Reliability of small arms

Reliability of small arms 
Combat experience implementing instruments indicates that the gun owning a decent reality fire and highest maneuverability, can not get the recognition, if it does not provide the necessary security actions. Reliability tools provides confidence in his own fighter weapons when used in different criteria. Under reliability is the property of the object to do these functions, saving time meaning prescribed performance within the given limits, the respective data and conditions for the use, maintenance, repair, storage and transportation.

Reliability is an act guns totality of parameters characterizing the reliability of instruments, its survivability and invulnerability in battle. Reliability is all-inclusive property and determined: dependability acts devices; security appeal with the gun; survival or duration of service; invulnerability guns in combat; maintainability; persistence.
Reliability and dependability acts guns — essentially its fundamental characteristics. It seems that may be highly individual properties guns, but if it does not have sufficient reliability, that are brought to naught all his positives.

Under the act implements dependability is the property of the object in continuous keep working for a certain time or a certain generation and ensure maintenance mode set fire to different criteria. Reliability acts devices tools should be provided to all the criteria for its use (the lowest or highest temperature gryazyuka, dust, sand, etc.), as in the conventional (appropriate) criteria shooting, and under adverse (dusty, dry parts, irrigation, etc. .)
In automatic weapons reliability of devices is one of the important operating parameters and it is estimated the number of failures (misfires, jamming device) per a certain number of shots, and ease of removing them. Ensuring reliability acts automatic guns in comparison with a non-automatic weapon is more difficult because of its greater difficulty and more devices. Reliability of automatic guns determined priemuschestvenno trouble-free operation automation, which is defined as totality devices guns acting through the use of the energy of powder gases. Reliability acts automation is dependent on a huge number of reasons. The most important of them are the main devices design excellence and the application of additional measures (for example, shields, protecting more fundamental mechanisms of contamination), mode of operation and operating conditions, as experienced preparing to fire guns and the use of special lubricants.
Perfection of the devices determined by the simplicity of their device, smooth motion detail, protecting work surfaces from contamination, low weight and dimensions of parts and other factors.
Mode of operation of devices is dependent on the rate of fire and the type of fire (single, continuous, not long or longish queue). Impact criterion manual work automation tools as determined by external factors (temperature, humidity, dust, grease condition) and the correctness of care instrument, faithful preparing to fire guns, timely cleaning, grease, etc.)

Delays in shooting are very unnecessary, because they cause obliged breaks in shooting, guns and reducing rate of reality shooting. Any delay in the work which dramatically lowers the gun fighting characteristics of guns and the occurrence of delays in combat criteria increases danger from the enemy, especially in close combat reference criteria. Ensuring reliability devices act guns achieved by reducing to a minimum the number of delays due to the development of a successful design tools, tough competitive tests in the selection of reference for the army.
Consequently, in modern automatic weapons allowed very petty number of delays not exceeding the criteria for suitable shooting 0.2-0.3%. Under unfavorable shooting criteria usually increases the number of delays, but it also must not exceed certain standards. Usually you can have one — two refusals for 1000 shots. Permitted by firing delay should usually just eliminated the usual reloading, with all this to eliminate some delays need to have a special identity.

Appeal with the gun safety is of paramount importance as the basis of belief reduce losses of personnel and psychologically: fighter confidence in the reliability and security of our own tools helps increase his morale. Safety appeal with a gun should be provided both when shooting and for official criteria when the cannon is loaded. Security is obtained by firing because of strong selection of metals and the development of robust construction details, sensing the pressure of powder gases and other efforts arising from the shot, as the presence of special fuses, precluding the establishment of a shot at the gate unlocked. Safety appeal with an instrument in the service provided by the device fuses criteria excluding shots, arising as a result of accidental exposure to the details of the trigger (Transport and maintenance, during the fall of charged guns and other criteria), or random shots of not fully serviceable guns .

Reliability of small arms
5.45-mm Kalashnikov assault rifle AK-74 in field criteria

Vitality guns and some of its parts is of paramount importance in ensuring reliability, because due to lack of vitality instrument fails or completely, or substantial time required for repair. Survivability tools called his ability to keep the details a long time conventional combat characteristics in different operating criteria. Vitality guns characterized by the number of shots that can produce a weapon to failure. Length of service (survivability) automatic guns determined priemuschestvenno, strength and durability and its main parts invulnerable in battle. The strength and durability of parts guns is based on their size and shape, elected in light of current stresses and strains, the properties of the parts and features of the technology of production. Increase the survivability of parts guns provided a number of ways, and the first implementation of high-quality carbon and alloy steels for critical parts, chrome-plated barrel, ensuring smooth operation automation, serious observance of the rules of operation, the possibility of substitution of the usual method of repair parts, etc.

