the use of guns. Basically, that commander and administrator, and officer of the watch, and commanders warhead work in the same room and can instantly take coordinated decisions and put them in execution.
On the corvette is a system that can coordinate the tools and systems to detect a number of vehicles operating in the division. On the technical side of its work plant employees prefer not to, noting, however, that with each new ship system is becoming stronger.
Its essence is that the information on the air, surface and underwater conditions, the found relations purposes and is concentrated in a single center and processed. Then determine the degree of threat to the objectives, the decision about the type of weapon used, then the information simultaneously push off within the group ships, helicopters and aircraft for coordinated action.
Application of such a system particularly reasonable in the compartment with the helicopter, which, being invulnerable for submarines and using active sonar detection means, before the vessel has undeniable advantages in terms of the underwater environment.
While the system management division represents a very weighty stationary equipment placed on the ship, but in the near future it will be portable: figuratively speaking, all the tactical information will be concentrated in the suitcase admiral.
Section combat radar and lighting air, surface and underwater situation is placed in the chart house, next to the bridge.
Target detection means operated by several officers. There is also a card-server that loads the map navigator marine areas in accordance with the plan of campaign. Thanks to a uniform system of these maps are available on all the posts where it is needed — from the bridge to the helicopter hangar.
Most automation of all spacecraft systems has allowed repeatedly to reduce the time needed for decision-making, also facilitate the work of the crew and reduce its size to 100 people.
Ready to update
Availability of integrated information networks in the ship pulls a number of additional benefits associated with the reliability, maintainability and speed modernization of equipment. According to Yuri Alexandrov, involved in the construction of corvettes over a thousand industrial and research companies scattered almost throughout Russia. When another component comes to the plant, the moment of truth comes, he must show flawless compatibility with all the ship’s systems.
Problems with compatibility in shipbuilding is not unique. Fortunately, thanks to modern technology, many electrical components have become smaller and lighter than before. Now you can return them to the manufacturer for rework or else invite professionals to the plant with the necessary spare parts.
Single ship network, on the one hand, it means the unification of certain communication protocols different devices. Components initially created specifically for them, because the possibility of «exclusion» becomes smaller. On the other hand, enterprise vendors can test their components in advance by means of computer simulations.
For example, if you are testing a radar station, the computer can play a role as the rest of the ship and its arms and goals that you want to find.
In the end, the modular concept of the ship anticipates the ability to install the latest weapons when they become operational. For example, if on the title ship 20380 «Guarding» responsible for the air defense anti-missile system «Dirk-M», then a «lively» light show on the third, he was replaced by more modern and incomparably more powerful air defense system «Redoubt».
Three blocks of four cells (of 12 cells) can carry 12 missiles with a range 9M96E2 run 135 km and a height of up to 35 km defeat to 48 9M100 missile defense with a range of 12 km in different compositions. To defend against attack from the air «Redoubt» posodeystvuyut portable anti-aircraft missiles «Igla» (starting with the shoulder) and two aft six barreled 30mm gun mounts AK-630M.
Serial and various
As befits the brand new project, met the ship in its path a lot of criticism. Perhaps the attacks on the address range is not large enough swimming caused by the lack of the earlier class corvettes in service with the Russian Navy. Skeptics should recognize that puzzles facing fleet changed, and our days are to have a few 10’s corvettes burning more than a few ocean destroyers.
Discussion appeared on the composition of weapons ship, its security and survivability, but these properties are also difficult to be separated from the tactical schemes, particularly relevant for the class corvettes.
For a couple of years of service to «the keepers» twice appeared problems in the main power plant, which led to the comparison of diesel generator diesel turbine engines, more reliable and easy, but incomparably more expensive.
At the time of going to print this «Courageous» could already be in the ranks, if not for the problems with 100-mm artillery installation «Universal», which has refused to work in normal mode not only on the project 20380, and on Indian frigates Russian production Talwar, Trishul and Tabar.
But the main advantage of the ships of the «Guarding» — elasticity. Diesel engines can be modified, gun mounts replaced, but the ships will not remain on the stocks and not turned into unfinished. «No ship repeats previous — confirms Yuri Alexandrov. — «Savvy» in almost all different from «guarding», «Courageous» also looks a bit different. » Specifically, resilience, availability, serial and mass perspective they say that the project 20380 — this is a great success of the Russian fleet.
Photo imprinted on the second Project 20380 corvette, named «savvy.» Rear 100-mm artillery system can see the cover starting cell anti-missile system «Redoubt».
1. Fasting commander occupies the left side of the bridge. For the most part it consists of screens on which the commander can actually bring any information about the state of the ship and weapons, objectives, environment, navigation. 2. Fasting control is the navigation screen, steering wheel and control panel GEMs (full speed, slow speed, etc.). The ship can not help others to maintain this course, but even on autopilot at the helm is always on duty sailor. On the right hand can be seen from the control knob autonomous communication devices, which will enable to send a message to at least some post in case of power failure. 3. Fasting allows you to immediately watch officer to control the operation of all vehicle systems, the state of the power plant to the supplies of provisions. Officer of the watch is available to advanced communication system and can quickly contact though how fasting on the ship.
DIAGRAM OF ARMS 1. 100-mm artillery mount A-190 «Universal» 2. Battle module SAM «Dirk-M» (on these ships — 12 SAM launchers cells «Redoubt») 3. Antiship missile system «Uranus» (later to be replaced on the «Onyx» or «Calibre») 4. 30mm six-barreled anti-aircraft machine AK-630M 5. Latsport complex torpedo protection «package-NK» 6. complex decoy PK-10 7. Podkilnaya antenna sonar system «Zarya-2» 8. sonar system targeting complex torpedo protection 9. navigation radar «PAL-N» 10. navigation radar MR 231-2 11. optoelectronic device 201 MTC-12 M2.2. radar antenna targeting 5P-10 «Puma» 13. The radar antenna «Monument A» radioprozrachny housing 14. Triaxial total radar detection «Furke-2» 15. Foldable sonar «Anapa-M.» 16 Stations of the complex electronic warfare TC-25-2 17. Hangar for antisubmarine helicopter Ka- 27 18. landing area 19. Lengthy towed sonar «Minotaur M»
Created by Sergey Apresov