On survivability guns have a huge impact its operating conditions. Among them has special meaning fire mode and conditions of storage and savings instruments. With increasing intensity of fire, determines the mode of fire, guns survivability is lowered due to more intense heat and wear parts. Greater impact on the rate of fire has a barrel life, length of service which dramatically decreases with increasing the rate of fire and the queue length. Deviation from the established norms and storage savings instruments also reduces its life. With all of this has a special meaning timely cleaning and oiling guns, reducing wear and protects them from corrosion.

Dynamic nature forces and stresses acting in almost all parts of automatic weapons, difficult to ensure their strength and is one of the main reasons is comparable low survivability. For this and other circumstances survivability parts automatic guns does not exceed a few 10’s of thousands of rounds. Of particular importance is ensuring sufficient barrel life, playing a crucial role in the overall survivability tools. With all this vitality tools evaluated by the degree of durability ie, object’s ability to continue to operate until the coming of the limit state when the installed system maintenance and repairs. In the arms, usually durability estimated resource barrel, while the coming of the limit state is judged by one of the indirect signs: initial velocity of the projectile fall by 5% (from time to time by 10%); improve technical dispersion of bullets and shells 2.5 times; 50% penetration of bullets and shells at a target flat (loss of strength).

In combat weapon criteria can fail not only due to insufficient strength of its parts, and as a result exposure to enemy fire. This impact will be smaller than most of invulnerability has a weapon in combat.

Immunity under guns in combat ability to understand the tools to maintain their characteristics when exposed to enemy fire. Invulnerability guns in battle characterized by the absence of details, simply withdrawn from the action of the shock wave system, bullets, fragments, and protected by a principal components and devices from battle damage and strength. In addition, it is dependent on the size of tools that determine ease of concealment in combat. Increase invulnerability in battle is largely promotes the right choice and firing positions.

Performance tools beyond repair in a combat situation (instrument must be maintainable, ie, the object being restored). Maintainability — property instruments, consisting in adaptation to prevent and detect its failure, damage and their implications repairs and maintenance. To ensure maintainability instrument must be equipped with the necessary supplies and spare parts.

Another one of the reliability parameters guns relates his persistence, ie, the property of the object in continuous to maintain in good and usable condition during and after storage and (or) transport. Retentive especially important for guns and ammunition, because a huge number of them done in time of peace.

In the midst of service and operational reliability parameters guns of great importance in ensuring simplicity and convenience care at different operating criteria has the technical service.

Shooting a submachine gun PP-90

Compared with non-automatic weapon automatic service weapon causes more difficulties because of its comparative difficulties, availability of different devices that require more painstaking care also significantly greater fuel cartridges when shooting.

Technical service is characterized by convenience and ease of combat power tools, it is ready for shooting when shooting and maintenance, and also saving storage.

Ease of combat power tools is dependent on the flow rounds per unit time, the amount of different types of cartridges used for this kind of tools, equipment and facilities of shops and tapes.

Ease of preparation for firing guns determined easily transfer it from traveling to combat, the installation in the firing position, and off-loading cannon fuse and install the sight. On serviceability when firing guns affect the simplicity and ease of management of individual mechanisms, ease of reloading tools for expenditure of ammunition in the store or tape, eliminate delays and perform other operations necessary for shooting.

Certain characteristics of guns achieved reduction efforts that need to be applied to the mechanisms of guns, more comfortable location for their hand or by calculation device special handles, stops and seats, the presence of scales and indexes to facilitate the use of an instrument and its individual mechanisms, their ease of adjustment in different criteria.

Savings and convenience store guns determined ease inspection and surveillance tool, carefully care for it, especially the implementation of cleaning and oiling guns in different operating criteria.
For this purpose, an instrument must possess the greatest simplicity of design, ease of disassembly and assembly, special guards and protection devices, parts damage and penetration of dust and mud, supplied with the best tools and accessories.

Simplicity of design tools also provides ease of research personnel, that is of fundamental importance in modern conditions of mass armies, especially in wartime.

To maintain the guns in good order and constant readiness of great importance, together with the maintenance, repair tools is providing his recovery from acquired damage and wear.

Regardless of the amount of work, disposition of the equipment and tools repair small tools can be small and average. Small repair anticipates perform simple operations (for example, the substitution of defective parts other parts of the number available in the ZIP, rust removal, trimming metal at elevated dents and nicks, etc.), usually produced by hand using light equipment and tools. Average repair provides recovery tools using more complex operations with the introduction of electric and mechanical equipment (anticipation of new parts, welding cracks and surfacing worn parts and components, etc.).

In the midst of different methods of recovery of damaged and worn parts more extensive application received electric welding, providing the highest manufacturability repair.

Reliability of small arms
After a series of hand movements lung machine is again ready to fire

Getting tired of the internal service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation asks each serviceman good knowledge of guns and careful appeal to him. Perform this tasks is impossible without knowledge of the circumstances that affect the change of technical condition of instruments and accordingly on its reliability and dependability act.

It is clear that some configurations are natural and occur as a result of normal wear and tear on the duration of use. From shooting to shooting growing gaps between parts and assembly units, there is inflated pitching. So, when fired from an AK-74 is an increase in pitching rod bolt from 4 to 6 mm.

In case of insufficient cleaning of the barrel in places xpoma cleavage occurs rust, long exposure as a result of which form the shell. When shooting from a gun with the defeat of the barrel, usually seen worse results accuracy (increases bullets dissipation by 20%) may be tight sleeves ripped from the chamber, and in general opyzhie fails before reaching this vitality.
Many technical configuration state to certain values ​​do not affect the combat and service properties of guns; exclude these configurations is impossible, but slow their increase may be.

Experience of combat deployment and daily use tools developed rules allowing to prevent or delay the appearance of unwanted configurations in arms due to incorrect operation.

And there is more sense to see some rules appeal with the gun.

It is well known that after each removal to engage (duty) gun undergoes routine maintenance. Compliance with the rules of assembly and careful with details and appeal mechanisms — one of the main criteria when servicing tools.

If parts and spare parts (bolt carrier, gas tube, etc.) fall into place with difficulty (due to misalignment, locking, etc.), means the assembly is done incorrectly and applying the extra effort, and even more blows to detail is unacceptable. Evidence of attempts to incorrect assembly serves appearance embossments and cracks in the window receiver cover machine or machine gun Kalashnikov.

Weapon inflicts some damage excess parts full dismantling, because with all this broken seats and parts PUNCHING pins or beading axles — all this leads to a pitching parts, shift or fall-out pins, axles. For this reason, in the Manual on small business is not listed disassembly pillar rear sight gun RPK-74; only in very rare cases it is recommended separation foregrip 5.45mm machine gun or automatic rifles, and fastening screw sear trigger mechanism of the RPG-7 in general forbidden to separate.

The operational documentation (advice and guidance on small business) with cases when you should create a complete disassembly tools. In particular, emphasizes that dismantling more complex devices (tank, electric and NSVT machine gun, the trigger mechanism of the AK-74 machine gun RPK-74) is under the supervision of an officer or body repair spetsa.

Complete disassembly tools recommended in the amount desired for maintenance. In order to avoid twisting, nicks and imperfections pushing and setting pins and axles securing parts in mechanisms tools create only when retaining principal parts (gate, building electric trigger) hands on wood stand.

Zeal to reduce cleaning time bore machine or machine gun ramrod without lid canister leads to Pounded muzzle part, due to the dispersion of bullets when firing can Strength two — three times. To reduce pounded changeable barrel PKM before servicing the barrel separated from the gun and cleaned from the breech.

Incorrect assembly tools can be a precondition delay when firing guns and accelerated wear. When standards (landing into a fighting machine, demolition, weapons and other acts with a gun at the time) must be protected from shock gun.

Provisions of guns in storage is determined by its design features. Thus, in the Kalashnikov assault rifle after ramming the bolt to the gate in recent frontal position certainly fulfilled descent hammers and guns posing with a fuse.

Different criteria of the combat situation and study must be strictly making major demands on the storage and use of guns.
Created by Sergey Monetchikov

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